rs495: caps

1. Recent flooding in Australia, have driven up prices for items ranging from coffee beans to beef. Prices of corn and soybeans, used as feed for cattle and chicken, have leapt over the past six months, pushing up meat prices. As a result, meat prices have also increased.


Restaurant chain Johnny Rockets, known for its burgers, uses about eight million pounds of ground beef a year, and its prices have risen over the last two months, says Ray Masters, senior vice president of purchasing and distribution.

2. HANDBAGS What happens when the hot handbag trend is to not buy a new one? Sales of premium handbags and accessories in North America are forecast to decrease Caroline Cooper, a 21-year-old sales associate from Rockland County, N.Y., said she would rather spend her money going to restaurants and Broadway plays.“I don’t need another handbag,” she said. The change in spending habits poses a challenge to handbag makers that are already feeling the effects.Handbag sales are also suffering from fewer tourists.

Instead shoppers are spending the money they are saving from lower gas prices on entertainment rather than on goods like clothing and accessories.

3 Japan Faces Butter Meltdown

Japanese fans of cake, buttered toast and Hollandaise sauce may need to start hoarding soon.

The island nation is facing another likely shortage of butter this fiscal year, according to a report by the Japan Dairy Association.

It’s the second year of butter shortages that last year left supermarket shelves dry , amid tight import controls and falling domestic production of raw milk. Shortages are usually most acute near the Christmas season when consumers buy cakes.

The JDA estimates a 7,100 ton shortage of butter in the year that started in April. The organization estimates domestic demand will rise 0.9% on year to 74,700 tons.

Also fueling the shortages is a long-term fall in raw milk production in Japan. Producers prioritize making drinking milk first, often leaving little left to turn into butter. Raw milk production has fallen 14% from its peak in the year that started in April 1996 through fiscal 2013, according to data from the agriculture ministry.

4. Vegan food diets becoming more popular, more mainstream

You’ve come a long way, vegan.

Once mocked as a fringe diet for sandal-wearing health food store workers, veganism is moving from marginal to mainstream in the United States.

The vegan “Skinny Bitch” diet books are best-sellers, vegan staples like tempeh and tofu can be purchased at just about any supermarket, and some chain restaurants eagerly promote their plant-only menu items. Today’s vegans are urban hipsters, suburban moms, college students, even professional athletes.

“It’s definitely more diverse. It’s not what you would picture 20 years ago, which is kind of hippie, crunchy,” said Isa Chandra Moskowitz, author of vegan cookbooks like the new “Appetite for Reduction.” She says it’s easier being a vegan now because there is more local produce available and more interesting ways of cooking.

“It’s not just steamed vegetables anymore and brown rice and lentils,” she said.

Veganism is essentially hard-core vegetarianism. While a vegetarian might butter her bagel or eat a cake made with eggs, vegans shun all animal products: No meat, no cheese, no eggs, no honey, no mayonnaise. Ethical vegans have a moral aversion to harming animals for human consumption, be it for a flank steak or leather shoes, though the term often is used to describe people who follow the diet, not the larger philosophy.

It’s difficult to come up with hard numbers of practicing vegans. There’s a blurry line between people who define themselves as vegan and vegetarian and some eaters dip in and out plant-only diets. For instance, New York Times food writer Mark Bittman has described his “vegan till 6” health plan, in which he becomes more omnivorous in the evening.

In a 2009 survey, advocates at the not-for-profit Vegetarian Resource Group reported about 1 percent of Americans are vegan, roughly a third of the people who reported being vegetarians. A separate survey released last year by the same group found a similar breakdown for Americans aged 8 to 18.

That makes veganism something short of a fad sweeping the nation like low-carb once did. Consider that while Kraft Foods reports that it shipped out more Boca Original Vegan Burger Patties and Boca Ground Crumbles last year, the increase was a modest 1 percent. Still, there are plenty of signs that vegans have pushed beyond their old, exclusive cocoon that once inspired celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain to mock them as the “Hezbollah-like splinter faction” of vegetarians.

Exhibit A would be the “Skinny Bitch” diet books, which provide vegan lifestyle tips in a blunt, girlfriend-on-the-phone style (Sample passage: “Soda is liquid Satan. It is the devil.”). Actress Alicia Silverstone added a dose of star power to the vegan cause more recently with “The Kind Diet,” a No. 1 best-seller. Vegan diets also have been touted by other celebrities, including Emily Deschanel in “Bones” and Lea Michele of “Glee.”

Veganism has been buoyed by the same health-conscious wave that has drawn Americans in unprecedented numbers to low-fat, vegetarian and organic foods. The idea of eating lower on the food chain is especially attractive to environmentally conscious consumers, since large-scale meat production is a major source of greenhouse gases.

Veganism also provides a safe harbor for the growing number of people concerned about where their supermarket meat comes from. Critics of industrial-scale food processing like writer Michael Pollan have been gaining a wider audience in recent years.

And — sign of the times — some famous guys are eating vegan now, too.

Bill Clinton, known for his burger-loving ways when president, has credited his trim build at his daughter Chelsea’s wedding this summer to a “plant-based diet” (though he eats a little fish sometimes). Even former heavyweight champion Mike Tyson has talked up his vegan diet.

And vegan cookbooks, once a niche product, are coming out at such a fast clip that there are now sub-niches. Da Capo Press’ 20 vegan cookbooks in print include one on vegan soul food and another with Latin vegan recipes. A book of vegan recipes containing alcohol, “The Tipsy Vegan” is upcoming.

Abstaining from animal products is an ancient practice found in cultures worldwide. But veganism never got traction in meat-loving America. Tracye McQuirter, a vegan for 23 years and author of “By Any Greens Necessary,” a vegan guide aimed at black women, said things were different until about a decade ago. While she was part of a vegan community in her hometown of Washington, she says there was little understanding beyond it.

“People did not know what it meant,” McQuirter said. “There were not a lot of options in terms of grocery stores. There was no Whole Foods… We had to basically cook everything for ourselves.”

That’s changed. More than half the 1,500 chefs polled by the National Restaurant Association for its new “What’s Hot in 2011” list included vegan entrees as a hot trend. Vegan entrees came in at No. 71 out of 226 trends (beating out organic beer and drinkable desserts) — that’s far from No. 1, but evidence of veganism making inroads beyond urban strongholds like New York City and Los Angeles. Some chain restaurants like Souplantation and Pizza Fusion even mark vegan items on their menus.

In Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Roseann Marulli Rodriguez, a blogger for the SuperVegan website, said while there are not many vegan restaurants in her area, her local supermarket has “fake” chicken tenders and “fake” bacon.

“It’s definitely widening in scope,” said Rodriguez, a recent New York City transplant who has been eating vegan for five years, “and I think that’s why more people are doing it, because it’s getting easier.”

—Copyright 2011 Associated Press

Accessibility Assignment Overview

The purpose of this project is to provide students an opportunity to apply their knowledge about inclusion and accessibility. Students will complete a physical and programmatic accessibility survey of a recreation, leisure or sport based facility (e.g. park, community center, museum, hotel/resort, stadium, library, etc.) via this link:

 (Links to an external site.)

Links to an external site.

· The ADA Full Checklist including Priority Areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 should be completed (Full Checklist Survey ) AND 

· The Recreational Checklist (Download Word Fillable Form (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.
) specific to your selected site.

This survey can be used to help include people with disabilities in community recreation and sport programs and a summary of findings, recommendations for compliance, and an analysis of the spirit of the ADA will be reported in a paper. A letter synthesizing the findings will also be written to the facility manager. Students will also analyze how the ADA and accessibility in the US compare globally to other legislation/regulations for the rights and accessibility for people with disabilities in other countries.


1 Students may work individually or in pairs at one site to complete the checklist. If you work in pairs, you will each need to submit the completed checklist AND each student MUST individually develop, write, and submit their individual paper and letter on their own, submit your own pictures and floor plan/map. The only time you will be working together on this project is at the site to complete the actual survey/checklist.

2 Choose a recreation, leisure, or sports setting to conduct the Accessibility Assignment. Please note: FIU facilities will NOT be permitted for this assignment. In addition, Tamiami Park and YMCA South Dade will NOT be permitted for this assignment this semester. Please choose a local recreation, leisure or sports setting in your neighborhood. Examples include a park, a recreation community center, stadium, ballpark, bowling alley, fitness center or gym, library, museum, hotel/resort, etc.) The older the facility, the more interesting it will be for you. Also, do not choose a building that was newly built in the past year or a park without a bathroom.  

3 Obtain the necessary permission from the facility site (supervisor, manager) to conduct your survey. Make an appointment with the appropriate staff person to conduct the survey. If they do not give permission, please let me know that you are changing your site. Sometimes this happens as they might not feel comfortable being surveyed even though it is for your educational purposes only. And it is okay if they do not want you to… just make sure you have another building/facility site as a backup and keep me informed.

4 Plan on attending the Adobe Connect Live Meeting for reviewing the assignment and answering questions.  This will be held on Monday, February 11, 2019, 12:00 (EST).

5 Each student must submit your building name and address by Sunday, February 10th by 11:59 PM. Let me know if you are working individually or in pairs AND let me know your partner’s name. Also, confirm that you have received permission from the facility site.  You will submit this information in an assignment drop box in the Accessibility Assignment folder.

6 Before you visit your site and conduct your survey, open and review the entire Americans with Disabilities Act Checklist for Readily Achievable Barrier Removal. (The checklists are fillable Word documents. The Full Checklist Accessibility Survey is in course file folder or can be downloaded from the website provided.  The Recreational Checklist is downloaded from the website provided). Specifically review pages 1-6 for directions of what you will generally need to take to the site, how to measure, etc.

7 You can conduct the surveys two ways: – You can print the checklist before you visit the site BUT you will need to type in the results into the Word file after you finish your survey – Or – if you can take your computer to the site, you can check boxes directly in the Word file(make sure to keep SAVING your data!). If you use your computer at the site, you will also need to take extra notes in a notebook that will help you when you write your paper.

8 Each student (even if you work in pairs) must submit a COMPLETED word file Checklist WITH your paper to receive credit for this entire assignment! Do not turn this in blank! Save the completed word file with your first and last name and the word “checklist.” For example, alicia_pola_checklist.doc.

9 While at your site, each student must take at least 3 pictures with a digital device (camera or phone) of different areas you are surveying in your Checklist (e.g. parking lot, entrances, doors, ramps, restroom stalls, elevators, water fountains, etc.). One of these three has to include a picture of yourself at the site to get credit for the entire assignment! Each student will need to submit his/her own pictures as part of this assignment in his/her individual journal and directions to help you do so are provided in the Accessibility Assignment Folder.  Do not submit pictures that are images of your facility site from the Internet, the pictures must be original, taken by you.

10 While you are at your site, obtain or draw a bird’s eye view/floor plan/map of your site or building and provide labels of areas. Your facility may also have a floor plan/map on their website you can submit. Each student will need to submit this floor plan/map as part of this assignment (if in pairs you can submit the same floor plan/map but submit it individually in each of your journals). You can turn in the floor plan/map several ways:

· You can scan and submit your original drawing

· You can redraw your plan digitally in a word document on the computer and then submit this

· You can turn in the sites floor plan/map from the website or as a photo (this would be in addition to the three photos you turn in above)

11 Each student must develop his/her own unique paper!!! It will be no less than six and no more than eight, typed and double-spaced with consecutively numbered pages (not including cover page or reference page).  An individually written professional letter to the facility manager will also be included at the end of the paper but not count towards this page limit.
The paper (with letter) is worth 25 points of your total grade for this assignment and points will be deducted for not adhering to the page requirement.
Your paper will also be uploaded to Turnitin for grading purposes. If your paper shows plagiarism (from any content that is not cited from its appropriate source and/or that is copied directly from other students’ paper(s)) in Turnitin, you will receive a 0 for the entire project and/or fail the course.

12 Submission:

· In the Accessibility Assignment:  Checklist, Floor Plan & Photos (Journal):

Each student will submit a completed: 1) Checklist, 2) Paper (with letter), 3) Minimum 3 photos, and 4) the view/floor plan map 

· In the Accessibility Assignment: Paper & Letter (Turnitin):

Each student will also upload his/her paper (with letter) to Turnitin and it will be graded there (worth up to 25 points).  



Note: For parts b and c (barriers and recommendations to improve upon the barrier), you will need to indicate where in the Americans with Disabilities Standards for Accessible Design (i.e. the standard # in the checklist) the barrier/recommendation is discussed.

You must organize your paper using the following headings a-d (APA style):

a. Advantages:  Describe those aspects from your survey of the recreation setting (physical and programmatic), that have been made accessible and would provide opportunities for inclusive recreation participation. Make sure to include the summary of the positive/accessible areas from each priority of your completed checklist with the Standard # from your completed checklist.

b. Barriers:  Describe the physical and programmatic barriers that are present that would inhibit or limit participation by people with disabilities. Identify people with disabilities who may be influenced by these barriers, and how they would be influenced. Make sure to include the summary of the inaccessible areas and the Standard # in that area from each priority of your completed checklist.

c. Accessibility Recommendations:  Provide a list of specific recommendations for how the agency could improve accessibility based on the barriers you found. Again, using the Standard #, designate which of your recommendations should be implemented to be in compliance with the law. Also, indicate which of your recommendations, although not legally required, would be in keeping with the spirit of the law (see Chapter 9), and would reflect a general commitment to inclusive recreation participation

d. Global Review of Disability and Accessibility: 

1 Choosing a country and researching and reading resources:

1 First go to the following website: Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund-International Laws (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.
: Choose a country you are interested in researching and that provides one or more specific law(s)/act(s) on disability rights. (Do not choose the USA.)

2 Also, review and read through the following websites to help you with your research and in writing the global review of the country and its comparison to the USA:

· Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund- International Disability Rights (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

· Disability Rights International (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

· Disability Rights International (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

· Disabled People’s International- North America and the Caribbean  (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

· Disabled People’s International- Europe (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

· Disabled People’s International- Asia Pacific Region (Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.

3 Additional websites or sources that you find. (Please message me if you find other sources that were helpful to you. There are always new sites out there!)

2 You will need to respond to the four following questions and/or discussions for the global review portion of your paper.

1 In your opinion, how did the Americans with Disabilities Act impact society the most and more specifically, people with disabilities?

2 For the country you chose from the Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund-International Laws documents):

· Provide a general overview of disability rights for your chosen country.

· Discuss how the country compares to different areas you have read about and watched throughout the semester concerning the Americans with Disabilities Act (i.e. compare the ADA titles/content from Chapter 8: Respond to the Americans with Disabilities Act and compare this to similar titles/content from the law(s) for your chosen country).

· How do you feel the country compares historically (are they ahead or behind the US and how)?

· What do you think would be the outcome of the ADA accessible design survey (i.e. the checklist) of your building in that country? Provide two examples (Please note, you may have to do additional research to find the answers).

3 Describe what accomplishments society has made (across the world- inside and outside the USA) in overcoming barriers (attitudinal as well as architectural) for the rights of people with disabilities and on inclusion in general. On a global scale, what do you feel we still have yet to do?

4 What role do recreation and sports services have in helping society (the USA and the world) overcome such barriers in the future and enhancing the rights, independence, and inclusion for people with disabilities around the world.

Provide APA citations (if you paraphrase and/or quote) to support your answers/discussion from your course and assignment readings/viewings and from additional literature you may have discovered and read from your research for this assignment. Also, make sure to include the sources of these citations in the reference list at the end of your paper!


Each student must also write a professional letter (a few paragraphs) to the manager/person in charge of the facility. The purpose of the letter is to thank him/her for assisting you with this learning opportunity. Also, provide and accentuate the positive outcomes that you found as a result of completing the checklist and provide a brief summary of what you found that could be changed. This will be turned in as the last page of your paper after your reference list and is NOT part of your page limit. Do NOT send the letter to the facility. After I grade and provide feedback on your project, you can make changes to the letter and send it to the facility manager if you feel comfortable doing so. Please refer to the following resource in formatting your professional letter: Sample Letters

 (Links to an external site.)

306 RUBRICS – HOMEWORK Week One – Five

40 points each

• Created short paragraph (50-100 word minimum) response for each question and addressed each part of the question. (the question does not count toward the word count) – 10 points

• Substance: Demonstrated accuracy, thoughtful detail and intelligence with each answer and was written in own words and had original thought. -10 pts

• Critical thinking: Original Examples are provided to explain answer. (Example:) Student has original and critical thinking:-10 pts

• Created APA formatted document.

i. Included APA title page. 1/

ii. Included APA in-text citations – 5/

iii. APA reference page at the end. –3 pts/ 9 points total

• Homework has questions written out, numbered and are in order. ( See student Success center for details on APA formatting) – 1 point

SEE ATTACHED PLEASE. please read the rubrics before creating assignments. Read each announcement too.


• Save your papers as your name and mod.

• Save your files as your FIRST name. LAST name, mod and paper (ex. smith tamara mod 2 interview 306.doc)

• See course policies in the add ons.

o The add ons give you all of the information on how to do well in

the course.

o APA is a must for the homeowork. If it didn’t come from your

head, cite it. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE or you will get zero points. If you summarize or paraphrase- cite it. This includes your book.

o Use a title page and reference page.

o For the homework, demonstrate your understanding and

comprehension of the material. Examples help to do this.

o Use TII for these or they will be returned to you and it will be

counted as late when it’s resubmitted. Allow time for this process.

o Do not go by the word count alone.

o Use critical thinking about the subjects! Give examples to do this. Give opinions on the research used.

Write out the question and number each of the questions as they are listed.

If the TII comes back too high, shorten the answer to some version of the question and add more of your own thoughts such as “For example, ….” Allow time for this process.


1) Define CAM.

CAM stands for complementary and alternative medicine. CAM consists of many different therapies and treatments that are used to prevent and treat illness and disease. These methods are not typically taught in Medical school or practiced by Western medical doctors. Various practices use natural methods or substances to promote the body to heal or stay in harmony. The mind body and spirit of a person are brought into the equation of healing. (Falvo, pp.210-211, 2004)

Critical thinking:

For example, Chiropractic, homeopathy, naturopathy, yoga, meditation and energy fields are some of the therapies used in CAM. I had a patient with diabetes and used to also get nutritional work completed by a Chiropractor that helped to control his blood sugar.

Please include both your research from your readings and critical thinking/ examples.


Please allow time for this process.

Add more original thoughts and critical thinking if TII comes back high.


Work not submitted to TII will be reassigned as late work.

· How do they Managing data? Managing information?

In JiZhan Tech Inc. CIO told us they manage data into different categories including: customer information, sales information, transport information, employee information, product information, stock information etc.

· For customer information, mainly there are two categories one is the customer who purchase custom battery has specific requirements (such as design, capacity, waterproof ), another one is the customer which need mass production.

· For product information, because of the different require from customers the BMS(Battery Management System) and packaging information is extremely important, Safety is the most important and that information can somehow protect the battery from over discharge, overcharge, and over temperature.

CIO mention that they use Excel to store the stock information, others use Access. Traditionally the data and information are written by hand, it is really hard to store, locate and management.

· Explain how they use a three-level database

Jizhan Tech Inc. database mode is pretty similar with what we learn on class, the first level is conceptual and external sense and a general idea of the information for their customers and products. Second is that they gather the resource and information from upstream and downstream connect items and element with the database, it is really important for the global trade. Third is they store the information and data into the physical database.

· Explain how they would go through the steps in the Database Analysis Life Cycle

Because of JiZhan is not a huge business company, so that they might not hire someone to write a database program these days maybe in future they will, right now they are comfortable with excel, the six steps Database Analysis Life Cycle is kind the similar way what they want in future

· What type of Support/Help Desk do they have?

Jizhan is a Startups company does not have much employee right now. The Jizhan has similar support/help desk to other competitors. They do not have a hotline for customer, but they so have a stable email and apps for up and down stream business company.

· How do they manage operations? Internal/External measures?如何运营

Because of Jizhan is a startup company they more focus on Research and development of the product also Quality Control, their response time depends on different customer’s request, which include (size, capacity, rechargeable, battery life, using temperature, safety and waterproof etc. )

· Outsourcing

There are three main area outsourcing which are finance, legal service and tax, all the outsourcing contract are Short-term contract so far, also if the outsourcing company needs an outsourcing from a third company we have to be notified.

· Outsourcing advantages and disadvantages

· advantages· disadvantages
reduced costscost of outsourcing
more focus on productcomply with outsourcing company rules
reliability and stabilitycontract
save time

· Relate and explain each company category in business and IT (3 each)

Tools are important for the company, it organizes data and information of the company, stores the information, and ensure that when the information is needed, they can trace it right away.

The major of company is product innovation

They usually go to Exhibition CES(Consumer Electronics Show) to establish relationship with customer

· Relate how they manage staff (8 areas)

A. usually Headhunting and then interview talk about salary and welfare

B. salary and welfare are based on educational background and work experience

C. the startup team already has experience

D. good employee gets bonus welfare

· Relate how they manage risk – assess, mitigate, adjust

at first, they trying to use Flexible battery technology to make Flexible battery also stretchable but technically is not working so they change a method which is use material technology to series multiple battery

· Relate how they use Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis and Phases of Change

They use KPI(Key Performance Indicators) and bonus to Driving Forces and Restraining Forces



Department of Business Administration

Proposed Assignments for MGT Courses.

Semester 2nd , 2018-19

Course Name: MGT 301 (Organizational Behavior)

An overview about Assignments Structure, Submission Time & others details:

No. of SubmissionsType of AssignmentAllotment WeekSubmission Week(before the end of week)Marks
Assignment-1Case StudyWeek 5Week 705
Assignment-2Critical ThinkingWeek 9Week 1105
Instructor’s Assessment based on followings participations :· Discussion Board· Wiki· Blogs· Quizzes10
Total Marks25

Assignment No:- 2

Submission Date by students: End ofWeek- 11th

Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre

Weight: 05 Marks

Course Learning Outcome: Develop the problem solving skills for teamwork especially if the problem relates to the task (Lo 3.2).

Critical Thinking: Organizational Power, Politics & Conflict. 

Critical Thinking: Organizational Power, Politics & Conflict. 

Choose Organization, located in Saudi Arabia. In your paper, respond to the following:

· Determine the causes of conflict, and how is conflict resolved?

· Based on your research, How would you describe “organizational politics” at the company?

· Examine the of your selected organization and explain how are decisions made when there’s disagreement and stakes are high?

· What are the components of being a Manager? Thinking about yourself, determine if you are a Manager how you will use power & politics to solve an organizational conflict.

· Next, Figure Out How the Company Deals With Conflict and Politics.


· These assignments are an individual assignments.

· All students are encouraged to use their own words.

· Be three to five pages in length (1000-1200 words), which does not include the title page, abstract or required reference page, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.

· Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.

· Use proper referencing (APA style) to reference,other style will not accepted.

· Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles unless the assignment calls for more.

· It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments into the safe assignment Originality Check prior to submitting it to your instructor for grading.

· Write a three-part essay (i.e., an essay that includes an introduction paragraph, the essay’s body, and a conclusion paragraph) that address the questions using a question and answer format.

· Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:


Margaret Kahl

IS 440

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Managing Information Resources

Database – group of interrelated files

File – group of related records

Record – group of related fields

Field – 1 or more characters

Character – basic element

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Database Analysis Life Cycle

Database study – the designer creates a written specification in words for the Database system to be built.

Database design – conceptual, logical, and physical design steps

Implementation and loading – once a DBMS has been installed, the database itself must be created within the DBMS.

Testing and evaluation – the database, once implemented, must be tested against the specification supplied by the client.

Operation – this step is where the system is actually in real usage by the company.

Maintenance and evolution – time used to fix problems with the system or recommend enhancements or new requirements.

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Managing Data

3 Level Database Model

Level 1 – external, conceptual, or local level (user views)

Level 2 – logical or “enterprise data” level

Level 3 – physical or storage level

 Database Administrator (DBA) – a person with responsibilities to focus on the overall performance and integrity of a single DBMS on one or more databases.

Data Administrator – a person whose responsibility is to ensure the integrity of the data resource.

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

4 Data Models

Hierarchical Model – data are organized into a tree-like structure. The structure allows repeating information using parent/child relationships: each parent can have many children, but each child only has one parent.

Network Model – is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. The network model allows each record to have multiple parent and child records.

Relational Model – a database model that provided for logical connections among files (known as tables) by identifying data from one table in another table.

Object-Oriented DB Model – a data model derived from object-oriented programming that encapsulates data and methods, and organizes objects into object classes, among which there can be a hierarchical relationship.

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Getting Corporate Data into Shape

The Problems: Inconsistent Data Definitions

Proliferation of Heterogeneous Databases

Data availability, integrity, and Security

The role of Data Administration

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Data Warehouse – is the main repository of an organization’s historical data, its corporate memory. It contains the raw material to support business intelligence and management decision making.

Major benefits of a data warehouse:

The ability to reach data quickly since they are located in one place.

The ability to reach data easily and frequently by end users with web browsers.

Chapter 7

Characteristics of a Data Warehouse

Organization – data are organized by subject and contains information relevant for decision support only

Consistency – data in different operational databases may be encoded differently.

Time variant – the data are kept for many years so they can be used for trends, forecasting, and comparisons over time.

Non-volatile – once entered into the warehouse, data are not updated

Relational – typically the data warehouse uses a relational structure.

Client/server – the data warehouse uses the client/server architecture mainly to provide the end user easy access to its data.

Web based – today’s data warehouses are designed to provide an efficient computing environment for web based applications.

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Key Concepts in Data Warehousing

Metadata – defining the data

Quality data – once the metadata definitions have been established, the biggest challenge is cleansing the data to adhere to those standards

Data marts – is a small warehouse designed for a strategic business unit or department

Replicated data mart – one can replicate some subsets of the data warehouse in smaller data marts

Stand alone data mart – independent data marts without having a data warehouse

Chapter 7 Managing Information Resources

Document Management

Improving the Publishing Process

Supporting Communications among people and groups

Supporting Organizational Processes

Content Management

Content Creation and Acquisition

Content Administration and Safeguarding

Content Deployment and Presentation

Web Content Management

Selecting Web Content Management Tools

Chapter 7

Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Normalization – the transformation of complex user views and datastores to a set of smaller, stable data structures.

First Normal Form 1NF – separate all repeating groups and identify the primary key

Second Normal Form 2NF – ensure all non-key attributes are fully dependent on the primary key

Third Normal Form 3NF – remove dependencies that show non-key attributes being dependent on other non-key attributes

Chapter 8 Managing Operations

How to solve operational problems:

1. Buy more equipment

2. Fight Fires

3. Document what you are doing

How do you measure operation?

External measures – what customers see

System and network uptime

Response time

Turnaround time

Program failure

Internal measures -what is people see

% Of capacity of computer usage

Disk storage utilization

# Of jobs run/rerun

Age of applications

# Of unresolved problems

The importance of good management

What’s new in operations?

1. Companies have “cleaned their operational house”

2. Managing open source

3. Getting serious with security

4. Large-scale data warehousing

5. Enforcing privacy

6. Dealing with talent shortage

7. More operations managers are managing outward

8. Operations are being simplified

9. Certain operations are being offloaded

Chapter 8 Managing Operations


The driving forces behind outsourcing

Changing customer – vendor relationships

Outsourcing’s history

IT outsourcing

Transitional outsourcing

Best-of-breed outsourcing

Shared service

Business process outsourcing

E-business outsourcing

Utility computing

Chapter 8 Managing Operations

Outsourcing (con’t)

Managing outsourcing

Organizational structure


Day-to day working

Supplier development


Chapter 8 Managing Operations


Offshoring Options are broadening

Both parties need cultural training to bridge cultural differences

Communication issues need to be addressed from the outset

Communication issues continue throughout offshore relationships

Country laws need to be followed

Use Offshoring for advantage

Redefine services using offshoring, automation, and self- service

Chapter 8 Managing Operations

Chapter 8 Managing Operations


Outsourcing Advantages

1. could reduce cost

2. reduces cost of fluctuation

3. makes cost/service tradeoffs

4. allows more rapid or timely development

5. consolidates operations

6. frees management to focus on business

7. offers improved reliability and stability

8. provides opportunity to learn from the contractor

Outsourcing Disadvantages

1. could increase cost

2. locks company into a provider

3. reduces control

4. removes knowledge of process from the company

5. decreases ability to use IT strategically

Chapter 8 Managing Operations

Outsourcing Disadvantages Con’t.

Shirking – occurs when a vendor deliberately underperforms, while claiming full payment

Poaching – occurs when a vendor develops a strategic application

for a client and then uses it for other clients

Opportunistic repricing – occurs when a client enters into a long-term contract with a vendor and the vendor changes financial terms at some point or over charges for unanticipated enhancements and contract extensions

Chapter 8 Managing Operations

Strategies for Outsourcing

1. Understand the project

2. Divide and conquer

3. Align incentives

4. Write short-period contracts

5. Control subcontracting

6. Do selective outsourcing

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Companies can be categorized into 3 businesses:

1. Infrastructure Management

2. Customer Relationship

3. Product innovation

IS can also be categorized:

1. Operations

2. Help Desk

3. Systems Development

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

8 Areas in Managing Staff

1. Recruitment and Selection

2. Wage & Salary Administration

3. Training & Development

4. Coaching & Counseling

5. Performance Appraisal

6. Delegating & Assigning Work

7. Career Planning

8. Skills Inventory

Different Philosophies of Dealing with Managing Staff

1. Management needs to find people with the right skills and knowledge

2. Management needs to treat employees as investors

3. Management should no longer expect long-term employment by all employees

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Project Management Professional (PMP) must prove knowledge of:






Human Resources



The Job of a Project Manager

Setting up the project

Managing the schedule

Managing the finances

Managing the benefits

Managing Risks, Opportunities, & Issues

Soliciting Independent Reviews

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Tips for Good IT Project Management

Establish the Ground Rules

Foster Discipline, Planning, Documentation, and Management

Obtain and Document the “Final” User Requirement

Obtain Tenders from all appropriate potential vendors

Include Suppliers in Decision Making

Convert Existing Data

Follow Through after Implementation

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Risk Management

1. Assess the risks

2. Mitigate the risks

3. Adjust the project management approach

Designing Motivating Work

1. Gauging IT Staff

2. Improving the Maintenance Job

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Important Considerations in Technological Change

1. The ability of employees to conceptualize change

2. Employee’s readiness for change

3. Employee’s capacity for change

4. Individual differences among users

5. Environmental uncertainty & complexity

6. Change itself

7. Organizational structure

8. The distribution of power

9. The experience of the change agent

10. The risks involved

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Kurt Lewin – Force Field Analysis

Driving Forces

People pressing for change

Structure pressing for change

Process variables pressing for change

Technology variables pressing for change

Restraining Forces

People variable resisting change

Structure variable resisting change

Process variables variable resisting change

Technology variables variable resisting change


Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Reasons for Resistance

Social uncertainty

Limited perspectives

Lack of understanding

Threats to power and influence

Resistance to technical personnel

Perception that costs outweigh benefits

Fear of failure and inadequacy

Loss of control

Feelings of insecurity

Threat of economic loss

Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Overcoming Resistance to Change

Education and communication

Participation and involvement

Facilitation and support

Negotiation and agreement

Kurt Lewin – 3 Phases of Change




Chapter 10 Management Issues in Systems Development

Top five reasons for project success:

User involvement

Executive management support

Clear statement of requirements

Proper planning

Realistic expectations

Top five reasons for project failure:

Lack of user input

Incomplete requirements & specs

Changing requirements & specs

Lack of executive support

Technological incompetence

fix doc

Deliverable 2 Based on material from Chapters 7, 8, and 10, approximately 10 pages. Submit a typed, researched, detailed deliverable based on the minimum requirements below. On Deliverable 2’s due date, email Deliverable 2 to M. Kahl (not as an attachment), then present as a group (everyone presents) and touch on the highlights. Email the slides from the presentation to M. Kahl.

10 minutes per group (Deliverable 2 = 30 pts)

At the minimum, type your research and include the following subheadings in order. You may bullet/outline your research, then give detail, and bold all the subheadings.

Chapter 7

1. Explain how they would go through the steps in the Database Analysis Life Cycle

1. Explain how they use a three level database

1. Use software to draw an ERD of a current process

1. Screen shot a user view (payroll, invoice, etc), and normalize it (1NF, 2NF, 3NF)

Chapter 8

1. How do they Managing data? Managing information?

1. How do they manage operations? Internal/External measures?

1. Relate how they outsource

1. What strategies do they use to outsource?

Chapter 10

1. Relate and explain each company category in business and IT (3 each)

1. Relate how they manage staff (8 areas)

1. Relate how they manage projects – job of PM. Give an example of a project the PM is currently working on and give specific examples of each step

1. Relate how they manage risk – assess, mitigate, adjust

1. Relate what considerations (all 10) the company takes into account for technological change

1. Relate how they use Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis and Phases of Change

Deliverable 2 Presentation – each person in the group must present a portion of Deliverable 2. The group must be prepared with their own computer, connection for projector, and choice of presentation tool. 10 minutes per group

· How do they Managing data? Managing information?

 How do they Managing data? Managing information?

With the amount of data and information nowadays, information managing and data managing is critical for a company. Data are facts, without meaning or intent. However, a big amount of data can become information, which means data in context, this could sometimes mean the world to a company. Database is the major element for managing information resources, it is made by a group of interrelated files; File is made up by a group of related records; Record is made up by a group of related fields. With all these interrelated data, a company not only can have the information that they need to operate the business, they can even predict the future of the business with these data.

In Global Trading, the CIO Andy told us that they manage data and information into categories, including: customer information, sales information, transport information, employee information, product information, etc. Andy gave us an example of their information management on how they manage the customer information, and how they use this information during the interview. Andy mentioned that they have 3 categories of customer information. First is their own customer information, which contains the customer information they have collected over the years. Second is the subscribed customer information, which contains the information of customers from websites such as Amazon, Ebay, etc. Third is the customer information that they buy from data company. Andy said that they can utilize these information with advertising accordingly, to target potential customers.

Andy mentioned that currently their database is electronically stored in their own server and cloud storage mainly by using Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access. Traditionally, the data and information were recorded by hand, which was extremely difficult to manage, locate, and storage. With the electronic database system, they are able to quickly search and locate for the file, and categorise them in different groups and categories in seconds, and send out promotion emails to target customers.

· Explain how they use a three level database

The Global Trading operates very similarly to the three-level database model that we covered in class. As the user views information at the first level in a conceptual and external sense and a general idea of the information for their customers and products while in the second level the Global Trading has logical information that is used to connect items and elements within the database. At the third level is the physical storage of the database, which means they physically store their database in the system.

· Explain how they would go through the steps in the Database Analysis Life Cycle

When the Database Analysis Life Cycle was mentioned during the interview, the CIO of the Global Trading Andy agreed that all six steps were followed in similar ways when they are trying to determine what actions to take with new databases. Andy told us that since they are not a huge business company, they do not hire people to write database programs. Instead, they tried to get familiar with all database tools to see which had the best fit for their database and subscribe it, and Andy is the person who decided which tool they are using to store database. Then, they had to design a way to store and implement their database into that tool. After loading all database, they tested it to make sure the tool works well for them and evaluated it. after everything is done, they started using it officially. In addition, Andy told us that they do not really need think about maintenance of the database tool because they do not create the tool. Therefore, whenever there is a technical issue, the company who got subscribed would take care of their product. It would be easier for the Global Trading to focus on operating the tool.

· What type of Support/Help Desk do they have?

The Global Trading has similar support/help desk to other competitors. They have a hot line which is allowed customers to call in. However, since they are not a huge company and they have limited employees, they do not have a customer service department. Instead, everyone works there can pick up the phone, and answer questions for customers. They do not have an online chat for customers to use. However, customers can always send emails to them, and they would reply back every email as soon as possible.

· How do they manage operations? Internal/External measures?

Good IT operation management is important for an organization, not only for the smooth IT operations within the organization, but also create a welcoming user experience for the customers. CIO need to be concerned about operations by putting the proper operations environment in place.

Measuring operation could be divided into two categories: internal measures and external measures. External measures are what customers sees, which includes system and network uptime or downtime, response time, turnaround time, and program failures. External measures directly affect customer’s user experience. Internal measures are what information system people see, which include: percentage of capacity of computer usage, availability of mission-critical systems, resource utilization, job queue length, number of jobs run, number of jobs rerun due to problems, age of applications, and number of unresolved problems.

In Global Trading, Andy told us that because Global Trading is still a small to medium-sized enterprise, it is not necessary for them to develop their own operational systems. Currently, Global trading outsourced their operational systems to large reliable company. For example, they are using Amazon Web Services for storage and database, and they are using websites such as eBay, Amazon to sell their products instead of creating their own website. Andy said that outsourcing these technical operations is more cost effective than hiring technicians and having their own technical department at this stage for the company. This way, they don’t have to deal with program failure, network being hacked and attacked, system maintenance, and so on.

· Relate how they outsource

Global Trading Unlimited, Inc. outsourced the sales to other companies. In physical stores, it finds sales companies to help them sell products, while sales companies can get a percentage of commission. In terms of online sales, they mainly outsourced sales to Amazon, eBay, and Wayfair. It only needs to provide product information for these sites, and these sales sites provide it with sales platforms, server maintenance and operations services. However, it outsources this part of advertising to google and Facebook. For example, when we open a website and use google search, we will see some items ads of your search keywords on the right side of the page. This will better display its branding effect. Same time it will let many users see this company, so they will be potential customers. In terms of transportation, it is also outsourced to FedEx, Because the company’s transportation speed is very fast, so that customers can quickly get their purchases, so that customers can have a good service experience.

· What strategies do they use to outsource?

The outsourcing strategy of Global Trading Unlimited Inc. is mainly divided and conquer, short-period contracts, purchase services and selective outsourcing. It does not participate in managing these aspects. In the sale area, Global Trading Unlimited Inc. is only responsible for providing goods, but these sales sites are responsible for selling the goods. At the same time, it needs to pay a fee for these online sales companies. In ads area, it purchases user information from google and Facebook so that they can send posters of their latest products to these customers. At the same time, it will sign short-term cooperation contracts with these companies to ensure the cooperation benefits between them.

· Outsourcing advantages and disadvantages

Outsourcing has many advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are reduced costs, allows more rapid or timely development, frees management to focus on business, and offers improved reliability and stability. It is important for the company to reduce costs because at the same time to reduce costs and think that there are more benefits. Outsourcing to other companies can use the market of these outsourcing companies, which is very advantageous for a company to develop new markets. Outsourcing to other companies to sell products so that companies can focus more on the company’s business. A good outsourcing company has high reliability and stability, which is very helpful for the development of its own business. Outsourcing also has many disadvantages, such as increase cost, to comply with outsourcing company rules and cannot reduce the cost of outsourcing. When you hire an outsourcing company, you need to pay a certain fee to them, so your costs will increase. To hire an outsourcing company, you must comply with the regulations of the outsourcing company. You can’t violate their regulations, or they can cancel the contract at any time, and you also need to pay some of the liquidated damages. The outsourcing company dictates outsourcing costs. You can’t make them spend less on you, so your outsourcing costs cannot be reduced.

· Technologies for developing effective systems

In Global Trading, Andy told us that since they are not a data company, their technical systems are mainly relying on outsourcing. The technologies for developing effective systems for Global Trading as Andy mentioned, could be categorized into two categories: tools and buying information.

Tools are important for the company, it organizes data and information of the company, stores the information, and ensure that when the information is needed, they can trace it right away. Global Trading are using a few Amazon Web Services as mentioned above. In addition, they also have their own server to store backup data and information. This way, when one source is down, they can still operate with the data and information from the backup source.

Information is made up by a big amount of data, Andy told us that they buys customer information from different data companies for marketing purposes, which works significantly well for their online sales department. They uses the customer information to analyse the customer’s need, and advertise toward these target customers on Amazon, Facebook, Google Ad, etc. Although this marketing strategy may cost some money, but the result is very significant.

Andy also told us about how powerful big data and data mining is in e-commerce industry, and he clearly understands that this will be the trend in the future, the more data you own, the more powerful the company.

Chapter 8 Lean Systems

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Learning Objectives


LO8-1 Explain how the lean system approach improves value for internal operations and across the supply chain.

LO8-2 Describe the cultural changes, tools, and techniques needed to implement a lean approach.

LO8-3 Recognize the strengths and limitations of lean systems.

LO8-4 Apply the concept of lean systems to product design.


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“Leaning” our way toward better healthcare

Long changeovers between surgical procedures

Wasted high-demand / high-cost capacity



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Lean Systems Defined


Just-in-time (JIT): an older name for lean systems

Toyota Production System (TPS): another name for lean systems, specifically as implemented at Toyota

Lean Systems Approach: a philosophy of minimizing the resources needed for processes


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Lean Systems Defined



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Only the good/services that customers want

As quickly as customers want

With only features customers want

With perfect quality

In minimum possible lead time

Without waste

With occupational development of workers

Lean Origins



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Taiichi Ohno compares Japanese vs. American production

Learns from Henry Ford’s mass production system

Japanese interact with American management experts

JIT is born

Lean thinking flourishes in Japan with very visible performance superiority over competitors

Performance Characteristics for Lean Systems



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Cost Structure Changes



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Lean Objectives

LEAN Objectives



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Objective 1: Only the products that customers want

Objective 2: Only as quickly as customers want them

Objective 5: In the minimum possible lead times

Objective 6: With no waste of labor, materials, or equipment, and

Objective 3: With only features that customers want, and no others

Objective 4: With perfect quality

Objective 7: Using methods that reinforce the occupational development of workers.

Lean Principles

LEAN Principles



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Principle 1. Precisely specify value for each specific product

Principle 2. Identify the value stream for each product

Principle 3. Make value flow without interruptions

Principle 4. Let the customer pull value from the producer

Principle 5. Pursue perfection

Principle 1: Specify Value

Customers determine value

Suppliers must provide products/services with customer desired


Product features



Anything that doesn’t add value is waste!



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Principle 2: Identify Value Stream


Overproduction: processing more than needed

Waiting: resources waiting for work/materials

Transportation: units moved unnecessarily

Processing: excessive or unnecessary steps

Inventory: units waiting for processing or delivery

Motion: unnecessary or excessive resource activity

Defects: scrap, rework, or correction

Waste is a symptom of a problem and does not add value


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Principle 3 : Make Value Flow

Inventory hides problems and slows flow



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Principle 4: Customers Pull Value

Pull System: processes are activated by actual, not forecasted demand

Customers get

what they want

when they want

where they want



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Principle 5: Pursue Perfection

Lean System Culture: places a high value on respect for people

Acceptance: agree to goals, veterans teach new employees

Flexibility: responsive pull systems

Teams: cross-functional & cross-organizational

Employee empowerment: employees work to attack waste

Manage with data: objective over subjective

Waste as a symptom: attack root cause

Goals are met: set realistic, achievable goals

Standardization: reduces variation, simplifies problem solving

Process focus: process change for outcome change



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Lean System Philosophy – Employee a Critical Resource



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Source of flexibility

Working in teams

Power in their hands

Lean System Culture – Shared Values and Beliefs



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Shared Values and Beliefs

Manage with data

Waste is a symptom

Goals are to be met

Standardization is fundamental

Process orientation

Lean Tools and Techniques



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Lean Tools and Techniques: Facilities and Resources

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): prevention of breakdowns

Group Technology: bring together resources to process a family of items

Focused Factories: processes designed to satisfy specific customer segment



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Lean Tools and Techniques: Scheduling and Control

Takt Time: synchronizing output rate with demand rate

Kanban (Pull): output generated in response to actual demand

Mixed Model (heijunka): build smaller quantities more frequently

Set-up reduction: shorter, easier change- over leads to smaller batches

Statistical process control (SPC): use of statistical tools to monitor processes

Visual control: performance and problems easily, immediately visible



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Setup Reduction: Single Minute Exchange of Dies

Setup Reduction



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Stage 1: Separate internal and external setups

Stage 2: Convert internal setups to external setups

Stage 3: Streamline all activities in a setup

Lean Tools and Techniques: Continuous Improvement

Quality at the source: eliminating defects at their origination points

Kaizen Events: short-term, cross-functional focused, intense process improvement

Process analysis/Value stream mapping: graphical analysis flow through a process

Poka-Yoke: redesign so mistakes are impossible or immediately detectable

5-S: effective housekeeping (sort, straighten, scrub, systematize, standardize)

Simplification/Standardization: removing non-value add steps, making processes exactly repeatable



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Quality at the Source (Q@S)



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Stop and Fix


Process Analysis / Value Stream Mapping

Figure 8-5



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5-S Program



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Application of Lean



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Application of Lean



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Across the supply chain

Purchase for lowest total cost (not price)

Geographically close partners

Fewer suppliers

Focus on root cause

Work with, not against, suppliers

Product Innovation (Lean Design)

Exactly meet customer needs

Support corporate strategy

Reduce opportunities of waste

Application of Lean Across the Supply Chain: What could go wrong?



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Types of events causing problems for lean supply chains

Operational / Technological


Natural / Hazard

Economy / Competition

Legal / Political

Application of Lean

Reducing product design waste:

Complexity: few, simple processes

Precision: capability to attain specifications

Variability: attainable specifications

Sensitivity: not easily damaged

Immaturity: tested technology

Danger: customers & environment are safe

High skill: ease for workers and customer



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Lean Systems Summary


Lean is a corporate wide approach to identify, control and eliminate waste, within firm and across supply chain

Lean principles are guided by seven major objectives

There are multiple lean tools that work synergistically

Lean should be expanded across firm functions and across the supply chain

Lean is not universally applicable

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Managing Quality

Chapter 6

Managing Quality

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Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives


LO6-1 Explain what the concepts of product quality and quality management entail.

LO6-2 Explain the roles that operations and other functional managers play in determining product quality.

LO6-3 Apply the core values and typical practices associated with quality management.

LO6-4 Perform a cost of quality analysis

LO6-5 Apply the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to quality improvement

LO6-6 Compare and contrast various quality standards and certification programs.

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Brand Turnaround at Hyundai – What Hyundia Did



Increased the number of workers on the quality control team from 100 to more than 850.

Instituted mandatory seminars for all workers on the importance of quality.

Invoked the direct involvement of its CEO in twice-monthly meetings comparing Hyundai quality with that of its rivals.

Made capital investments in problem areas, including $30 million invested in a computer center to test electronic systems.


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Brand Turnaround at Hyundai – Results of Changes



Brand loyalty for Hyundai surpassed that of Honda and Toyota to take the No. 1 spot.

Five Hyundai cars among its “Best Bets” for safety, reliability, and fuel efficiency.

Sonata and Genesis models made Hyundai a strong competitor in the luxury market, where excellent quality is imperative.

In 2014 Hyundai placed first in the J.D. Power Initial Quality Study

Hyundai and its sister company Kia averaged 90 problems per 100 vehicles, 20 percent fewer problems than those found in European, Japanese, and American cars, on average.


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Quality Definitions


Product Quality: fitness for consumption in meeting customers needs and desires

Design Quality: match between designed features and customer requirements

Conformance Quality: meeting design specifications

Quality Management: organization wide quality focus


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Dimensions of Quality for Goods and Services




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Perceived Quality








Functional Influence on Product Quality – Part I



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Functional Influence on Product Quality – Part II



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Functional Influence on Product Quality – Part III



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Student Activity

Ask a marketing professor, a supply chain operations professor, a finance professor, and an engineering professor to give you their definitions of product quality. Compare and contrast the definitions you receive.


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Quality Thought Leaders



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Cost of Quality (COQ)


Costs associated with inspection to assess quality levels (e.g. staff, tools, training, etc.)

Costs from defects found before delivery to the customer (e.g., rework, scrap, etc.)

Costs associated with defects found after delivery to customer (e.g., warranty, recall, etc.)

Costs associated with preventing defects and limiting failure and appraisal costs (e.g., training, improvement projects, data gathering, analysis)

Appraisal Costs

Internal Failure Costs

External Failure Costs

Prevention Costs


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Inverted View of Management



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TQM Values and Success Factors



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Guiding Methodologies: PDCA


Figure 6-2


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identify problem and actions for improvement

implement formulated plan

monitor results

take corrective action and institutionalize changes

TQM Guiding Methodologies



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Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle

Six Sigma Approach to Quality Improvement

ISO 9000 Series: An International Quality Standard

Malcolm Baldrige Award

Guiding Methodologies: 6σ – Part I


Six Sigma: quality improvement through elimination of defects and variation

Standard deviation: statistical measure of variation


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Guiding Methodologies: 6σ – Part II


Sigma level of quality:






Four sigma

Six sigma

Two sigma


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Guiding Methodologies: 6σ – Part III


Sigma LevelDefects per Million


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Guiding Methodologies: 6σ – Part IV



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Guiding Methodologies: DMAIC



DMAIC Example:

See the cough drop production DMAIC example in your text

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Define: determine Critical to Quality (CTQ) characteristics from customer’s perspective

Measure: gather data on CTQ processes

Analyze: determine cause of defects

Improve: modify processes

Control: ensure improvements are maintained

Activity: DMAIC and M&Ms



What are CTQ characteristics for M&Ms?

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Guiding Methodologies: ISO 9000


ISO 9000: internationally accepted standards for quality management systems

ISO 9000 requires:

fulfilling the customer’s quality requirements, and

meeting applicable regulatory requirements, while aiming to

enhancing customer satisfaction, and

achieving continuous improvement of its performance in pursuit of these objectives.


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Guiding Methodologies: Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award



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outstanding quality and performance excellence


Strategic planning

Customer and market focus

Measurement, analysis, and knowledge management

Workforce focus

Process management


ISO 9000 and MBNQA: A comparison



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ISO 9000

For all types of organizations

Application and audit

International standard

Required by many customers

Certification maintenance requires periodic auditing


For all types of organizations

Application and audit

Helps with improvement

Facilities sharing ‘best practices’

Working tool for understanding, measuring and improving performance

Provides opportunity to compare quality systems

ISO 9001: 2015 Certification Structure



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ISO 9001: 2015 Certification Structure



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ISO 9001: 2015 Certification Structure



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Managing Quality Summary

1. Quality management strives to achieve superior quality

2. It is important to integrate quality management into the firm’s strategic activities

3. Formal certifications confirm that a firm’s major processes have been documented and followed

4. Many firms use award guidelines to assess the performance of their quality management systems.

5. Service quality management must take into consideration the interpersonal interactions of service providers and customers.

6. Core TQM values are the critical aspects to make quality improvement a success.


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Holistic view of responsibility for quality

Variability as source of most problems

Importance of customer


Broadened definition of quality

Focus on change management

cost of quality analysis


Quality is free

Zero defects

Focus on incremental change


Kaizen system of continuous improvement

Intense process-oriented view

Heavy dependence on frontline worker insights

Emphasis on worker training and development