Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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An Overview of Project Management 7th ed

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What Is a Project?

• Project Defined (according to PMI)

– A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique

product, service, or result

• Major Characteristics of a Project

– Has an established objective

– Has a defined life span with a beginning and an end

– Requires across-the-organizational participation

– Involves doing something never been done before

– Has specific time, cost, and performance

requirements

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Program versus Project

• Program Defined

– A group of related projects designed to accomplish a

common goal over an extended period of time

• Program Management

– A process of managing a group of ongoing,

interdependent, related projects in a coordinated way

to achieve strategic objectives

– Examples:

• Project: completion of a required course in project management.

• Program: completion of all courses required for a business major.

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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Project Life Cycle

1–4

FIGURE 1.1

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Current Drivers of Project Management

• Factors leading to the increased use

of project management:

– Compression of the product life cycle

– Knowledge explosion

– Triple bottom line (planet, people, profit)

– Increased customer focus

– Small projects represent big problems

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Project Governance

• Integration (or centralization) of project

management provides senior management with:

– An overview of all project management activities

– A big picture of how organizational resources are

used

– A risk assessment of their portfolio of projects

– A rough metric of the firm’s improvement in managing

projects relative to others in the industry

– Linkages of senior management with actual project

execution management

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

3

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A Project Management Today:

A Socio-Technical Approach

• The Technical Dimension (The “Science”)

– Consists of the formal, disciplined, purely logical parts

of the process.

– Includes planning, scheduling, and controlling

projects.

• The Sociocultural Dimension (The “Art”)

– Involves contradictory and paradoxical world of

implementation.

– Centers on creating a temporary social system within

a larger organizational environment that combines the

talents of a divergent set of professionals working to

complete the project. 1–7

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Where We Are Now

2–8

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Chapter Outline

2.1 The Strategic Management Process: An

Overview

2.2 The Need for a Project Priority System

2.3 A Portfolio Management System

2.4 Selection Criteria

2.5 Applying a Selection Model

2.6 Managing the Portfolio System

2–9

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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Why Project Managers Need

to Understand Strategy

• Changes in the organization’s mission and

strategy

– Project managers must respond to changes with

appropriate decisions about future projects and

adjustments to current projects.

– Project managers who understand their

organization’s strategy can become effective

advocates of projects aligned with the firm’s mission.

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The Strategic Management Process:

An Overview

• Strategic Management

– Requires every project to be clearly linked to strategy.

– Provides theme and focus of firm’s future direction.

• Responding to changes in the external environment— environmental scanning

• Allocating scarce resources of the firm to improve its competitive position—internal responses to new programs

– Requires strong links among mission, goals,

objectives, strategy, and implementation.

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Strategic

Management

Process

FIGURE 2.1

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

5

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The Need for a Project Priority System

• The Implementation Gap

– The lack of understanding and consensus on strategy

among top management and middle-level (functional)

managers who independently implement the strategy.

• Organization Politics

– Project selection is based on the persuasiveness and

power of people advocating the projects.

• Resource Conflicts and Multitasking

– Multiproject environment creates interdependency

relationships of shared resources which results in the

starting, stopping, and restarting projects.

2–13

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Benefits of Project Portfolio Management

• Builds discipline into the project selection process

• Links project selection to strategic metrics

• Prioritizes project proposals across a common set

of criteria, rather than on politics or emotion

• Allocates resources to projects that align with

strategic direction

• Balances risk across all projects

• Justifies killing projects that do not support strategy

• Improves communication and supports agreement

on project goals

EXHIBIT 2.2

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Portfolio of Projects by Type

FIGURE 2.2

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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A Portfolio Management System

• Selection Criteria

– Financial models: payback, net present value (NPV)

– Non-financial models: projects of strategic

importance to the firm

• Multi-Criteria Selection Models

– Use several weighted selection criteria to evaluate

project proposals.

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Financial Models

• The Payback Model

– Measures the time the project will take to recover

the project investment.

– Uses more desirable shorter paybacks.

– Emphasizes cash flows, a key factor in business.

• Limitations of Payback:

– Ignores the time value of money.

– Assumes cash inflows for the investment period

(and not beyond).

– Does not consider profitability.

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Financial Models (cont’d)

• The Net Present Value (NPV) Model

– Uses management’s minimum desired rate-of-return

(discount rate) to compute the present value of all net

cash inflows.

• Positive NPV: project meets minimum desired rate of return and is eligible for further consideration.

• Negative NPV: project is rejected.

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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Nonfinancial Strategic Criteria

• To capture larger market share

• To make it difficult for competitors to enter the market

• To develop an enabler product, which by its introduction will

increase sales in more profitable products

• To develop core technology that will be used in next-generation

products

• To reduce dependency on unreliable suppliers

• To prevent government intervention and regulation

• To restore corporate image or enhance brand recognition

• To demonstrate its commitment to corporate citizenship and support

for community development

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Multi-Criteria Selection Models

• Checklist Model

– Uses a list of questions to review potential projects

and to determine their acceptance or rejection.

– Fails to answer the relative importance or value of a

potential project and doesn’t to allow for comparison

with other potential projects.

• Multi-Weighted Scoring Model

– Uses several weighted qualitative and/or quantitative

selection criteria to evaluate project proposals.

– Allows for comparison of projects with other potential

projects.

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Project Screening Matrix

FIGURE 2.3

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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Applying a Selection Model

• Project Classification

– Deciding how well a strategic or operations project

fits the organization’s strategy

• Selecting a Model

– Applying a weighted scoring model to align projects

closer with the organization’s strategic goals

• Reduces the number of wasteful projects

• Helps identify proper goals for projects

• Helps everyone involved understand how and why a project is selected

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• Sources and Solicitation of Project Proposals

– Within the organization

– Request for proposal (RFP) from external sources

(contractors and vendors)

• Ranking Proposals and Selection of Projects

– Prioritizing requires discipline, accountability,

responsibility, constraints, reduced flexibility,

and loss of power

• Managing the Portfolio

– Senior management input

– The governance team (project office) responsibilities

Applying a Selection Model (cont’d)

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Project

Screening

Process

FIGURE 2.5

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

9

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Managing the Portfolio System

• Senior Management Input

– Provide guidance in selecting criteria that are

aligned with the organization’s strategic goals.

– Decide how to balance available resources

among current projects.

• The Governance Team Responsibilities

– Publish the priority of every project.

– Ensure that the project selection process is open

and free of power politics.

– Reassess the organization’s goals and priorities.

– Evaluate the progress of current projects.

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Balancing the Portfolio for

Risks and Types of Projects

• Bread-and-butter Projects

– Involve evolutionary improvements

to current products and services.

• Pearls

– Represent revolutionary commercial opportunities

using proven technical advances.

• Oysters

– Involve technological breakthroughs

with high commercial payoffs.

• White Elephants

– Showed promise at one time

but are no longer viable.

2–26

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Where We Are Now

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

10

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Chapter Outline

3.1 Project Management Structures

3.2 What Is the Right Project Management

Structure?

3.3 Organizational Culture

3.4 Implications of Organizational Culture for

Organizing Projects

3–28

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Project Management Structures

• Challenges to Organizing Projects

– The uniqueness and short duration of projects relative

to ongoing longer-term organizational activities

– The multidisciplinary and cross-functional nature of

projects creates authority and responsibility dilemmas.

• Choosing an Appropriate Project Management

Structure

– A good system balances

the needs of the project

with the needs of the

organization.

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Project Management Structures (cont’d)

• Organizing Projects: Functional Organization

– Different segments of the project are delegated

to respective functional units.

– Coordination is maintained through normal

management channels.

– It is used when the interest of one functional area

dominates the project or one functional area has

a dominant interest in the project’s success.

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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Functional Organizations

FIGURE 3.1

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Functional Organization

•Advantages

1. No structural

change

2. Flexibility

3. In-depth expertise

4. Easy post-project

transition

•Disadvantages

1. Lack of focus

2. Poor integration

3. Slow

4. Lack of ownership

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Project Management Structures (cont’d)

• Organizing Projects: Dedicated Project Teams

– Teams operate as separate units under the

leadership of a full-time project manager.

– In a projectized organization where projects are the

dominant form of business, functional departments

are responsible for providing support for its teams.

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

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Dedicated Project Team

FIGURE 3.2

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Project Organization: Dedicated Team

•Advantages

1. Simple

2. Fast

3. Cohesive

4. Cross-functional

integration

•Disadvantages

1. Expensive

2. Internal strife

3. Limited technological

expertise

4. Difficult post-project

transition

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Projectized Organization Structure

FIGURE 3.3

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

13

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Project Management Structures (cont’d)

• Organizing Projects: Matrix Structure

– Hybrid organizational structure (matrix) is overlaid on

the normal functional structure.

• Two chains of command (functional and project)

• Project participants report simultaneously to both functional and project managers.

– Matrix structure optimizes the use of resources.

• Allows for participation on multiple projects while performing normal functional duties

• Achieves a greater integration of expertise and project requirements

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Matrix Organization Structure

FIGURE 3.4

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Division of Project Manager and Functional

Manager Responsibilities in a Matrix Structure

TABLE 3.1

Project Manager Negotiated Issues Functional Manager

What has to be done? Who will do the task? How will it be done?

When should the task be done? Where will the task be done?

How much money is available Why will the task be done? How will the project involvement

to do the task? impact normal functional activities?

How well has the total project Is the task satisfactorily How well has the functional

been done? completed? input been integrated?

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

14

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Different Matrix Forms

• Weak Form

– The authority of the functional manager predominates

and the project manager has indirect authority.

• Balanced Form

– The project manager sets the overall plan and the

functional manager determines how work to be done.

• Strong Form

– The project manager has broader control and

functional departments act as subcontractors

to the project.

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Project Organization: Matrix Structure

• Advantages

1. Efficient

2. Strong project focus

3. Easier post-project

transition

4. Flexible

•Disadvantages

1. Dysfunctional conflict

2. Infighting

3. Stressful

4. Slow

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What Is the Right Project

Management Structure?

• Organization Considerations

– How important is the project to the firm’s success?

– What percentage of core work involves projects?

– What level of resources (human and physical)

are available?

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

15

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What Is the Right Project

Management Structure? (cont’d)

• Project Considerations

– Size of project

– Strategic importance

– Novelty and need for innovation

– Need for integration (number of departments involved)

– Environmental complexity (number of external

interfaces)

– Budget and time constraints

– Stability of resource requirements

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Organizational Culture

• Organizational Culture Defined

– A system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and

assumptions which binds people together, thereby

creating shared meanings.

– The “personality” of the organization that sets it

apart from other organizations.

• Provides a sense of identity to its members

• Helps legitimize the management system of the organization

• Clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior

• Helps create social order

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Key Dimensions Defining an Organization’s Culture

FIGURE 3.5

Project Management 6e 1/24/2018

16

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Implications of Organizational Culture

for Organizing Projects

• Challenges for Project Managers

in Navigating Organizational Cultures

– Interacting with the culture and subcultures

of the parent organization

– Interacting with the project’s clients

or customer organizations

– Interacting with other organizations

connected to the project

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Cultural Dimensions of an Organization Supportive

of Project Management

FIGURE 3.7

CUSTOMER LOYALTY

CUSTOMER LOYALTY | Loyalty Marketing Guide 2013

12 | April 2013 | dmnews.com

By Sarah Shearman

T oday’s empowered customers are more likely to be loyal to companies that best understand their needs, goals, and prefer- ences. Doing so means listening—and listening well means a comprehensive voice of the customer (VoC) program that’s

closely aligned with marketing. Additionally, marketers must stay attuned to marketing’s infl uence on

the customer experience; for example, communicating a brand prom- ise that their company can deliver on or sending relevant, timely of- fers rather than impersonal blast messages. Customer experience has a strong correlation to loyalty metrics, such as repurchase intent, rec- ommendations, and retention, according to Forrester Research. Again, customer listening is imperative; it will amplify customers’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the customer experience.

“Too often, companies struggle to hear what the customer is actually saying about them. There is a disconnect between brand perception and brand promise,” says Larry Freed, CEO of customer experience analytics fi rm ForeSee. “They need to hear it from the voice of the customer themselves to build loyalty.”

Some marketers think that a customer loyalty program will suffi ce in terms of their efforts to help build customer loyalty. However, as important as those programs are, they’re not enough now that the cus- tomer journey has become more complex. “I always recommend [that

companies] focus much more on a sustainable and systemic approach, where you’re actually treating customers in a way that they want to be loyal, rather than a points program where you’re trapping them in to a relationship,” says Andrew McInnes, director of product marketing at customer service and experience solutions fi rm Allegiance.

Freed agrees that marketers must not assume that customers enrolled in a loyalty rewards program are loyal to their brand over its competi- tors. “Companies that have loyalty schemes have to look at the new customers joining and see if they’re making a decision because of your loyalty scheme, or whether they would have made this decision any- way,” he says. “Through VoC we can start to fi nd that out.”

Does VoC measure up? In fact, VoC initiatives can inform whether points programs and other loyalty marketing efforts are effective. “If you don’t have that measure- ment it’s almost like running your business with your head in the sand, because you’re doing these programs and you’re getting false positives and negatives,” Freed warns.

Of course, the defi nition of loyalty differs for different brands; some focus more on behavioral loyalty, while others care more about attitu- dinal loyalty. This means that success measures will vary, as well. For Julie Kaplan, executive director of marketing and customer experience at Healthy Directions, a natural health and supplements fi rm, loyalty

Customers are more likely to be loyal to companies that meet their expectations. Doing so means aligning the voice of the customer with marketing.

Loyalty Takes Listening

93%81% 89% 20% 18% THE NUMBERS | The Customer (Experience) Is King

Source: Oracle Corp.

➜ Customers willing to pay more for a superior customer experience

➜ Customers who switched brands after a poor customer experience

➜ Annual percentage revenue losses due to poor customer experiences

➜ Executives who say that improving the customer experience is one of their top-three business priorities

➜ Expected increase in spending on customer experience technology over the next two years

12_Feature_Loyalty_v8.indd 12 3/12/13 4:23:11 PM

dmnews.com | April 2013 | 13

equates to repurchase. “When we mean loyalty it’s not an emotion or feeling, it really means the customer comes back over and over again,” Kaplan says. “Loyalty is the biggest revenue driver for our business.”

Healthy Directions started its VoC program two years ago, working with Allegiance, by emailing a weekly product survey that included Net Promoter Score questions on likelihood to recommend. A key insight that arose early on was that customers repurchase from Healthy Direc- tions if they notice that the products are making a difference to them.

Kaplan notes that rather than having to make major changes to the company’s marketing, the feedback was “great confirmation” that it already had the right loyalty strategy in place to generate repurchase.

One of the changes customer feedback catalyzed, however, after the company discovered that product efficacy drives repurchase and re- duces return rate, was to make its product labels and inserts easier to read to ensure that customers know whether to take the supplement at a certain time, because usage impacts efficacy.

The initiative now includes relationship surveys, touchpoint surveys, and text analytics, and is moving towards a more automated listening system. Kaplan says the program has proven to be a “great success” to the business and has helped her team discover actionable insights that are used across the business every day.

Based on the marketing initiative’s success, Healthy Directions’ cre- ative execution of promotions, creative direction, and target market- ing now reflects specific insights gleaned from customer feedback, both qualitative and quantitative.

The boon and bane of social listening Asking customers for feedback like Healthy Directions does is impera- tive, but “listening” to their input through external channels has become unavoidable for companies due to the growth of social media. The

rise in popularity of blogs, forums, and social networks provides fertile ground for marketers to track conversations about their brands and an opportunity to respond in real time. “The customer is more em- powered online and can voice their opinion on Facebook or Twitter, meaning, if they’re frustrated it’s likely that will end up in the public domain,” says Evan Klein, founder and president at customer feedback firm Satrix Solutions. “The cost/value equation that measuring VoC in an online environment creates is also much improved.”

Forrester Research shows that, in 2011, 29% of consumers used a so- cial channel to complain. The research firm expects this figure to grow as younger generations age and new generations of highly social con-

sumers enter the marketplace, making VOC in social media of high importance for marketers.

Listening to complaints and compliments on social media gives marketers another source of feedback that they can analyze to give a wider perspective on customer experience. The nature of social media means feedback can be gained more readily and from a wider audience, meaning agile companies can respond to it promptly, which ultimately drives loyalty. It’s possible to take social insight a step further by opening a

conversation with customers in that channel. Marketers can use social networks or online communities to start a dialogue on spe-

cific topics, like launching a new product, and then use customers’ input to design the product, explains Azita Martin, VP of marketing

at customer engagement platform Get Satisfaction. This type of cocre- ation can positively impact loyalty because customers feel that they’re involved and being heard.

“Companies underestimate how much consumers care about giving product feedback,” Martin says. “Loyal customers love to be recognized and have their own voice on your website and other places. The ability to respond to it builds amazing brand loyalty.”

Martin explains that it’s possible to build dynamic VoC content, such as product reviews, right into an online forum or product pages on a brand’s website. This is a boon to marketers because customers share detailed opinions in context, which increases their engagement while creating better informed buyers. She cites as an example Morrison- owned baby e-commerce store Kiddicare, which saw an 8% drop in cart abandonment and a 5% increase in search traffic to the website after taking this approach.

Closing the loop Marketers must not fall into the trap of listening to only the vocal mi- nority, says Foresee’s Freed. “The squeaky wheel can get a little bit too much attention sometimes, and if you ignore the silent majority you won’t get a truly representative audience,” he says.

To avoid this “extreme bias” in the data, Freed recommends that marketers focus on gathering VoC insight over time and from across channels, not just one-off direct feedback. “You need to listen on a con- tinuous basis and understand how internal and external [factors] can influence your customers’ expectations,” he says.

Understanding, tracking, and measuring those influencers can be a great asset to marketers in their loyalty-building VoC efforts—when they take action on what they learn. Listening without taking action can be perilous.

Loyalty Takes Listening

“Loyalty is the biggest revenue driver for our business.” Julie Kaplan, Healthy Directions

12_Feature_Loyalty_v8.indd 13 3/12/13 4:23:42 PM

“An area most companies struggle in is responding and reacting to feedback,” Freed says. “It’s a common complaint among customers that having spent the time completing a survey, it goes into a void, never to be heard of again.”

Although paying lip service to listening to customers’ views and failing to act on them could signifi cantly erode loyalty, not all input requires action, notes Satrix Solutions’ Klein. However, all feedback should be acknowledged. “Demonstrating commitment to customers is one of the most signifi cant aspects of a successful [VoC] program,” he says. “But one fallacy associated with customer feedback programs is that man- agement may feel obligated to do everything customers want.”

Klein explains that some customers may express frustration over the fact that a company’s products or services are too expensive, for exam-

ple, but it might not necessarily be the right business decision to align with such customer requests. On the

other hand, if marketers are communicat- ing a specifi c brand promise that their company’s products or customer ex- perience aren’t delivering, then either the brand promise or the products or experience need to change or customer loyalty may suffer. Consequently, VoC shouldn’t be a silo

within marketing, but integrated across the entire business to ensure the greatest

positive impact on loyalty. “One of the biggest challenges is mind-set,” McInnes says. “To do [VoC] well it needs to be accepted as part of every function in the business, not handled by marketing alone.”

Kaplan explains that when Healthy Directions launched its VoC pro- gram it was a complex undertaking. “The diffi culty was how we went about installing it in the organization, amid all the ordinary day-to-day things we have to do.”

As it turns out, convincing the organization of the worth of the VoC initiative didn’t take long. “We were fortunate that we quickly surfaced quality insights that we use in our organization every single day,” Kaplan says. “The VoC program became embedded in the organization very quickly, with people across the business using its insights.”

It’s clear that setting up a comprehensive VoC program requires time, commitment, and resources, but with ever-increasing customer expec- tations, ignoring the voice of the customer is no longer an option for marketers who are charged with building customer loyalty. “It’s really all about creating a culture in which understanding customers’ needs is part of the organizational DNA,” Klein says. “This commitment should not be underestimated; it offers a tremendous way to differentiate your business and build loyalty.” ■

14 | April 2013 | dmnews.com

CUSTOMER LOYALTY | Loyalty Marketing Guide 2013

Having a robust listen-

ing system in place to

drive loyalty among its

customers and part-

ners is nothing new

to networking soft-

ware giant Cisco Sys-

tems, which set up its

customer satisfaction

function in 1999. But

it was over a year ago

that the company de-

cided to strengthen its

approach to voice of the customer (VoC)

by creating the Listening Services Center

of Excellence to centralize the various lis-

tening posts from across the business.

“At Cisco all of the employees carry a

badge that has our company values on it.

One of those values, which is part of our

DNA, is customer success,” says Karen E.

Mangia, director of Cisco Systems’ Listen-

ing Services Center of Excellence. “We use

VoC to measure how we’re doing against

that cultural value and make it real to every

single employee in the business.”

The 34-member strong listening center

consists of three teams that are respon-

sible for listening, analyzing, and integrat-

ing VoC learnings back into the business. “I

like to think of them as a group of people

who are so brilliant they could tell a senior

[executive] something about the business

that they don’t know already,” Mangia says.

“To me, it’s not just about saying we have a

program; the real value is it is about what

we can learn from it.”

Easy does it Mangia explains that Cisco’s listening posts

gather input from customers and part-

ners globally, making it possible to iden-

tify themes. For example, the company

learned that the “ease of doing business”

with Cisco is a loyalty driver. It also learned

through VoC, however, that the business

wasn’t delivering as well as it could in that

area. So Cisco launched a formal action

plan that included everyone across the or-

ganization, including the CEO. It ties spe-

cifi c projects to drivers that impact the

ease of doing business with the company.

It also launched custom online dashboards

that staff can use daily to monitor ease-of-

doing-business results. Executives also re-

ceive a weekly email highlighting customer

comments specifi cally regarding the ease

of doing business with Cisco.

The company has also made a signifi cant

effort in the introduction of its programs

to “close the loop” with customers and

partners about how it’s using their feed-

back. “When we connect back with them,

it builds future loyalty,” Mangia says.

Another initiative that the listening center

led based on VoC input was the streamline

navigation of Cisco’s support website, al-

lowing customers to more quickly access

information and resolve problems. As a

result, 81% of technical support issues are

now resolved online, leading to cost sav-

ings of hundreds of millions annually.

Cisco Listens and Learns

Karen E. Mangia, Director of Listening Services Center of Excellence, Cisco Systems

“Most companies struggle in responding to feedback.” Larry Freed, ForeSee

12_Feature_Loyalty_v8.indd 14 3/12/13 4:24:51 PM

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

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PRODUCT ELEMENTS AS THE BASIS FOR CONSUMER CHOICE:

THE CASE OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS

Monika Kavaliauskė 1 , Michail Chavkin

2 , Inga Zaukevičienė

3 ,

Roma Bernotavičiūtė 4 , Sigitas Urbonavičius

5

1 Vilnius University, Lithuania, monika.kavaliauske@ef.vu.lt

2 Vilnius University International Business School, Lithuania, mchavkin@gmail.com

3 Vilnius University International Business School, Lithuania, inga.zaukeviciene@gmail.com

4 Vilnius University International Business School, Lithuania, roma_bern@hotmail.com

5 Vilnius University, Lithuania, sigitas.urbonavicius@ef.vu.lt

Abstract

One way of analysing market offers is based on the evaluation of product elements from the position

of potential consumers. Food supplements product category is rather specific and has not been much

researched. Therefore, the objective of the paper is to determine which elements of food supplements are

perceived as more important by the consumers and have the strongest influence on consumer buying

decisions, and what combinations of products elements would be preferable by various consumers segments.

The analysis was based on results of survey that included opinions of 188 participants. Conjoint analysis was

used to determine consumer preferences based on the selected six research variables: brand name, main active

ingredient, frequency of use, country of origin, price and recommendations. Also the gender, age and buying

experience of consumers were considered. The results revealed that internal product elements had the

strongest influence on consumer buying decisions. The most important internal characteristic was the

frequency of use. Price was the most important among the external elements – the lower it was, the more

consumers wanted to buy particular food supplement.

Keywords: consumer behavior, consumer choice, consumer buying decisions, product elements, food

supplements, conjoint analysis.

JEL Classification: M31, M37, I12.

Introduction

Product elements analysis from the position of potential buyers and consumers is widely used in

various instances (markets and product groups), but typically concentrate on high involvement items: durable

goods or at least products that are perceived of relatively high importance to the consumer. Though other

types of products also deserve attention of researchers, low involvement of potential buyers make these

studies more complex or require use of more specific research methods.

As a product category, food supplements are rather specific. From the rational standpoint, they are far

away from being the products of the first necessity. At the same time, emotionally this category is strongly

related with health protection, which increases the importance of these products to some segments of the

market. This controversy makes it difficult to understand which product elements are perceived as more

important, and what their combinations would be suitable to various segments. This served as a background

for the research on importance of the food supplement elements in Lithuanian market. Additionally, it is

necessary to state that the legal definition of food supplements includes very broad set of product types that

are used for fortifying one’s health and can’t be assigned to the category of pharmaceuticals. Thus, the study

is based on the product group that belongs to the food supplements category – i.e. supplements for the eyes.

Therefore, the objective of the paper is to determine which elements of food supplements for the eyes

are perceived as more important by the consumers and have the strongest influence on consumer buying

decisions, and what combinations of products elements would be preferable by various consumers segments.

The research was carried out according to the conceptual model which included internal and external

product elements that influence consumer decisions. The analysis was based on results of survey that

included opinion of 188 participants. The conjoint analysis was used to determine consumer preferences

based on the selected six research variables: brand name, main active ingredient, frequency of use, country of

origin, price and recommendations.

Product elements

Previous consumer buying behavior studies revealed that customers pay attention to many product

characteristics while choosing it, which can differ according the product type. Importance of product

characteristics might differ among different customers, especially when they gain new experience and

knowledge during the time period (Aliman et al., 2007).

http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.em.17.1.2276mailto:mchavkin@gmail.commailto:inga.zaukeviciene@gmail.commailto:roma_bern@hotmail.comhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.em.17.1.2276

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Product characteristics and elements can be classified in several ways; however, often they are divided

into two groups: internal (essential) product characteristics and external (inessential) characteristics

(Northen, 2000; Fandos et al., 2006; Aliman et al., 2007; Veale el al., 2009).

Internal characteristics are the essential, natural product elements, which determine product

functionality and physical appearance (Veale et al., 2009). These characteristics are specific for every

product; also they disappear while consuming the product and cannot be changed without changing the

essence of the product (Fandos et al., 2006). Such orgoleptic characteristics as appearance, color, taste,

smell, can be classified as internal (Northen, 2000; Fandos et al, 2006).

External characteristics are related to the product but are not the part of it. These characteristics can be

changed while not changing the physical product condition. Therefore, price, brand, country of origin,

packaging, recommendations by authorities, suggestions by shop employees can be classified as external

product characteristics (Northen, 2000; Fandos et al., 2006).

It was found that in evaluation of quality of the rationally purchased products (to which food

supplements for the eyes can be assigned) internal product characteristics typically are considered as being

more importante than external ones. However, for the products more related to the image (automobiles,

apparel items, etc.), physical differences cannot be easily evaluated, and therefore external characteristics

become more important (Pecotich et al., 2007).

Familiarity with product category also influences the reliability of product characteristics. Typically,

external characteristics are more important when familiarity is low, while internal characteristics are more

important when knowledge about product is high (Jin el al., 2010).

Brand can be classified as the most important element for consumers to decide whether to buy or not

particular product (Srinivasan et al., 2002; Aliman et al., 2007). Brand is the external product element, which

consumers consider in product evaluation, and especially – when they cannot understand or evaluate internal

product characteristics (Aliman et al., 2007). Strong and well known brand provides customers information

about product quality, visible and invisible product characteristics and might decrease concern during the

buying process (Srinivasan et al., 2002). In addition to this, the more customer is familiar with brand, the less

other external characteristics such as price or country of origin, are considered, because information provided

by the brand becomes more valuable (Pecotich et al., 2007).

Many researchers have determined the positive impact of country of origin to product evaluation and

choice (Hui et al., 2001; Aliman et al., 2007; Veale et al., 2009), however, the level of importance was found

very different. As many researchers determined that internal product characteristics (appearance, colour, taste)

have higher impact for quality evaluation than external characteristics (price, brand, country of origin), it is

obvious that country of origin can make only limited influence on perception of product quality, especially

when customer can evaluate many product elements (Al-Sulatiti et al., 1998). Therefore, customers perceive

country of origin as an important element when: (a) they have information about the product or the information

is less specific and reliable; (b) product is important and expensive, (c) buyers do not understand the product

well enough, or (d) product category is closely related to the country of origin (such as French perfume or

Chinese silk) (Veale et al., 2009). In some instances domestic products are evaluated higher, which might be

influenced by ethnocentrism and higher recognition of local products (Pecotich et al., 2007).

Price is also one of the most important product elements, however, the impact of price is bigger then

there is not much information about the product, as the broader information facilitates decision making

process and decreases the impact of price (Veale et al., 2009). Higher price can be perceived as a signal of

better quality, especially – when the product is very important for the customer, or it is difficult to evaluate

product characteristics. In case of food supplements for the eyes higher price can be perceived as an indicator

that the product will have stronger positive impact on a consumer’s health (Akcura et al., 2004).

Additionally, decision about product choice is influenced by customer personal characteristics;

especially: gender, age, income and buying experience. It was discovered that women and persons with

lower income are more aware about the prices and see them as more important (Rosa-Dı´az, 2004).

Consumer behavior also differs according to the buying frequency of particular product, as the product

choice criteria differs in the process of acquiring experience and expertise (Nisel, 2001). Such customer

characteristics as age, income, social class determine the number of attributes that each segment of customers

evaluates. Typically, when buying novel and high involvement products, younger and higher social class

customers evaluate more attributes than elder ones. Elder consumers, as well as the ones from lower social

groups, typically try to simplify the process by analyzing less product attributes (Schaninger et al., 1981).

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Conceptual Model

The main research variables include the six product elements: brand, main active ingredient, frequency

of usage, country of origin, price and recommendations. According to the analyzed literature, brand, country

of origin, and price are considered as essential product elements, common for every type of product

(including food supplements for the eyes). However, in order to define product-specific external elements,

the series of expert interview were performed. In addition to the known essential product elements, the

experts reported that in case of food supplements for the eyes the most important influencing factors are: the

main active ingredient; convenience of the using, particularly – how many times per day the product has to

be used (frequency of use), manufacturer and recommendations of official institutions (opinion leaders) that

may be found on the product packaging. However, influence of a manufacturer was excluded from the

further research in order to avoid possible overlap with the brand.

Therefore, based on the literature analysis and pilot survey, the research model included two

categories of product elements: internal (essential) characteristics (the main active ingredient, frequency of

use); and external characteristics, such as: price, brand, country of origin, and recommendations of opinion

leaders (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Research model

Hypotheses

The aim of the research was to evaluate how different product elements influence consumers’ choice

when selecting food supplements for the eyes. Therefore, according analysis of literature, six hypotheses

were developed:

H1: Internal product elements (active ingredient, frequency of usage) have bigger impact on

consumers’ choice of food supplements for the eyes than external product elements (brand, country of origin,

price, and recommendations).

H1a: Internal product elements (active ingredient, frequency of usage) have bigger impact on

consumers that have experience in using food supplements for the eyes than for those who do not have

experience in using food supplements for the eyes.

H1b: External product elements (brand, country of origin, price, and recommendations) have bigger

impact on consumers without experience in using food supplements for the eyes than for those who do have

experience in using food supplements for the eyes.

H2a: Consumers evaluate food supplements for the eyes better when the country of origin is Lithuania

compared to USA or France.

H2b: Consumers evaluate food supplements for the eyes better when the country of origin is USA

compared to France.

H3: Preferences for food supplements for the eyes differs between young and older consumers.

Methodology

The research was carried out according to the conceptual model which included product elements that

influence consumer decisions. Respondents were selected using non probability sampling snowball method.

The questionnaire was hosted on the internet and respondents received a link to it. To determine the required

amount of respondents, the comparable researches that used conjoint analysis were analyzed. It was

determined that average amount of respondents was 167 ( Okechuku, 1994; Saunders et al., 1997; Arora,

2006; Jin et al., 2010; Quester et al., 1998; Kupiec et al., 2001; Hong et al., 1989). The analysis was based

on results of survey that included opinion of 188 participants. The conjoint analysis was used to determine

consumer preferences based on the selected six research variables: brand name (Liuberin, Yourlife,

Akiuvita), main active ingredient (blueberries extract, lutein, vitamins), frequency of use (1, 2 or 3 times a

INTERNAL characteristics:

Main active ingredient

Frequency of use

EXTERNAL characteristics:

Price

Brand

Country of origin

Recommendations of opinion leaders

IMPORTANCE IN PRODUCT SELECTION

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day), country of origin (Lithuania, France, USA), price (33.23, 39.09, 46.48 Lt) and recommendations

(without recommendation; recommendation of Lithuanian oculists association; recommendation of

International oculists association). Also gender, age and buying experience of food supplements consumer

were considered. 18 representative profiles were constructed, having 6 attributes (research variables) with 3

levels each. SPSS program was used for results analysis.

Results

Survey represents opinion of 188 participants, of which 66.5% were women (N=125) and 33.5% were

men (N=63). Two thirds of the respondents (61.7%, N=116) had eyesight malfunctions, whereas only 38.3%

(N=72) stated that they yet do not have any problems with eyesight. The buying experience of food

supplements for the eyes distributed almost equally among respondents, as 48.4% (N=91) of them bought

food supplements for the eyes previously, whereas 51.6% (N=97) did not.

As the aim of the research was to determine the most important elements of food supplements for the

eyes for consumers, the internal and external elements were evaluated. The results revealed that the most

important internal product elements were frequency of use (25.46%) and main active ingredient (21.29%)

(Fig. 2). Whereas, the external product elements were considered as less important: price (17.87%), brand

(13.63%), recommendations (11.40%) and country of origin (10.34%) (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. The importance of food supplements for the eyes elements

According the Stjudent criteria, frequency of use was stastistically more significant than all other

external product elements, similarly as the main active ingredient, which only was not more important than

price. The least significant were country of origin and recommendations (Table 1). These results confirm the

findings of other researchers, which stated that impact of country of origin for the consumer choise is rather

small (Al-Sulaiti et al., 1998; Ettenson et al., 1988). Also the hyphotesis H1 was confirmed, that internal

product elements have greater impact on the consumer choise of food suplements for eyes than the external.

Table 1. The importance of food supplements for the eyes elements (t-test)

Nr. Pair of product elements t df Sig. (2-tailed)

1 Brand – Main active ingredient -2.68 187.00 0.01

2 Brand – Frequency of use -3.87 187.00 0.00

3 Brand – Country of origin 1.56 187.00 0.12

4 Brand – Price -1.72 187.00 0.09

5 Brand – Recommendations 1.11 187.00 0.27

6 Main active ingredient – Frequency of use -1.20 187.00 0.23

7 Main active ingredient – Country of origin 4.30 187.00 0.00

8 Main active ingredient – Price 1.18 187.00 0.24

9 Main active ingredient – Recommendations 4.09 187.00 0.00

10 Frequency of use – Country of origin 5.47 187.00 0.00

11 Frequency of use – Price 2.46 187.00 0.01

12 Frequency of use – Recommendations 5.36 187.00 0.00

13 Country of origin – Price -3.56 187.00 0.00

14 Country of origin – Recommendations -0.63 187.00 0.53

15 Price – Recommendations 3.30 187.00 0,00

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To evaluate hypothesis H3, and determine if age influences consumer preferences in case of food

supplements for the eyes, two age groups were segregated: under 30 years (103 respondents) and over 30

years (85 respondents). The significant difference (t test) was determined in case of main active ingredient

and price (respectively Sig. 0.005 and 0.000). Therefore, H3 was confirmed, as price was more important for

young people, and main active ingredient was more important for older people (Fig. 3a).

a) b)

Figure 3. The importance of food supplements for the eyes elements according a) age; b) buying experience

To evaluate hypothesis H1a and H1b, and determine if buying experience influences consumer

preferences in case of food supplements, two groups were segregated: consumers with food supplements for

the eyes buying experience (91 respondents) and consumers without food supplements for the eyes buying

experience (97 respondents). The significant difference (t test) was determined in case of frequency of use,

country of origin and price (respectively Sig. 0.04, 0.01 and 0.01). Therefore, H1a and H1b were confirmed,

as frequency of use (internal element) was more important for consumers with food supplements for the eyes

buying experience, whereas country of origin and price were more important for consumers without food

supplements for the eyes buying experience (Fig. 3b).

To determine consumer preferences, means of every data group was calculated, and significance of

differences between the means was determined by Student test (t-test).

After the analysis of results it was determined that Liuberin band was preferred the most among the

respondents (Table 2a). Also statistically significant difference was determined only between Liuberin and

two other brands (Table 2b). Therefore, it can stated that customers prefer well know brand even in food

supplements for the eyes category, however, the other global brand YourLife was evaluated the same as the

imaginary brand Akiuvita, specially created for this research.

Table 2. Consumer preferences for brand (t-test)

Brand Mean Standard deviation

Liuberin 0.59 2.894

YourLife -0.23 2.812

Akiuvita -0.36 2.136

Pairs t df Sig. (2-tailed)

Liuberin – YourLife 2.109 187 .036

Liuberin – Akiuvita 3.046 187 .003

YourLife – Akiuvita .430 187 .668

In case of main active ingredient, it was revealed that it is important elements for customers. However,

the extract of blueberries was much more important for the respondents compared to Lutein and vitamins, as

only blueberries showed statistically significant difference (Table 3 a and b).

Table 3. Consumer preferences for main active ingredient (t-test)

Main active ingredient Mean Standard deviation

Blueberries 1.77 3.819

Lutein -.79 3.240

Vitamins -.98 2.781

Pairs t df Sig. (2-tailed)

Blueberries – Lutein 5.374 187 .000

Blueberries – Vitamins 6.441 187 .000

Lutein – Vitamins .561 187 .575

Differences between frequency of food supplements for the eyes use was statically significant for all

three variants, however, usage 1 time a day was considered as advantage, whereas usage 3 times a day was

considered as big disadvantage, while usage 2 time a day being as an intermediate option (Table 4 a, b).

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Table 4. Consumer preferences for frequency of use (t-test)

Frequency of use Mean Standard deviation

1 time a day 3.28 4.034

2 times a day -.82 2.580

3 times a day -2.45 2.799

Pairs t df Sig. (2-tailed)

1 time – 2 times a day 9.117 187 .000

1 time – 3 times a day 12.185 187 .000

2 times – 3 times a day 6.261 187 .000

Survey results revealed that Lithuanians do not prefer any country of origin, as no statically significant

differences were determined (Table 5 a, b). Therefore, hypothesis H2a and H2B were not confirmed.

Table 5. Consumer preferences for country of origin (t-test)

Country of origin Mean Standard deviation

Lithuania -.03 2.636

France .07 2.017

USA -.04 2.104

Pairs t df Sig. (2-tailed)

Lithuania – France -.348 187 .729

Lithuania – USA .034 187 .973

France – USA .506 187 .613

The analysis confirmed that Lithuanians are sensitive to price, as respondents preferred the lowest

price and the differences between different prices were statistically significant (Table 6 a, b).

Table 6. Consumer preferences for price (t-test)

Price Mean Standard deviation

33.23 Lt 1.90 3.400

39.09 Lt -.14 2.287

46.48 Lt -1.77 2.853

Pairs t df Sig. (2-tailed)

33.23 Lt – 39.09 Lt 5.551 187 .000

33.23 Lt – 46.48 Lt 8.609 187 .000

39.09 Lt – 46.48 Lt 5.729 187 .000

Respondents preferred recommendations of Lithuanian oculist association the most, however the

statistical significant difference was determined between all pairs, therefore, product with recommendations

was more attractive for customers than without them (Table 7 a, b).

Table 7. Consumer preferences for recommendations (t-test)

Recommendations Mean Standard deviation

Lithuanian .84 1.976

International .02 2.427

None -.86 2.017

Pairs t df Sig. (2-tailed)

33.23 Lt – 39.09 Lt 2.832 187 .005

33.23 Lt – 46.48 Lt 7.314 187 .000

39.09 Lt – 46.48 Lt 3.006 187 .003

To determine two different customers groups, the cluster analysis was used by “K-means” SPSS

module. Therefore, the prediction was made that two clusters can be segregated, where one cluster prefers

internal product elements, whereas the other cluster prefers external product elements. The start clusters

centers were set at frequency of use as the most important internal element, and price as external product

element. Final result was achieved after 9 iterations with 94 respondents in each cluster.

Figure 4. The importance of food supplement s for the eyes elements according clusters

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Student test confirmed significant difference among all product elements except the brand (sig. 0.000).

Therefore, it can be stated that for the first cluster internal product elements are more important, whereas for

the second cluster – external (Fig. 4). Significant difference was determined between clusters according

buying experience, as customers with buying experience preferred internal product elements (1 st cluster),

whereas customers without buying experience preferred external product elements (2 nd

cluster) (sig. 0.000).

Also clusters significantly differed according age, as the average age of first cluster was 35.56, whereas the

average age of second cluster was 31.01 (sig. 0.008).

Conclusions

The results revealed that internal product elements of food supplements for the eyes had the strongest

influence on consumer buying decisions. The most important internal characteristic was the frequency of use,

as the fewer times a day the food supplement had to be used, the more attractive it was to consumers. Also the

active ingredient played a significant role, which was especially relevant for the older respondents. However,

most of the consumers were aware only about one type of the three proposed sorts of active ingredients. From

the external elements, price was the most important – the lower it was, the more consumers wanted to buy

particular food supplements for the eyes, which was especially noticeable for the younger respondents. Also it

was revealed that recommendations of opinion leaders were important for consumers, precisely when they were

from local doctors association. However, such products elements as country of origin and brand name were not

important for consumers. In addition to that, it was determined that the brand name awareness of food

supplements for the eyes was very low among consumers in Lithuania.

References

1. Akcura, M. T.; Gönül, F. F; Petrova, E. (2004) Consumer Learning and Brand Valuation: An Application on Over- the-Counter drugs. Marketing Science, 23 (1), 156-169.

2. Aliman, N. K.; Othman, M. N. (2007) Purchasing Local and Foreign Brands: What Product Attributes Matter? Proceedings of the 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 400-411.

3. Al-Sulaiti, K. I.; Baker, M. J. (1998) Country of origin effects: a literature review. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 16 (3), 150-199.

4. Arora, R. (2006) Product positioning based on search, experience and credence attributes using conjoint anglysis. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(5), 285-292.

5. Ettenson, R.; Wagner, J.; Gaeth, G. (1988) Evaluating the effect of country of origin and the “Made in the USA” campaign: A conjoint approach. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 85-100.

6. Fandos, C.; Flavian, C. (2006) Intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes, loyalty and buying intention: an analysis for a PDO product, British Food Journal, 108:8, 646-662.

7. Hong, S.; Wyer, R.S. (1989) Effects of country of- origin and product-attribute information processing perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 175-87.

8. Jin, B.; Park, J. Y.; Ryu, J. S. (2010) Comparison of Chinese and Indian consumers’ evaluative criteria when selecting denim jeans: A conjoint analysis. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 14 (1), 180-194.

9. Kupiec B.E.; Revel B.J. (2001) Measuring Consumer Quality Judgements. British Food Journal, 103(1), 7-22.

10. Northen, J.R. (2000) Quality Attributes and Quality Cues: Effective Communication in the U.K. Meat Supply Chain.British Food Journal, 102(3), 230 – 245.

11. Okechuku C. (1994) The Importance of Product Country of Origin: A Conjoint Analysis of the United States, Canada, Germany and The Netherlands. European Journal of Marketing, 28 (4), 5-19.

12. Pecotich, A.; Ward, S. (2007) Global branding, country of origin and expertise. International Marketing Review,24 (3), 271-296.

13. Quester, P. G.; Smart, J. (1998) The influence of consumption situation and product involvement over consumers’ use of product attribute. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15, 220-238.

14. Saunders, J.; Guoqun, F. (1997) Dual branding: how corporate names add value. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 6 (1), 40-48.

15. Srinivasan, S. S. (2002) Till, B. D. Evaluation of search, experience and credence attributes: role of brand name and product trial. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11 (7), 417-431.

16. Veale, R.; Quester, P. (2009) Tasting Quality: the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21, 1, 195-207.

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Troubleshooting Teaching

GCU College of Education

LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE

Section 1: Lesson Preparation

Teacher Candidate Name:
Grade Level:
Date:
Unit/Subject:
Instructional Plan Title:
Lesson Summary and Focus:In 2-3 sentences, summarize the lesson, identifying the central focus based on the content and skills you are teaching.
Classroom and Student Factors/Grouping:Describe the important classroom factors (demographics and environment) and student factors (IEPs, 504s, ELLs, students with behavior concerns, gifted learners), and the effect of those factors on planning, teaching, and assessing students to facilitate learning for all students. This should be limited to 2-3 sentences and the information should inform the differentiation components of the lesson.
National/State Learning Standards:Review national and state standards to become familiar with the standards you will be working with in the classroom environment.Your goal in this section is to identify the standards that are the focus of the lesson being presented. Standards must address learning initiatives from one or more content areas, as well as align with the lesson’s learning targets/objectives and assessments.Include the standards with the performance indicators and the standard language in its entirety.
Specific Learning Target(s)/Objectives:Learning objectives are designed to identify what the teacher intends to measure in learning. These must be aligned with the standards. When creating objectives, a learner must consider the following:· Who is the audience· What action verb will be measured during instruction/assessment· What tools or conditions are being used to meet the learningWhat is being assessed in the lesson must align directly to the objective created. This should not be a summary of the lesson, but a measurable statement demonstrating what the student will be assessed on at the completion of the lesson. For instance, “understand” is not measureable, but “describe” and “identify” are.For example:Given an unlabeled map outlining the 50 states, students will accurately label all state names.
Academic LanguageIn this section, include a bulleted list of the general academic vocabulary and content-specific vocabulary you need to teach. In a few sentences, describe how you will teach students those terms in the lesson.
Resources, Materials, Equipment, and Technology:List all resources, materials, equipment, and technology you and the students will use during the lesson. As required by your instructor, add or attach copies of ALL printed and online materials at the end of this template. Include links needed for online resources.

Section 2: Instructional Planning

Anticipatory SetYour goal in this section is to open the lesson by activating students’ prior knowledge, linking previous learning with what they will be learning in this lesson and gaining student interest for the lesson. Consider various learning preferences (movement, music, visuals) as a tool to engage interest and motivate learners for the lesson.In a bulleted list, describe the materials and activities you will use to open the lesson. Bold any materials you will need to prepare for the lesson.For example:· I will use a visual of the planet Earth and ask students to describe what Earth looks like.· I will record their ideas on the white board and ask more questions about the amount of water they think is on planet Earth and where the water is located.Time Needed
Multiple Means of RepresentationLearners perceive and comprehend information differently. Your goal in this section is to explain how you would present content in various ways to meet the needs of different learners. For example, you may present the material using guided notes, graphic organizers, video or other visual media, annotation tools, anchor charts, hands-on manipulatives, adaptive technologies, etc.In a bulleted list, describe the materials you will use to differentiate instruction and how you will use these materials throughout the lesson to support learning. Bold any materials you will need to prepare for the lesson.For example:· I will use a Venn diagram graphic organizer to teach students how to compare and contrast the two main characters in the read-aloud story.· I will model one example on the white board before allowing students to work on the Venn diagram graphic organizer with their elbow partner.Explain how you will differentiate materials for each of the following groups:· English language learners (ELL):· Students with special needs:· Students with gifted abilities:· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):Time Needed
Multiple Means of EngagementYour goal for this section is to outline how you will engage students in interacting with the content and academic language. How will students explore, practice, and apply the content? For example, you may engage students through collaborative group work, Kagan cooperative learning structures, hands-on activities, structured discussions, reading and writing activities, experiments, problem solving, etc.In a bulleted list, describe the activities you will engage students in to allow them to explore, practice, and apply the content and academic language. Bold any activities you will use in the lesson. Also, include formative questioning strategies and higher order thinking questions you might pose.For example:· I will use a matching card activity where students will need to find a partner with a card that has an answer that matches their number sentence.· I will model one example of solving a number sentence on the white board before having students search for the matching card.· I will then have the partner who has the number sentence explain to their partner how they got the answer.Explain how you will differentiate activities for each of the following groups:· English language learners (ELL):· Students with special needs:· Students with gifted abilities:· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):Time Needed
Multiple Means of ExpressionLearners differ in the ways they navigate a learning environment and express what they know. Your goal in this section is to explain the various ways in which your students will demonstrate what they have learned. Explain how you will provide alternative means for response, selection, and composition to accommodate all learners. Will you tier any of these products? Will you offer students choices to demonstrate mastery? This section is essentially differentiated assessment.In a bulleted list, explain the options you will provide for your students to express their knowledge about the topic. For example, students may demonstrate their knowledge in more summative ways through a short answer or multiple-choice test, multimedia presentation, video, speech to text, website, written sentence, paragraph, essay, poster, portfolio, hands-on project, experiment, reflection, blog post, or skit. Bold the names of any summative assessments.Students may also demonstrate their knowledge in ways that are more formative. For example, students may take part in thumbs up-thumbs middle-thumbs down, a short essay or drawing, an entrance slip or exit ticket, mini-whiteboard answers, fist to five, electronic quiz games, running records, four corners, or hand raising. Underline the names of any formative assessments.For example:Students will complete a one-paragraph reflection on the in-class simulation they experienced. They will be expected to write the reflection using complete sentences, proper capitalization and punctuation, and utilize an example from the simulation to demonstrate their understanding. Students will also take part in formative assessments throughout the lesson, such as thumbs up-thumbs middle-thumbs down and pair-share discussions, where you will determine if you need to re-teach or re-direct learning.Explain if you will differentiate assessments for each of the following groups:· English language learners (ELL):· Students with special needs:· Students with gifted abilities:· Early finishers (those students who finish early and may need additional resources/support):Time Needed
Extension Activity and/or HomeworkIdentify and describe any extension activities or homework tasks as appropriate. Explain how the extension activity or homework assignment supports the learning targets/objectives. As required by your instructor, attach any copies of homework at the end of this template.Time Needed
Rationale/ReflectionAfter writing your complete lesson plan, explain three instructional strategies you included in your lesson and why. How do these strategies promote collaboration, communication, critical thinking, and creativity? Bold the name of the strategy.For example:.· Think-Pair-Share promotes engagement, communication, and collaboration because all students get a chance to share their ideas or answers. This is beneficial to students because they get to put their ideas into words, and hear and discuss the perspectives of others.

© 2018. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

SIOP® Lesson Plan Template 2

STANDARDS:      THEME:      LESSON TOPIC:      OBJECTIVES:Language:     Content:     LEARNING STRATEGIES:      KEY VOCABULARY:      MATERIALS:      
MOTIVATION:(Building background)     PRESENTATION:(Language and content objectives, comprehensible input, strategies, interaction, feedback)     PRACTICE AND APPLICATION:(Meaningful activities, interaction, strategies, practice and application, feedback)     REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT:(Review objectives and vocabulary, assess learning)     EXTENSION:     

(Reproduction of this material is restricted to use with Echevarria, Vogt, and Short, 2008. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP® Model.)

© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Benchmark

Council for Exceptional Children. (2015). What Every Special Educator Must Know: Professional Ethics and Standards. Arlington, VA: CEC 1

Code of Ethics

Professional special educators are guided by the CEC professional ethical principles, practice standards, and professional policies in ways that respect the diverse characteristics and needs of individuals with exceptionalities and their families. They are committed to upholding and advancing the following principles:

1. Maintaining challenging expectations for individuals with exceptionalities to develop the highest possible learning outcomes and quality of life potential in ways that respect their dignity, culture, language, and background.

2. Maintaining a high level of professional competence and integrity and exercising professional judgment to benefit individuals with exceptionalities and their families.

3. Promoting meaningful and inclusive participation of individuals with exceptionalities in their schools and communities.

4. Practicing collegially with others who are providing services to individuals with exceptionalities.

5. Developing relationships with families based on mutual respect and actively involving families and individuals with exceptionalities in educational decision making.

6. Using evidence, instructional data, research, and professional knowledge to inform practice.

7. Protecting and supporting the physical and psychological safety of individuals with exceptionalities.

8. Neither engaging in nor tolerating any practice that harms individuals with exceptionalities.

9. Practicing within the professional ethics, standards, and policies of CEC; upholding laws, regulations, and policies that influence profes- sional practice; and advocating improvements in the laws, regulations, and policies.

10. Advocating for professional conditions and resources that will improve learning outcomes of individuals with exceptionalities.

11. Engaging in the improvement of the profession through active participation in professional organizations.

12. Participating in the growth and dissemination of professional knowledge and skills.

Benchmark

Inclusion: He’s Just a Goofy Guy Est. Time: 1 Hour

The contents of this resource were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, #H325E120002. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Project Officers, Sarah Allen and Tracie Dickson.

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 Activity

Objective Learn about and discuss some of the issues related to inclusion, accommodations, behavior management, and collaboration.

Scenario Jake is an energetic third-grader with a learning disability. Although he is considered “one of the gang” by his classmates and is excelling academically during the two hours he is included in a general education class, Betty, his general education teacher, feels he just “wouldn’t fit in” a general education classroom full time. On the other hand, Sharon, his resource teacher, sees no reason why he would not be successful. Betty Armstrong’s classroom is meticulously organized. There are twenty desks, exactly four rows of five, and not one even an inch out of place. In the back of the room is the small-group reading table with two neat stacks of readers and workbooks beside a precisely-covered box of pencils, erasers, and crayons. A few examples of students’ work, each matted in coordinating colors, are displayed in the room. Also prominently displayed is a job-board listing students’ names and the classroom chores for which they are responsible. Everything has its place and everything is always in its place––well, almost always. It was 10:00 a.m., time for reading. Jake and David came into the room as they did every day. They went directly to their desks as Ms. Armstrong had always insisted. Jake bumped his desk out of place as he sat down. He cocked his head to the side, put his feet up on the wire rack under his friend Amy’s desk, and gave her a big, lopsided grin. “Okay, class, it is time to work on your story projects,” Ms. Armstrong announced to her third graders, who looked at her enthusiastically. Jake fidgeted in his seat. “We just have two more days to get them done before open house,” the teacher continued. Jake excitedly shuffled through the papers inside his desk. “Ah! There they are––my crayons,” he said as he grabbed them and put them on top of his desk, while still holding his desk top up with his other hand. “I will put an octopus on…”

Inclusion: He’s Just a Goofy Guy Est. Time: 1 Hour

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 Activity

Scenario [Cont.] Just then his left hand let go of his desktop, and down it came! BANG! His crayons fell all over the floor. “Uh oh!” Jake hurried to pick up his crayons, hoping that Ms. Armstrong wouldn’t notice. As he bent down, his glasses slid off his face. As all this was going on, Ms. Armstrong was watching Jake out of the corner of her eye. “That young man sure has a difficult time with organization,” she thought. She sighed as she considered the amount of energy it took to try to get him to fit in. Betty Armstrong had been a teacher for six years. Her colleagues considered her to be a competent teacher committed to literacy and on top of things concerning curriculum and instruction. Betty often said that it was her goal to make kids feel good about being in school and especially about being a part of her class. She had high expectations for her students and required them to work hard to meet those expectations. This year, Betty had Jake and David, two students from a special education class. They came to Betty’s class two hours a day for math and reading. Both students had a learning disability, but Jake also had some fine motor problems and behaviors typical of students labeled attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD)––although he had never been diagnosed. Sharon Moss, the special education teacher in the early education class, checked regularly with Betty to see how the two students were doing. Sharon had been a special education teacher for six years and had built a good rapport with the general education teachers. Sharon decided it was time to discuss with Betty the integration of both boys in general education full time. She sat down with Betty and asked her how things were going. “Oh, both kids are doing great academically. David is often the first to raise his hand with the correct answers when I verbally quiz the class, and Jake reads so well! But, Jake’s behavior–– it’s just not typical. He’s a goofy little guy, you know,” she said with a smile. “Well, maybe we should consider extending their time in general education,” Sharon suggested. “I could see David being successful in general education full-time, but I don’t know about Jake. His behavior is really not appropriate for a general education classroom,” responded Betty.

Inclusion: He’s Just a Goofy Guy Est. Time: 1 Hour

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 Activity

Scenario [Cont.] “But you are always talking about how well Jake does in the classroom. You say he gets along with the other students and he really excels in math. What exactly does he do that makes you think he could not be successful if included full-time?” Sharon pushed. “Well, during seat work, he never gets started on time. He’s constantly shuffling through the papers in his desk. He always needs to sharpen his pencil or something. He just can’t keep himself organized like the other kids. Sometimes he’ll even play the class clown and fall out of his desk,” she explained. “Do you think that those reasons are enough to keep him out of the general education classroom?” Sharon asked gently. “I would appreciate it if you gave the idea some more thought.” Betty shrugged her shoulders and gave a questioning look, “Okay, I’ll think about it.” Betty patted Sharon on the shoulder before leaving. She felt she had failed to convince Betty. How was she going to persuade Betty that Jake deserved a chance to be included in the general education class full time? “Betty has always been one of the best teachers for welcoming students with disabilities into her classroom. Some teachers don’t even want our kids in their rooms. I have got to work this out,” Sharon said to herself with determination.

Questions/Discussion Topics 1. Why do you think Betty is resistant to having Jake in her class? Do you think Jake is ready

to be placed in a general education classroom full-time? Why or why not? 2. How can Sharon and Betty work together to best serve Jake’s needs? What types

of services or support would help Betty be more comfortable with having Jake in her classroom full-time?

3. Should Jake’s parents and other education professionals be involved in the decision process?

4. What types of services or support would help Jake make a successful transition to a full- time general education classroom? What strategies can be implemented to address Jake’s behavior and improve his organizational skills?

Inclusion: He’s Just a Goofy Guy Est. Time: 1 Hour

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HSTAR Sheet

H What a STAR Sheet Is A STAR (STrategies And Resources) Sheet provides you with a description of a well- researched strategy that can help you solve the case studies in this unit.

Discussion Points • Fears general education teachers have of inclusion • Ingredients for successful inclusion (help alleviate fears of inclusion) • Accommodations that help facilitate successful inclusion • Teaching strategies that help students succeed • Helpful organizational and study skills

What the Research and Resources Say • General education teachers often feel unsure of how to provide modifications and strategies

for students with special needs and are thus apprehensive about inclusion (Keefe, Moore, & Duff, 2004).

• Both administrators and teachers frequently have concerns about inclusion. Some of the more common concerns include an uncertainty as to the nature of their role in inclusion, the effect of inclusion on the progress of students with and without disabilities, whether students with disabilities will have a negative impact on the regular classroom, the additional time needed for planning, and whether they will be given the resources needed for success (McLeskey & Waldron, 2000).

• Ingredients necessary for successful inclusion programs include the following: – Responsibility for learning outcomes is shared by general education and special education teachers – The classroom teacher is involved in setting IEP goals and provides instruction to help meet those goals – The classroom teacher is concerned about the student’s strengths and needs – Administrators create time for teachers to prepare necessary activities and materials – Collaboration is valued and time is provided for collaboration between teachers – Expectations for students with special needs are not based on their disability – A variety of effective instructional practices are used – Accountability is viewed as a challenge instead of a threat – Parents are included in the inclusion process (Beckman, 2001)

Inclusion: He’s Just a Goofy Guy Est. Time: 1 Hour

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H STAR Sheet

What the Research and Resources Say [Cont.]

• Using various teaching strategies can help students be successful in an inclusion setting. They include: – Providing needed accommodations and modifications – Using multiple methods of providing instruction (audio, visuals, multi-sensory) – Using grouping variations (cooperative grouping, etc.) – Teaching students about their own learning preferences – Teaching students to use both cognitive and metacognitive strategies (Beckman, 2001)

• Students with ADHD often need help with organizational and study skills. Some useful strategies are: – Using color-coded folders for different subjects – Using assignment notebooks – Assigning homework partner to help file papers and record homework correctly – Asking the student clean out the desk, bookbag, and other places where assignments are stored – Providing visual aids as reminders of what is being studied – Creating a daily activity schedule for the student to follow – Providing a checklist of needed supplies – Teaching the student how to keep an uncluttered workspace (U.S. Department of Education, 2004)

Keep in Mind • Time should be set aside for collaboration between teachers. • The teacher should consider a student’s strengths and teach to them. • The teacher should evaluate and make needed changes to adaptations and

accommodations. • Teacher concerns regarding inclusion should be addressed because their support is very

important.

Inclusion: He’s Just a Goofy Guy Est. Time: 1 Hour

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H STAR Sheet

Resources

Beckman, P. (2001). Access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities. ERIC Digest #E615. ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. Retrieved December 10, 2004, from http://www.eric.ed.gov

Keefe, E. B., Moore, V., & Duff, F. (2004). The four “knows” of collaborative teaching. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 36(5), 36–42.

McLeskey, J., & Waldron, N. L. (2000). Inclusive schools in action: Making differences ordinary. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2008). Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Instructional strategies and practices, Washington, D.C., 2008. Retrieved on December 12, 2014, from https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/adhd/adhd- teaching-2008.pdf

Unit VIII Assignment

Content

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 23 (23%) Content is often irrelevant; information may be noticeably incorrect and/or off-topic.

Points Range: 24 (24%) – 27 (27%) Content is somewhat relevant and informative; may stray off topic a few times.

Points Range: 28 (28%) – 31 (31%) Content is mostly relevant and informative; may stray off topic one or two times.

Points Range: 32 (32%) – 35 (35%) Content is relevant and informative; may stray slightly off topic one time.

Points Range: 36 (36%) – 40 (40%) Content is highly relevant and informative; remains on topic.

Tasks

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 20 (20%) The assigned tasks may be mostly incomplete or poorly done.

Points Range: 21 (21%) – 24 (24%) A few areas of the assigned tasks may be missing; completed tasks may need work.

Points Range: 25 (25%) – 27 (27%) Some areas of the assigned tasks may be missing or incomplete; completed tasks are fairly well done.

Points Range: 28 (28%) – 31 (31%) Most or all areas of the assigned tasks are addressed and competently completed.

Points Range: 32 (32%) – 35 (35%) All areas of the assigned tasks are addressed and proficiently completed.

Accuracy

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 8 (8%) Most of the assignment is clearly inaccurate and lacks attention to detail.

Points Range: 9 (9%) – 10 (10%) Several areas of the assignment may be slightly lacking in accuracy and/or attention to detail.

Points Range: 11 (11%) – 11 (11%) Most of the assignment is fairly accurate and shows fair attention to detail.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%) Most of the assignment is accurate and shows good attention to detail.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%) Accuracy is excellent and close attention to detail is clearly evident in all parts of the assignment.

Writing Mechanics

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 5 (5%) Writing lacks clarity and conciseness. May have several serious problems with sentence structure and grammar. Numerous major or minor errors in punctuation and/or spelling. General requirements are not met at all.

Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%) Writing lacks clarity and/or conciseness. May have minor problems with sentence structure and some grammatical errors, as well as several minor errors in punctuation and/or spelling. General requirements of the assignment are slightly met.

Points Range: 7 (7%) – 7 (7%) Writing is somewhat clear and concise. Sentence structure and grammar are fairly strong and mostly correct. Few minor errors in punctuation and/or spelling. General requirements of the assignment are somewhat met.

Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%) Writing is mostly clear and concise. Sentence structure and grammar are strong and mostly correct. Few minor errors in punctuation and/or spelling. General requirements of the assignment are mostly met.

Points Range: 9 (9%) – 10 (10%) Writing is clear and concise. Sentence structure and grammar are excellent. Correct use of punctuation. No spelling errors. General requirements of the assignment are met.

Name:2015UNDERGRAD_Grading Rubric for General Assignment