18 Statements to Answer

18 Statements to AnswerNot at AllRarelySome- timesOftenVery Often
1When assigning tasks, I consider people’s skills and interests.
2I doubt myself and my ability to succeed.
3I expect nothing less than top-notch results from people.
4I expect my people to work harder than I do.
5When someone is upset, I try to understand how he or she is feeling.
6When circumstances change, I can struggle to know what to do.
7I think that personal feelings shouldn’t be allowed to get in the way of performance and productivity.
8I am highly motivated because I know I have what it takes to be successful.
9Time spent worrying about team morale is time that’s wasted.
10I get upset and worried quite often in the workplace.
11My actions show people what I want from them.
12When working with a team, I encourage everyone to work toward the same overall objectives.
13I make exceptions to my rules and expectations. It’s easier than being the enforcer all the time!
14I enjoy planning for the future.
15I feel threatened when someone criticizes me.
16I make time to learn what people need from me, so that they can be successful.
17I’m optimistic about life, and I can see beyond temporary setbacks and problems.
18I think that teams perform best when individuals keep doing the same tasks and perfecting them, instead of learning new skills and challenging themselves.

Total Score = 66

Score Interpretation

ScoreComment
18-34You need to work hard on your leadership skills. The good news is that if you use more of these skills at work, at home, and in the community, you’ll be a real asset to the people around you. You can do it – and now is a great time to start! (Read  below  to start.)
35-52You’re doing OK as a leader, but you have the potential to do much better. While you’ve built the foundation of effective leadership, this is your opportunity to improve your skills, and become the best you can be. Examine the areas where you lost points, and determine what you can do to develop skills in these areas. (Read  below  to start.)
53-90Excellent! You’re well on your way to becoming a good leader. However, you can never be too good at leadership or too experienced – so look at the areas where you didn’t score maximum points, and figure out what you can do to improve your performance. (Read  below  to start.)

There are many leadership skills and competencies that, when combined and applied, go toward making you an effective leader. You have the ability to develop each of these skills within yourself. Read on for specific ideas on how you can improve your leadership skills!

Personal Characteristics

Successful leaders tend to have certain traits. Two keys areas of personal growth and development are fundamental to leadership success: self-confidence and a positive attitude.

Self-confident people are usually inspiring, and people like to be around individuals who believe in themselves and in what they’re doing. Likewise, if you’re a positive and optimistic person who tries to make the best of any situation, you’ll find it much easier to motivate people to do their best.

Self-Confidence

(Questions 2, 8)

Your score is 7 out of 10       

Self-confidence is built by mastering significant skills and situations, and by knowing that you can add real value by the work you do. One of the best ways to improve your confidence is to become aware of all of the things you’ve already achieved.

Our article on  Building Self-Confidence   explains what you can do to understand yourself better and build your self-confidence. From there, you’ll begin to make the most of your strengths and improve your weaknesses. Explore this further with our Bite-Sized Training session on  Personal SWOT Analysis .

Positive Attitude and Outlook

(Questions 10, 17)

Your score is 8 out of 10       

A positive mindset is also associated with strong leadership. However, being positive is much more than presenting a happy face to the world: you need to develop a strong sense of balance, and recognize that setbacks and problems happen – it’s how you deal with those problems that makes the difference.

Positive people approach situations realistically, prepared to make the changes necessary to overcome a problem. Negative people, on the other hand, often give in to the stress and pressure of the situation. This can lead to fear, worry, distress, anger and failure.

Stress management techniques, including getting enough    Rest, Relaxation and Sleep   as well as physical exercise, are great ways of getting rid of negative thoughts and feelings. Understanding your thinking patterns, and learning to identify and eliminate negative thinking, are key. You can learn how to do this in our article on  Thought Awareness, Rational Thinking and Positive Thinking  , and you can find out how to become more optimistic in our Book Insight on  Learned Optimism .

Emotional Intelligence

(Questions 5, 15)

Your score is 9 out of 10       

The concept of emotional intelligence used to be referred to as “soft skills,” “character,” or even “communication skills.” The more recent idea of  Emotional Intelligence   (EQ) offers a more precise understanding of a specific kind of human talent. EQ is the ability to recognize feelings – your own and those of others – and manage those emotions to create strong relationships.

Learning to develop  Empathy   is essential for emotional intelligence, as is communicating effectively, and practicing  Empathic Listening . These all help you really understand the other person’s perspective.

Our Leadership area has a section on  emotional intelligence in leadership .

Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is a leadership style where leaders create an inspiring vision of the future, motivate their followers to achieve it, manage implementation successfully, and develop the members of their teams to be even more effective in the future. We explore these dimensions below.

Providing a Compelling Vision of the Future

(Questions 6, 14)

Your score is 6 out of 10       

This is your ability to create a robust and compelling  vision of the future  , and to present this vision in a way that inspires the people you lead.

The first part of being able to do this is to have a thorough knowledge of the area you’re operating in. See our Bite-Sized Training session on  Building Expert Power  to find out how to develop this.

From there, good use of strategic analysis techniques can help you gain the key insights you need into the environment you’re operating in, and into the needs of your clients. See our Strategysection for more than 50 powerful techniques that give you these insights.

With these tools, you can explore the challenges you face and identify the options available to you. You can identify the best of these with good use of  prioritization skills   and appropriate  decision-making techniques  .

Finally, to sell your vision, you need to be able to craft a compelling and interesting story. Our article,  Powers of Persuasion  , can help you open closed minds, so that people consider your ideas fairly. Another great way of inspiring people is to use vivid stories to explain your vision: find out more about this in our Expert Interview with Annette Simmons, titled  Whoever Tells the Best Story Wins .

Motivating People to Deliver the Vision

(Questions 9, 12)

Your score is 8 out of 10       

This is closely related to creating and selling a vision. You must be able to convince others to accept the objectives you’ve set. Emphasize teamwork, and recognize that when people work together, they can achieve great things. To provide effective leadership by linking performance and team goals, use  Management by Objectives (MBO)   and  Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)  .

Ultimately, you need to motivate people to deliver your vision. To better understand your ability to motivate, complete our quiz  How Good Are Your Motivation Skills?  , and explore our articles on  Herzberg’s Motivators and Hygiene Factors  and Sirota’s Three Factor Theory .

Being a Good Role Model

(Questions 4, 11)

Your score is 7 out of 10       

Good leaders  lead by example  . They do what they say, and say what they do. These types of leaders are trustworthy, and show integrity. They get involved in daily work where needed, and they stay in touch with what’s happening throughout the organization. Great leaders don’t just sit in their offices and give orders – they demonstrate the actions and values that they expect from the team.

As with building vision, above, a key part of being a good role model is leading from the front by developing  expert power  . A leader can’t rely on position alone: by keeping current, and staying relevant within the organization, you’ll inspire people because you’re worthy of your power and authority, not just because you’re the boss.

Managing Performance Effectively

(Questions 3, 13)

Your score is 8 out of 10       

Effective leaders manage performance by setting their expectations clearly and concisely. When everyone knows what’s expected, it’s much easier to get high performance. There’s little uncertainty, therefore you can deal with performance issues quickly. And if things have already started to slide, our article on  Re-Engaging Team Members   offers some excellent tips for turning a negative situation back to a positive one.

As you create rules, help your team members to understand  why the rules are there  . Involve them in the rule-making process, and make sure that your expectations align with the resources and support available. Apply rules fairly and consistently.

Providing Support and Stimulation

(Questions 1, 7, 16, 18)

Your score is 13 out of 20       

To be highly motivated at work, people need more than a list of tasks to be completed each day. They need challenges and interesting work. They need to develop their skills, and to feel supported in their efforts to do a good job.

Think about your approach to  Task Allocation  , and look for opportunities to match people with jobs and responsibilities that will help them to grow and develop. Use  Heron’s Six Categories of Intervention   to decide when and how to help them to shine. Regularly perform  Training Needs Assessments   to determine what your team needs to be successful.

Remember that emotional support is also important. The  Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid   is a great tool for thinking about the right balance between concern for people and productivity.

Key Points

To be successful in your career, regardless of your title or position, focus on developing your leadership skills.

Effective leaders can add value simply by being present on teams. They are inspirational and motivating. They know the right things to say to people to help them understand what’s needed, and they can convince people to support a cause.

When you have talented and effective leaders in your organization, you’re well on your way to success. Develop these leadership skills in yourself and in your team members – and you’ll see the performance and productivity of your entire team improve.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

ERIK W. LARSON CLIFFORD F. GRAY

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Project Management:

The Managerial Process Seventh Edition

Erik W. Larson

Clifford F. Gray Oregon State University

PROJECT MANAGEMENT: THE MANAGERIAL PROCESS, SEVENTH EDITION

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2014 and 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Gray, Clifford F., author. | Larson, Erik W., 1952 author. Title: Project management : the managerial process / Erik W. Larson, Oregon State University, Clifford F. Gray, Oregon State University. Description: Seventh edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2018] | Clifford F. Gray is the first named author on the earlier editions. Identifiers: LCCN 2016040029 | ISBN 9781259666094 | ISBN 1259666093 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Project management. | Time management. | Risk management. Classification: LCC HD69.P75 G72 2018 | DDC 658.4/04—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/

2016040029

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

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Erik W. Larson ERIK W. LARSON is professor of project management at the College of Business, Oregon State University. He teaches executive, graduate, and undergraduate courses on project management and leadership. His research and consulting activities focus on project management. He has published numerous articles on matrix management, product development, and project partnering. He has been honored with teaching awards from both the Oregon State University MBA program and the University of Oregon Executive MBA program. He has been a member of the Portland, Oregon, chapter of the Project Management Institute since 1984. In 1995 he worked as a Ful- bright scholar with faculty at the Krakow Academy of Economics on modernizing Polish business education. He was a visiting professor at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, and at Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University in Bad Mergentheim, Germany. He received a B.A. in psychology from Claremont McKenna College and a Ph.D. in management from State University of New York at Buffalo. He is a certified project management professional (PMP) and Scrum Master.

Clifford F. Gray CLIFFORD F. GRAY is professor emeritus of management at the College of Busi- ness, Oregon State University. He has personally taught more than 100 executive development seminars and workshops. Cliff has been a member of the Project Man- agement Institute since 1976 and was one of the founders of the Portland, Oregon, chapter. He was a visiting professor at Kasetsart University in Bangkok, Thailand, in 2005. He was the president of Project Management International, Inc. (a training and consulting firm specializing in project management) 1977–2005. He received his B.A. in economics and management from Millikin University, M.B.A. from Indiana Univer- sity, and doctorate in operations management from the College of Business, University of Oregon. He is certified Scrum Master.

About the Authors

vii

“Man’s mind, once stretched by a new idea, never regains its original dimensions.”

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

To my family, who have always encircled me with love and encouragement—my parents (Samuel and Charlotte), my wife (Mary), my sons and their wives (Kevin and Dawn, Robert and Sally) and their children (Ryan, Carly, Connor and Lauren).

C.F.G.

“We must not cease from exploration and the end of all exploring will be to arrive where we began and to know the place for the first time.”

T. S. Eliot

To Ann, whose love and support have brought out the best in me. To our girls Mary, Rachel, and Tor-Tor for the joy and pride they give me. And to our grandkids, Mr. B, Livvy, and Xmo, whose future depends upon effective project management. Finally, to my muse, Neil—Walk on!

E.W.L

viii

Our motivation in writing this text continues to be to provide a realistic, socio-technical view of project management. In the past, textbooks on project management focused almost exclusively on the tools and processes used to manage projects and not the human dimension. This baffled us since people not tools complete projects! While we firmly believe that mastering tools and processes is essential to successful project management, we also believe that the effectiveness of these tools and methods is shaped and determined by the prevailing culture of the organization and interpersonal dynamics of the people involved. Thus, we try to provide a holistic view that focuses on both of these dimensions and how they interact to determine the fate of projects. The role of projects in organizations is receiving increasing attention. Projects are the major tool for implementing and achieving the strategic goals of the organization. In the face of intense, worldwide competition, many organizations have reorganized around a philosophy of innovation, renewal, and organizational learning to survive. This philosophy suggests an organization that is flexible and project driven. Project management has developed to the point where it is a professional discipline having its own body of knowledge and skills. Today it is nearly impossible to imagine anyone at any level in the organization who would not benefit from some degree of expertise in the process of managing projects.

Audience

This text is written for a wide audience. It covers concepts and skills that are used by managers to propose, plan, secure resources, budget, and lead project teams to suc- cessful completions of their projects. The text should prove useful to students and prospective project managers in helping them understand why organizations have developed a formal project management process to gain a competitive advantage. Readers will find the concepts and techniques discussed in enough detail to be imme- diately useful in new-project situations. Practicing project managers will find the text to be a valuable guide and reference when dealing with typical problems that arise in the course of a project. Managers will also find the text useful in understanding the role of projects in the missions of their organizations. Analysts will find the text useful in helping to explain the data needed for project implementation as well as the opera- tions of inherited or purchased software. Members of the Project Management Insti- tute will find the text is well structured to meet the needs of those wishing to prepare for PMP (Project Management Professional) or CAPM (Certified Associate in Project Management) certification exams. The text has in-depth coverage of the most critical topics found in PMI’s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). People at all levels in the organization assigned to work on projects will find the text useful not only in providing them with a rationale for the use of project management processes but also because of the insights they will gain on how to enhance their contributions to project success. Our emphasis is not only on how the management process works, but more impor- tantly, on why it works. The concepts, principles, and techniques are universally

Preface

ix

x Preface

applicable. That is, the text does not specialize by industry type or project scope. Instead, the text is written for the individual who will be required to manage a variety of projects in a variety of different organizational settings. In the case of some small projects, a few of the steps of the techniques can be omitted, but the conceptual frame- work applies to all organizations in which projects are important to survival. The approach can be used in pure project organizations such as construction, research orga- nizations, and engineering consultancy firms. At the same time, this approach will benefit organizations that carry out many small projects while the daily effort of deliv- ering products or services continues.

Content

In this and other editions we continue to try to resist the forces that engender scope creep and focus only on essential tools and concepts that are being used in the real world. We have been guided by feedback from practitioners, teachers, and students. Some changes are minor and incremental, designed to clarify and reduce confusion. Other changes are significant. They represent new developments in the field or better ways of teaching project management principles. Below are major changes to the seventh edition.

∙ Learning objectives have been established for each chapter and the corresponding segment has been marked in the text.

∙ Chapter 16 Oversight has been eliminated and critical information on project matu- rity models is now part of Chapter 14.

∙ Chapter 18 Project Management Career Paths has been eliminated and essential information from this chapter is now in Chapter 1.

∙ A new set of network exercises have been developed for Chapter 6. ∙ A new set of crashing exercises have been developed for Chapter 9 which introduce

crashing concepts in a developmental way. ∙ The Chapter 2 Appendix on Request for Proposal is now part of Chapter 12. ∙ Terms and concepts have been updated to be consistent with the sixth edition of the

Project Management Body of Knowledge (2015). ∙ New student exercises and cases have been added to chapters. ∙ The Snapshot from Practice boxes feature a number of new examples of project

management in action as well as new Research Highlights that continue to promote practical application of project management.

∙ The Instructor’s Manual contains a listing of current YouTube videos that corre- spond to key concepts and Snapshots from Practice.

Overall the text addresses the major questions and challenges the authors have encountered over their 60 combined years of teaching project management and con- sulting with practicing project managers in domestic and foreign environments. These questions include:  What is the strategic role of projects in contemporary organiza- tions? How are projects prioritized? What organizational and managerial styles will improve chances of project success? How do project managers orchestrate the complex network of relationships involving vendors, subcontractors, project team members, senior management, functional managers, and customers that affect project success? What factors contribute to the development of a high-performance project team? What project management system can be set up to gain some measure of control? How do managers prepare for a new international project in a foreign culture? 

Preface xi

Project managers must deal with all these concerns to be effective. All of these issues and problems represent linkages to an integrative project management view. The chapter content of the text has been placed within an overall framework that inte- grates these topics in a holistic manner. Cases and snapshots are included from the experiences of practicing managers. The future for project managers appears to be promising. Careers will be determined by success in managing projects.

Student Learning Aids

Student resources include study outlines, online quizzes, PowerPoint slides, videos, Microsoft Project Video Tutorials and web links. These can be found in Connect.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Scott Bailey for building the end-of-chapter exercises for Connect and Tracie Lee for reviewing them; Pinyarat Sirisomboonsuk for revising the PowerPoint slides; Oliver F. Lehmann for providing access to PMBOK study questions; Ronny Richardson for updating the Instructor’s Manual; Angelo Serra for updating the Test Bank; and Pinyarat Sirisomboonsuk for providing new Snapshot from Practice questions. Next, it is important to note that the text includes contributions from numerous stu- dents, colleagues, friends, and managers gleaned from professional conversations. We want them to know we sincerely appreciate their counsel and suggestions. Almost every exercise, case, and example in the text is drawn from a real-world project. Special thanks to managers who graciously shared their current project as ideas for exercises, subjects for cases, and examples for the text. Shlomo Cohen, John A. Drexler, Jim Moran, John Sloan, Pat Taylor, and John Wold, whose work is printed, are gratefully acknowledged. Special gratitude is due Robert Breitbarth of Interact Management, who shared invaluable insights on prioritizing projects. University stu- dents and managers deserve special accolades for identifying problems with earlier drafts of the text and exercises. We are indebted to the reviewers of past editions who shared our commitment to elevating the instruction of project management. The reviewers include Paul S. Allen, Rice University; Denis F. Cioffi, George Washington University; Joseph D. DeVoss, DeVry University; Edward J. Glantz, Pennsylvania State University; Michael Godfrey, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh; Robert Key, University of Phoenix; Dennis Krum- wiede, Idaho State University; Nicholas C. Petruzzi, University of Illinois–Urbana/ Champaign; William R. Sherrard, San Diego State University; S. Narayan Bodapati, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville; Warren J. Boe, University of Iowa; Burton Dean, San Jose State University; Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah, University of North Carolina–Greensboro; Owen P. Hall, Pepperdine University; Bruce C. Hartman, University of Arizona; Richard Irving, York University; Robert T. Jones, DePaul University; Richard L. Luebbe, Miami University of Ohio; William Moylan, Lawrence Technological College of Business; Edward Pascal, University of Ottawa; James H. Patterson, Indiana University; Art Rogers, City University; Christy Strbiak, U.S. Air Force Academy; David A. Vaughan, City University; and Ronald W. Witzel, Keller Graduate School of Management. Nabil Bedewi, Georgetown University; Scott Bailey, Troy University; Michael Ensby, Clarkson University; Eldon Larsen, Marshall University; Steve Machon, DeVry University–Tinley Park; William Matthews, William Patterson

xii Preface

University; Erin Sims, DeVry University–Pomona; Kenneth Solheim, DeVry University–Federal Way; and Oya Tukel, Cleveland State University. Gregory Anderson, Weber State University; Dana Bachman, Colorado Christian University; Alan Cannon, University of Texas, Arlington; Susan Cholette, San Francisco State; Michael Ensby, Clarkson University; Charles Franz, University of Missouri, Columbia; Raouf Ghattas, DeVry University; Robert Groff, Westwood College; Raffael Guidone, New York City College of Technology; George Kenyon, Lamar University; Elias Konwufine, Keiser University; Rafael Landaeta, Old Dominion University; Muhammad Obeidat, Southern Polytechnic State University; Linda Rose, Westwood College; Oya Tukel, Cleveland State University; and Mahmoud Watad, William Paterson University. Victor Allen, Lawrence Technological University; Mark Angolia, East Carolina University; Alan Cannon, University of Texas at Arlington; Robert Cope, Southeastern Louisiana University; Kenneth DaRin, Clarkson University; Ron Darnell, Amberton University; Jay Goldberg, Marquette University; Mark Huber, University of Georgia; Marshall Issen, Clarkson University; Charles Lesko, East Carolina University; Lacey McNeely, Oregon State University; Donald Smith, Texas A&M University; Peter Sutanto, Prairie View A&M University; Jon Tomlinson, University of Northwestern Ohio. We thank you for your many thoughtful suggestions and for making our book better. Of course we accept responsibility for the final version of the text. In addition, we would like to thank our colleagues in the College of Business at Oregon State University for their support and help in completing this project. In par- ticular, we recognize Lacey McNeely, Prem Mathew, Keith Leavitt and Pauline Schlip- zand for their helpful advice and suggestions. We also wish to thank the many students who helped us at different stages of this project, most notably Neil Young, Saajan Patel, Katherine Knox, Dat Nguyen, and David Dempsey. Mary Gray deserves special credit for editing and working under tight deadlines on earlier editions. Special thanks go to Pinyarat (“Minkster”) Sirisomboonsuk for her help in preparing the last four editions. Finally, we want to extend our thanks to all the people at McGraw-Hill Education for their efforts and support. First, we would like to thank Dolly Womack, and Christina Holt, for providing editorial direction, guidance, and management of the book’s devel- opment for the seventh edition. And we would also like to thank Melissa Leick, Jennifer Pickel, Egzon Shaqiri, Bruce Gin, and Karen Jozefowicz for managing the final production, design, supplement, and media phases of the seventh edition.

Erik W. Larson

Clifford F. Gray

xiii

Guided Tour Established Learning Objectives Learning objectives have been added to this edition to help stu- dents target key areas of learning. Learning objectives are listed both at the beginning of each chapter and are called out as mar- ginal elements throughout the narrative in each chapter.

End-of-Chapter Content Both static and algorithmic end-of-chapter content, including Review Questions and Exercises, are now assignable in Connect.

SmartBook The SmartBook has been updated with new highlights and probes for optimal student learning.

Snapshots The Snapshot from Practice boxes have been updated to include a number of new exam- ples of project management in action. New questions based on the Snapshots are also now assignable in Connect.

New and Updated Cases Included at the end of each chapter are between one and five cases which demonstrate key ideas from the text and help students understand how Project Management comes into play in the real world. New cases have been added across several chapters in the 7th edition.

26

Organization Strategy and Project Selection2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

2-1 Explain why it is important for project managers to understand their organization’s strategy.

2-2 Identify the significant role projects contribute to the strategic direction of the organization.

2-3 Understand the need for a project priority system.

2-4 Apply financial and nonfinancial criteria to assess the value of projects.

2-5 Understand how multi-criteria models can be used to select projects.

2-6 Apply an objective priority system to project selection.

2-7 Understand the need to manage the project portfolio.

OUTLINE

2.1 The Strategic Management Process: An Overview

2.2 The Need for a Project Priority System

2.3 A Portfolio Management System

2.4 Selection Criteria

2.5 Applying a Selection Model

2.6 Managing the Portfolio System

Summary

C H A P T E R T W O

Lar66093_ch02_026-065.indd 26 10/4/16 4:52 PM

28 Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection

alignment even more essential for success. Ensuring a strong link between the strategic plan and projects is a difficult task that demands constant attention from top and mid- dle management. The larger and more diverse an organization, the more difficult it is to create and maintain this strong link. Companies today are under enormous pressure to manage a process that clearly aligns projects to organization strategy. Ample evidence still sug- gests that many organizations have not developed a process that clearly aligns project selection to the strategic plan. The result is poor utilization of the organization’s resources—people, money, equipment, and core competencies. Conversely, organiza- tions that have a coherent link of projects to strategy have more cooperation across the organization, perform better on projects, and have fewer projects. How can an organization ensure this link and alignment? The answer requires inte- gration of projects with the strategic plan. Integration assumes the existence of a stra- tegic plan and a process for prioritizing projects by their contribution to the plan. A crucial factor to ensure the success of integrating the plan with projects lies in the creation of a process that is open and transparent for all participants to review. This chapter presents an overview of the importance of strategic planning and the process for developing a strategic plan. Typical problems encountered when strategy and proj- ects are not linked are noted. A generic methodology that ensures integration by creat- ing very strong linkages of project selection and priority to the strategic plan is then discussed. The intended outcomes are clear organization focus, best use of scarce orga- nization resources (people, equipment, capital), and improved communication across projects and departments.

Why Project Managers Need to Understand Strategy Project management historically has been preoccupied solely with the planning and exe- cution of projects. Strategy was considered to be under the purview of senior manage- ment. This is old-school thinking. New-school thinking recognizes that project management is at the apex of strategy and operations. Aaron Shenhar speaks to this issue when he states, “. . . it is time to expand the traditional role of the project manager from an operational to a more strategic perspective. In the modern evolving organization, proj- ect managers will be focused on business aspects, and their role will expand from getting the job done to achieving the business results and winning in the marketplace.”1 There are two main reasons why project managers need to understand their organiza- tion’s mission and strategy. The first reason is so they can make appropriate decisions and adjustments. For example, how a project manager would respond to a suggestion to modify the design of a product to enhance performance will vary depending upon whether his company strives to be a product leader through innovation or to achieve operational excellence through low cost solutions. Similarly, how a project manager would respond to delays may vary depending upon strategic concerns. A project man- ager will authorize overtime if her firm places a premium on getting to the market first. Another project manager will accept the delay if speed is not essential. The second reason project managers need to understand their organization’s strat- egy is so they can be effective project advocates. Project managers have to be able to demonstrate to senior management how their project contributes to their firm’s mis- sion. Protection and continued support come from being aligned with corporate objec- tives. Project managers also need to be able to explain to team members and other

Explain why it is impor- tant for project managers to understand their orga- nization’s strategy.

2-1LO

1 Shenhar, A., and Dov Dvie, Reinventing Project Management (Harvard Business School, 2007), p. 5.

Lar66093_ch02_026-065.indd 28 10/4/16 4:52 PM

84 Chapter 3 Organization: Structure and Culture

In 2016 Google Inc. topped Fortune magazine’s list of best companies to work at for the seventh time in the past ten years. When one enters the 24-hour Googleplex located in

Mountain View, California, you feel that you are walking through a new-age college campus rather than the corporate office of a billion-dollar business. The collection of interconnected low-rise buildings with colorful, glass-encased offices feature upscale trappings—free gourmet meals three times a day, free use of an outdoor wave pool, indoor gym and large child care facility, private shuttle bus service to and from San Francisco and other residential areas— that are the envy of workers across the Bay area. These perks and others reflect Google’s culture of keeping people happy and thinking in unconven- tional ways. The importance of corporate culture is no more evi- dent than in the fact that the head of Human Resources, Stacy Savides Sullivan, also has the title of Chief Cul- ture Officer. Her task is to try to preserve the innovative culture of a start-up as Google quickly evolves into a mammoth international corporation. Sullivan character- izes Google culture as “team-oriented, very collabora- tive and encouraging people to think nontraditionally, different from where they ever worked before—work with integrity and for the good of the company and for the good of the world, which is tied to our overall mis- sion of making information accessible to the world.” Google goes to great lengths to screen new employees to not only make sure that they have outstanding tech- nical capabilities but also that they are going to fit Google’s culture. Sullivan goes on to define a Google-y employee as somebody who is “flexible, adaptable, and not focusing on titles and hierarchy, and just gets stuff done.” Google’s culture is rich with customs and traditions not found in corporate America. For example, project

S N A P S H O T F R O M P R A C T I C E 3 . 4 Google-y*

teams typically have daily “stand-up” meetings seven min- utes after the hour. Why seven minutes after the hour? Because Google cofounder Sergey Brin once estimated that it took seven minutes to walk across the Google cam- pus. Everybody stands to make sure no one gets too com- fortable and no time is wasted during the rapid-fire update. As one manager noted, “The whole concept of the stand-up is to talk through what everyone’s doing, so if someone is working on what you’re working on, you can discover and collaborate not duplicate.” Another custom is “dogfooding.” This is when a project team releases the functional prototype of a future product to Google employees for them to test drive. There is a strong norm within Google to test new products and provide feedback to the developers. The project team receives feedback from thousands of Google-ys. The internal focus group can log bugs or simply comment on design or functionality. Fellow Google-ys do not hold back on their feedback and are quick to point out things they don’t like. This often leads to significant product improvements.

© Caiaimage/Glow Images

simply rely on what people report about their culture. The physical environment in which people work, as well as how people act and respond to different events that occur, must be examined. Figure 3.6 contains a worksheet for diagnosing the culture of an organization. Although by no means exhaustive, the checklist often yields clues about the norms, customs, and values of an organization:

1. Study the physical characteristics of an organization. What does the external architecture look like? What image does it convey? Is it unique? Are the buildings

* Walters, H., “How Google Got Its New Look,” BusinessWeek, May 10, 2010; Goo, S. K., “Building a ‘Googley’ Workforce,“ Washington Post, October 21, 2006; Mills, E., “Meet Google’s Culture Czar,” CNET News.com, April 27, 2007.

Lar66093_ch03_066-099.indd 84 10/4/16 5:10 PM

xiv

Note to Student You will find the content of this text highly practical, relevant, and current. The con- cepts discussed are relatively simple and intuitive. As you study each chapter we sug- gest you try to grasp not only how things work, but why things work. You are encouraged to use the text as a handbook as you move through the three levels of competency:

I know.

I can do.

I can adapt to new situations.

Project management is both people and technical oriented. Project management involves understanding the cause-effect relationships and interactions among the sociotechnical dimensions of projects. Improved competency in these dimensions will greatly enhance your competitive edge as a project manager. The field of project management is growing in importance and at an exponential rate. It is nearly impossible to imagine a future management career that does not include management of projects. Résumés of managers will soon be primarily a description of the individual’s participation in and contributions to projects. Good luck on your journey through the text and on your future projects.

Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions for the Seventh Edition

Chapter 1: Modern Project Management

∙ New Snapshot: Project Management in Action 2016. ∙ Information updated. ∙ New Snapshot: Ron Parker replaced Research Highlight: Works well with others. ∙ New case: The Hokie Lunch Group.

Chapter 2: Organization Strategy and Project Selection

∙ New Snapshot: Project Code Names replaced HP’s Strategy Revision.

Chapter 3: Organization: Structure and Culture

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ Snapshot: Google-y updated. ∙ Snapshot: Skunk Works at Lockheed Martin updated.

Chapter 4: Defining the Project

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ New case: Home Improvement Project.

Note to Student xv

Chapter 5: Estimating Project Times and Costs

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ New Snapshot: London 2012 Olympics: Avoiding White Elephant curse. ∙ Expanded discussion of Mega Projects including the emergence of white

elephants.

Chapter 6: Developing a Project Schedule

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ New Exercises 2-15 and Lag Exercises 18-21. ∙ Shoreline Stadium case replaces Greendale Stadium case.

Chapter 7: Managing Risk

∙ Learning objectives established.

Chapter 8 Appendix 1: The Critical-Chain Approach

∙ Learning objectives established.

Chapter 9: Reducing Project Duration

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ Snapshot: Smartphone Wars updated. ∙ New exercises 1-7.

Chapter 10: Leadership: Being an Effective Project Manager

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ New Research Highlight: Give and Take. ∙ Ethics discussion expanded.

Chapter 11: Managing Project Teams

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ Expanded discussion on project vision.

Chapter 12: Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational Relations

∙ Learning objectives established. ∙ Discussion of RFP process. ∙ New Snapshot: U.S. Department of Defense’s Value Engineering Awards 2015.

Chapter 13 Progress and Performance Measurement and Evaluation

∙ Learning Objectives established. ∙ Discussion of milestone schedules. ∙ New Snapshot: Guidelines for Setting Milestones. ∙ Discussion of Management Reserve Index. ∙ New case: Shoreline Stadium Status Report.

xvi Note to Student

Chapter 14: Project Closure

∙ Major Revision of chapter with more attention to project audit and closing activities.

∙ New Snapshot: The Wake. ∙ New Snapshot: 2015 PMO of the Year. ∙ New Snapshot: Operation Eagle Claw. ∙ Project Management Maturity model introduced.

Chapter 15: International Projects

∙ Learning Objectives established.

Chapter 16: An Introduction to Agile Project Management

∙ Learning Objectives established. ∙ New Snapshot: Kanban.

xvii

Preface ix

1. Modern Project Management 2

2. Organization Strategy and Project Selection 26

3. Organization: Structure and Culture 66

4. Defining the Project 100

5. Estimating Project Times and Costs 128

6. Developing a Project Plan 162

7. Managing Risk 206

8. Scheduling Resources and Costs 250

9. Reducing Project Duration 304

10. Being an Effective Project Manager 338

11. Managing Project Teams 374

12. Outsourcing: Managing Interorganizational Relations 418

Brief Contents 13. Progress and Performance Measurement

and Evaluation 458

14. Project Closure 514

15. International Projects 544

16. An Introduction to Agile Project Management 578

APPENDIX One Solutions to Selected Exercises 603 Two Computer Project Exercises 616

GLOSSARY 633 ACRONYMS 640 PROJECT MANAGEMENT EQUATIONS 641 CROSS REFERENCE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT 642 SOCIO-TECHNICAL APPROACH TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT 643 INDEX 644

xviii

Contents Preface ix

Chapter 1 Modern Project Management 2 1.1 What Is a Project? 6

What a Project Is Not 7

Program versus Project 7

The Project Life Cycle 8

The Project Manager 9

Being Part of a Project Team 11

1.2 Current Drivers of Project Management 12 Compression of the Product Life Cycle 12

Knowledge Explosion 12

Triple Bottom Line (Planet, People, Profit) 12

Increased Customer Focus 12

Small Projects Represent Big Problems 15

1.3 Project Governance 15 Alignment of Projects with Organizational

Strategy 16

1.4 Project Management Today: A Socio-Technical Approach 17

Summary 18

Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection 26 2.1 The Strategic Management Process:

An Overview 29 Four Activities of the Strategic Management

Process 29

2.2 The Need for a Project Priority System 34 Problem 1: The Implementation Gap 34

Problem 2: Organization Politics 35

Problem 3: Resource Conflicts and Multitasking 36

2.3 A Portfolio Management System 37 Classification of the Project 37

2.4 Selection Criteria 38 Financial Criteria 38

Nonfinancial Criteria 40

2.5 Applying a Selection Model 43 Project Classification 43

Sources and Solicitation of Project Proposals 44

Ranking Proposals and Selection of Projects 46

2.6 Managing the Portfolio System 48 Senior Management Input 48

The Governance Team Responsibilities 49

Balancing the Portfolio for Risks and Types

of Projects 50

Summary 51

Chapter 3 Organization: Structure and Culture 66 3.1 Project Management Structures 68

Organizing Projects within the

Functional Organization 68

Organizing Projects as Dedicated Teams 71

Organizing Projects within a Matrix

Arrangement 75

Different Matrix Forms 76

3.2 What Is the Right Project Management Structure? 79 Organization Considerations 79

Project Considerations 79

3.3 Organizational Culture 81 What Is Organizational Culture? 81

Identifying Cultural Characteristics 83

3.4 Implications of Organizational Culture for Organizing Projects 86

Summary 89

Chapter 4 Defining the Project 100 4.1 Step 1: Defining the Project Scope 102

Employing a Project Scope Checklist 103

4.2 Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities 106 4.3 Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown

Structure 108 Major Groupings Found in a WBS 108

How WBS Helps the Project Manager 108

A Simple WBS Development 109

4.4 Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization 113

4.5 Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System 113

4.6 Process Breakdown Structure 116

Contents xix

4.7 Responsibility Matrices 117 4.8 Project Communication Plan 119 Summary 121

Chapter 5 Estimating Project Times and Costs 128 5.1 Factors Influencing the Quality of

Estimates 130 Planning Horizon 130

Project Complexity 130

People 131

Project Structure and Organization 131

Padding Estimates 131

Organization Culture 131

Other Factors 131

5.2 Estimating Guidelines for Times, Costs, and Resources 132

5.3 Top-Down versus Bottom-Up Estimating 134

5.4 Methods for Estimating Project Times and Costs 136 Top-Down Approaches for Estimating Project Times

and Costs 136

Bottom-Up Approaches for Estimating Project

Times and Costs 140

A Hybrid: Phase Estimating 141

5.5 Level of Detail 143 5.6 Types of Costs 144

Direct Costs 145

Direct Project Overhead Costs 145

General and Administrative (G&A) Overhead

Costs 145

5.7 Refining Estimates 146 5.8 Creating a Database for Estimating 148 5.9 Mega Projects: A Special Case 149 Summary 151 Appendix 5.1: Learning Curves for Estimating 157

Chapter 6 Developing a Project Plan 162 6.1 Developing the Project Network 163 6.2 From Work Package to Network 164 6.3 Constructing a Project Network 166

Terminology 166

Basic Rules to Follow in Developing Project

Networks 166

6.4 Activity-on-Node (AON) Fundamentals 167 6.5 Network Computation Process 171

Forward Pass—Earliest Times 171

Backward Pass—Latest Times 173

Determining Slack (or Float) 175

6.6 Using the Forward and Backward Pass Information 177

6.7 Level of Detail for Activities 178 6.8 Practical Considerations 178

Network Logic Errors 178

Activity Numbering 179

Use of Computers to Develop Networks 179

Calendar Dates 182

Multiple Starts and Multiple Projects 182

6.9 Extended Network Techniques to Come Closer to Reality 182 Laddering 182

Use of Lags to Reduce Schedule Detail and Project

Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

Terry Williams, PhD, PMP

ISBN 13: 978-1-933890-24-1 ISBN 10: 1-933890-24-X

Published by: Project Management Institute, Inc. 14 Campus Boulevard Newtown Square, Pennsylvania 19073-3299 USA Phone: +1-610-356-4600 Fax: +1-610-356-4647 E-mail: customercare@pmi.org Internet: www.PMI.org

©2007 Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

“PMI”, the PMI logo, “PMP”, the PMP logo, “PMBOK”, “PgMP”, “Project Management Journal”, “PM Network”, and the PMI Today logo are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. The Quarter Globe Design is a trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc. For a comprehensive list of PMI marks, contact the PMI Legal Department.

PMI Publications welcomes corrections and comments on its books. Please feel free to send comments on typographical, formatting, or other errors. Simply make a copy of the relevant page of the book, mark the error, and send it to: Book Editor, PMI Publications, 14 Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA.

To inquire about discounts for resale or educational purposes, please contact the PMI Book Service Center:

PMI Book Service Center P.O. Box 932683, Atlanta, GA 31193-2683 USA Phone: 1-866-276-4764 (within the U.S. or Canada) or +1-770-280-4129 (globally) Fax: +1-770-280-4113 E-mail: info@bookorders.pmi.org

Printed in the United States of America. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, manual, photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher.

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48—1984).

10 9 8 7 6 5 4

CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Introduction 1

2 LITERATURE SURVEY 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Motivation 8

2.3 Concepts 13

2.4 The Current Situation 27

2.5 Creating Knowledge 30

2.6 Transferring Knowledge 42

2.7 Case Studies 56

2.8 Conclusions 57

3 SURVEY OF PRACTICE: DO ORGANIZATIONS LEARN FROM PROJECTS? 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Profi le of Respondents 62

3.3 What Are Organizations Doing? 64

3.4 How Successful Are these Processes? 71

3.5 Factors Contributing to the Perceived

Success of Lessons Learned 74

3.6 What Do You Think Is Best Practice? 81

3.7 Conclusions 86

4 INTERVIEWS: DO ORGANIZATIONS LEARN FROM PROJECTS? 89

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Organization C 90

4.3 Organization G 93

4.4 Organization P 94

4.5 Additional Case Studies 97

4.6 Organization W 98

4.7 Organization L 100

4.8 Organization S 102

5 CASE STUDY IN PRACTICE 105

5.1 Background 105

5.2 Interviews of Project Participants 105

5.3 Conclusion 107

6 CONCLUSIONS 109

APPENDIX 1: THE ZOOMERANG SURVEY 111

APPENDIX 2: THE ZOOMERANG RESULTS 123

APPENDIX 3 133

REFERENCES 135

1

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

The need to manage projects well, and to learn from one project to the next, is of vital importance as our world becomes more and more project-based. Our management of complex projects is often seen as less effective than it might be, and consequently, we do need to learn from one project to the next. This is a well-known theory (Collison and Parcell 2001; Kerzner 2000)—but in practice, projects are often not reviewed at all for various reasons (Williams et al. 2001) If they are reviewed, the methods don’t account for the complexity or try to explain causality, so there is no understanding about what went wrong (or right) and why (MacMaster 2000). So with a few exceptions, it appears that project reviews are infrequently performed and useful lessons are not captured. If we did gain lessons, these need to be incorporated into the processes and policies of our organizations; a “lessons learned” process needs to be implemented and then refl ected upon to produce double-loop learning. The need to consider what is best practice in reviewing projects is evident.

At the end of 2004, while working at Strathclyde University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, I responded to a request for research proposals from the Project Management Institute (PMI®), Newtown Square, PA, USA, with a proposal to look into post-project reviews, and PMI awarded me a research grant. In the middle of the contract, I moved to Southampton University, UK (also Concertante Consulting, London, UK) and the work was completed there.

The objectives of the research include identifying current practice as well as practice currently considered best practice for lessons learned in the project management fi eld, and comparing current practices with advances in understanding and modeling of project behavior to identify project lessons not being learned. This work sought to answer the following research questions which are of different types; therefore, different methodological approaches were required as is often the case with good management research (Easterby- Smith, Thorpe, and Lowe 1991).

2 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

1. Research Question 1 (RQ1) comprised two questions: “What is current practice?” and “What is currently considered best practice?” These are factual questions that are best explored using positivist techniques. A literature survey (Activity 1) and questionnaire (Activity 2) were used to investigate this.

2. Research Question 2 (RQ2) asked “Do these techniques actually achieve their purpose?” and is harder to answer with an unambiguous positivist answer. A literature survey (Activity 1) and questionnaire (Activity 2) along with interviews to gain subjective opinions (Activity 3), and some phenomenological analyses of an actual case study (Activity 4) were used to investigate whether these cases are indeed establishing the diffi cult-to-identify lessons.

3. Research Question 3 (RQ3) asked “Can we identify practical techniques to help draw out the diffi cult lessons from the projects?” is a practical question, and was approached by using the knowledge from Activities 1 through 3 and drawing out the experience of Activity 4, along the lines of Mode II research common in top- quality UK management research (Starkey and Madan 2001).

4. Research Question 4 (RQ4) asked “How can such lessons be incorporated into organizational practice?” Although a short research project, this is again a practical question, which will be approached by considering the literature (Activity 1), looking at actual practices (Activity 2), and considering both by interviews (Activity 3) and observations (Activity 4) as to how and whether lessons are taken into organizational procedures.

The program thus consisted of four main activities. The fi rst pair of activities established the current state of practice:

• Activity 1 carried out a survey of literature relevant to learning lessons in projects.

• Activity 2 surveyed the current practice of establishing and recording “lessons learned” throughout the project management community using an online questionnaire survey.

The second pair of activities, which formed the considerably smaller part of the study, looked at some particular examples:

• Activity 3 looked more in depth into current practice in six organizations, using semi-structured interviews.

• Activity 4 looked at a particular organization, and a particular project within that organization, to see how lessons are learned and how they can be learned.

Introduction 3

I led the research work. A signifi cant part of the work for Activities 1 and 2 was carried out by Judith Stark (also of Strathclyde University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK). For Activity 1, there was some additional help with literature.

This research report on the work is divided into six chapters. After this introduction, Chapters 2 through 4 correspond to Activities 1–4; Chapter 2 covers the literature survey; Chapter 3 covers the online survey; Chapter 4 describes the interviews; and Chapter 5 reviews the case study. Chapter 6 provides some brief conclusions. Chapters 2–5 are designed to be self-standing and each can be read on their own.

5

2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the results of the survey of literature on the use of “lessons learned” from projects. The report was based on a Procite© database, which included not only references but a categorization by the keywords given in Table 2-1. The database included 280 records, of which 243 documents had been read fully and are discussed in the following paragraphs. For 28 references, only summaries, abstracts, or book reviews were studied or are included because they are referenced by one of the 243 documents; and another 9 appeared relevant but were not found suffi ciently appropriate for inclusion when the literature survey was written up and therefore do not appear here. Due to the tremendous number of documents, this survey should be considered as a summary rather than a full exploration of the literature.

The survey was wide-ranging and sought views beyond the project-management literature. Databases (including Google scholar) were used with relevant keywords. Key papers were selected and “forward chaining” was performed (i.e., searching citation indexes for papers that refer to these papers). Some particularly relevant journals were checked in their entirety for the previous 10 years, namely:

• Construction Management and Economics

• IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management

• International Journal of Project Management

• Management Learning (only from Vol 29 [March 1998] to present)

• Organization Science

• Project Management Journal

• The Learning Organization

In addition, some conferences were checked in their entirety, namely:

6 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

• PMI full conferences 2001–2003

• PMI Research Conferences 2000–2004

• IPMA conferences 1996–2004

• IRNOP (International Research Network on Organizing by Projects) conferences 2002-2004

• PMI Europe conferences 2000–2001

The Index of PMI Periodical Publications: 1996–2002, supplied by PMI, was also studied. The topic of lessons learned can be regarded as very narrow or very broad. Clearly, it

is important to gain the theoretical underpinnings of the how-to-learn lessons, and this means going beyond reports of implementations of project learning. However, the review of the entire organizational learning and knowledge management literatures was outside of the scope of this study; therefore, this survey contains only articles particularly relevant to project learning or fundamental articles or review articles of state-of-the-art theory. For those who want to read further about the literature on learning, DeFillippi (2001) gives an overview on different perspectives of learning from projects and where to fi nd more about them, covering: (a) action learning (Revans, Smith)—people learn by working on real problems; (b) action science (Argyris and Schon)—project participants refl ect on theories in use with the help of a facilitator; (c) action research (Lewin)—combines theory building with research on practical problems; (d) communities of practice (Wenger, Brown, and Duguid)—learning occurs naturally through communities, with the deepest learning occurring when people’s positions move within a community and at the intersections of multiple communities; and (e) refl ective practice (Raelin). Much of this will be touched upon as part of this book.

The problem of how to learn from projects has long been an issue with project-based organizations, and this book will discuss some of the reasons why. Almost forty years ago, Middleton (1967) identifi ed this as a problem with project-based organizations as opposed to functional ones: “Lessons learned on one project may not be communicated to other projects. One executive who was transferring from a project being phased out to a new project found the same mistakes being made that he had encountered on his former assignment three years earlier. He felt that the problem resulted from splitting normal functional responsibilities among project organizations and from not having enough qualifi ed, experienced employees to spread among all organizations.” Although our views of projects might be different today, Packendorff (1995), a leader in the Scandinavian school looking at projects as organizations rather than tools and seeking to go beyond normative statements, said “theories on learning in projects . . . are almost non-existent today.” This is despite a clear recognition, as Sense (2002) points out, that projects offer enormous potential for learning even though this is neglected in traditional project management practice.

Literature Survey 7

Learning clearly always happens to some extent by the nature of undertaking projects. Schofi eld and Wilson (1995), for example, looked at capital projects within the UK National Health Service and observed that learning did happen (in three ways: termed mechanical, cognitive, and behavioral) but they concluded “none of the team set about achieving organizational learning in a premeditated way.” In this book, we are looking towards the more systematic collection and distribution of lessons from projects. Ayas (1998) said that “learning within a project does not happen naturally; it is a complex process that needs to be managed. It requires deliberate attention, commitment, and continuous investment of resources” (cited in Sense 2003a).

This document is restricted to learning about project processes or how to manage and execute projects. It is not aimed towards learning technical knowledge from projects (such as in work along the lines of Nobeoka 1995)—it is about the project-management process rather than the content of projects.

Table 2-1 Keywords used in database

8 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

We will not be considering cases of particular projects that have gone wrong (e.g., Glass 1998) and trying to analyze them; rather, we will be looking at the literature to learn how organizations learn lessons from projects they have undertaken.

The structure of this document is as follows. Following this introduction, we shall look at:

• Motivation: why look at learning from projects?

• Basic concepts: what is knowledge? And what is learning?

• The current situation: what do project-management and other standards say about learning lessons? How prevalent actually are such practices?

• Creating knowledge: techniques, the use of narratives, dealing with systemicity, and factors that facilitate or hinder creating knowledge from projects.

• Transferring knowledge: organizational learning and knowledge management in projects, practices for distributing lessons, factors that facilitate or hinder distributing lessons from projects, and one particular idea, that of “communities of practice.”

• Case studies: a brief mention of some case studies.

• Conclusions: fi nally, some conclusions.

2.2 Motivation

It might be thought that it goes without saying that learning from one project to another is a worthwhile aim, upon which it is worth expending effort. Abramovici (1999) for example tells us that “lessons learned” is a good thing to do, while outlining some basic practices. Similarly, Pinto (1999) states that information systems projects have a poor success record, describes evidence supporting this and reasons for it, then goes on to stress the need to pass lessons learned downstream through post-project review meetings. In the fi eld of complex product systems, Davies and Brady (2000) demonstrate the learning cycle of such projects, which requires a step: “lessons learned from the project and recommendations for improvements can be transferred to current or succeeding projects.” Kerzner (2000) places continuous learning and improvement as the highest level of project management maturity in an organization, and states that “without ‘discounted’ lessons learned, a company can quickly revert from maturity to immaturity in project management. Knowledge is lost and past mistakes are repeated.” Berke (2001) says that “Organizational learning and organizational knowledge make up the CIQ [corporate intelligence quotient] . . . Best practices and lessons learned are the building blocks of organizational learning and organizational knowledge.”

Why is learning lessons important? And is there evidence that it gives some use? This

Literature Survey 9

section provides a few sources that support the motivation to carry out lessons learned activities.

There are fundamental aspects of the nature of project-based organizations that require concentration on learning. Projects are, by nature, temporary organizations, and any learning that is accumulated in a project will largely dissipate at the end of the project unless attention is paid to the collection and dissemination of that knowledge. This has become increasingly recognized as the nature of projects as temporary organizations have been studied, particularly in the Scandinavian project management school. Ekstedt et al. (1999), for example, discuss the central importance of “knowledge formation” (by which they mean the combination of learning and embedding that learning): (a) they say that permanent organizations, which have a long-term perspective, generally have mechanisms that are built in for learning, but the new project-intensive organizational structures (i.e., “temporary organizations”) are action- and task-oriented and not geared for learning; and (b) individuals become more able and experienced, but there is often no mechanism or motivation for that learning to be shared within the company. They claim that “in temporary organizations . . . the most important thing in the design of a project is the combination of project members and the resources allotted to the project that is relying on the combinatorics of different stocks of knowledge”; however, “the outcomes of the knowledge processes that take place are diffi cult to feed back to the permanent organization.” Brady, Marshall, Prencipe, and Tell (2002) describe a number of barriers to learning from projects, in particular the absence of departmentally held “knowledge silos”; the uniqueness of projects, with long life cycles, so a long time interval elapses before lessons are retrieved; and their temporary nature, requiring new “human encounters” for each project. Similarly, Disterer (2002) looks at the need to manage the retention of knowledge because of the fragmentation of the organization into project teams, concluding: “only a few fi rms manage systematically to identify and transfer valuable knowledge from projects to following projects.” Bresnen, Goussevskaia, and Swan (2004) discuss the contradiction between short-term aims of projects and long-term aim of organizational learning, showing that knowledge management will depend on the degree of projectization of the fi rm (pure project fi rms will be different from matrix, and these will be different from functional organizations that only do occasional projects).

Project processes are generally temporary and unique, with non-routine features. Gann and Salter (2000) say that a particular challenge for project-based fi rms is to integrate their project and business processes, so the experiences of projects need to be integrated into the business processes, and knowledge acquired from projects needs to fl ow back to the core resources of the fi rm. Brady, Marshall, Prencipe, and Tell (2002) describe a further number of characteristics of projects, which contribute to the diffi culties of learning, including customization (either because previous solutions are obsolete or are being driven by customer demands), discontinuity (both temporal and organizational; project work is highly discontinuous, with a narrow focus and task oriented), complexity, interdependence

10 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

(systemic, so it is not always possible to rely on past experience to solve current problems), and uncertainty. However, that is not to say that all projects are completely different—and the “misguided belief” that they inhibit learning (Cooper, Lyneis, and Bryant 2002).

Furthermore, projects not only cross organizational functions, they are trans- disciplinary, so even beyond the project management literature, Gibbons et al. (1994) have explored changes in the manner in which knowledge is produced. They discuss the change in “mode of knowledge production” by contrasting the traditional mode in which discipline-based (academic) institutions defi ne a problem and use these institutions to develop knowledge and maintain quality control, with a new mode in which knowledge is produced in the context of application, knowledge is transdisciplinary, and knowledge production has to be socially accountable. So we need new mechanisms to capture and disseminate knowledge beyond the traditional disciplinary and functional structures.

Cooke-Davies (2002) describes a major ongoing empirical study, and in this paper identifi ed 12 key success factors in project-oriented organizations; one of these is “an effective means of learning from experience.” Menke (1997) describes a study of 79 R&D companies and gives 10 “best practices’” for R&D decisions which confer R&D competitive advantage. Once again, “learn from post-project audits” is one of the 10 best practices, although it is worth noting that it comes in as the lowest when measured by frequency of use (in this survey, in only 24% of companies). Kotnour’s (2000) infl uential survey of 43 project managers within the Project Management Institute, based on subjective measures, indicates that project management performance is associated with project knowledge; project management knowledge is supported by project learning activities; the level of activity of producing lessons learned is related to inter-project learning; and that “learning support” (for example, collecting data and having appropriate corporate culture about learning lessons) is needed for all learning activities.

The literature provides a number of reasons for, or perceived benefi ts from, managing the learning from projects. These include

• Project managers learn how to manage experientially, and it is important to refl ect and gain these lessons. “Research shows that the majority (85%) of project personnel have gained their knowledge, both explicit and tacit, through experiential learning” (Turner, Keegan, and Crawford 2000).

• Learning lessons from projects can feed into the project assessment, risk analysis, or initial planning of the next project. Neale and Holmes (1990) describe a survey of fi nance directors in 1,000 companies regarding post-auditing procedures for capital projects, so the emphasis was on improving decisions about whether to invest in a project, for example better proposals, better evaluation, and better fi nancial control: 38% of the survey identifi ed “encouraging more realistic project assessments” as the main aim of post-project auditing and 30% identifi ed

Literature Survey 11

“encouraging greater realism in project appraisal” as a main benefi t; they conclude that post-auditing can “radically improve the quality of investment decision- making.” Williams (2005) describes an extensive case study in which a number of lessons learned were used as feedback to the formal risk management pre-project process of a large corporation.

• In general, lessons are used to feed into improving project-management processes— the primary reason for carrying out post-audits, according to Azzone and Maccarrone’s (2001) survey of 124 Italian fi rms (albeit with only 34 responses).

• Similarly, lessons are used to improve management decision-making, which is identifi ed as the second reason in Azzone and Maccarrone’s (2001) survey, and as a main benefi t by 26% of the respondents in Neale and Holmes’ (1990) survey.

• Projects are part of a cycle and lessons learned can be tested and experimented with during the next generation of the cycle. Kotnour (1999), for example, presents learning from projects as a plan-do-study-act cycle (adapted from quality management), occurring both intra- and inter-project, where the “act” is making use of the lessons learned in future projects. He views learning cycles as an inherent part of the project and series of projects, not just a separate activity at the end (an empirical study of 43 project managers showed this is how they view learning), and indeed “every step in the project management process, if viewed from the learning perspective, can serve as the basis for producing and sharing knowledge for the project team.”

• Lessons learned procedures are important to disseminate knowledge within the project team, beyond the team to other projects, and even to other organizations. Busby’s (1999a) study of post-project review meetings highlighted one main strength as disseminating knowledge within the project team and promoting remedies; dissemination to other projects was also mentioned. Going beyond the project team, Gulliver (1987) describes the infl uential post project appraisal (PPA) unit within British Petroleum, with two key elements being (a) its independence and (b) the fact that PPA is company-wide so projects can be reviewed and lessons passed on to project teams elsewhere in the world. Holt, Love, and Li (2000) describe how learning underlies inter-company alliances: being able to learn collectively.

• Lessons learned are useful for benchmarking. Garnett and Pickrell (2000) describe some action research developing a methodology for benchmarking in the construction industry, noting that much of the benefi t was derived from generating and sharing ideas in the interactive activity (a social constructivist view) rather than fact fi nding about hard measures (positivist). (Note that the idea of project benchmarking [Ottmann 2000], for example, learning from others’ projects is a different topic.)

12 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

• Post-project audits to capture lessons learned can also have the side-benefi t for senior management of being able to check on the performance of their personnel (Azzone and Maccarrone’s [2001] third reason) or on their project managers’ expertise (the main aim for 22% in Neale and Holmes’ [1990] survey).

• Kumar and Terpstra (2004) note the key role that a post-mortem can play at the stage-gates of the new product development process, as lessons learned in one (usually less costly) phase can feed through to the next phase.

However, Learning lessons and disseminating the knowledge gained from them is not simple. Barnes and Wearne (1993) in their look into the following 25 years of project management said “A problem which may well continue is that of presenting the lessons of the completed projects . . . in a form which is brief enough to attract busy people . . . yet is specifi c enough to persuade them.” Two particular issues in the exercise need particular attention to make the lessons useful:

• The need to gain depth in the lessons rather than obvious or simple lessons. Busby’s (1999a) survey identifi ed one limitation of the reviews he studied as shallow diagnosis, he claimed because of (a) a preference for causal rather than diagnostic reasoning (diagnostic learning is harder to do and involves more blame, which is socially awkward but leads to deeper diagnosis), (b) not enough “why,” (c) a norm of constructive criticism inhibits criticism with no immediate solutions. This highlights the main issue—the need to look into the systemic reasons for project outcomes—which we will look at further in Section 2.5.3; the issue is highlighted in the case study in Williams (2005).

• Secondly, there is the need to gain generalizable lessons rather than lessons specific to that one project (see Toft’s [1992] distinction between organization- specific learning and isomorphic learning [universally applicable lessons gained from analysis of factors]). Lack of generalization was another main limitation that Busby (1999a) saw in the reviews he studied. One good example of reviews being used for general experimentation is Cooper, Lyneis, and Bryant (2002), who present their work as a dynamics-based “learning system” for cross-project learning, used by managers to test ideas and see impacts, and to record best practice.

Procedures to learn and disseminate lessons from projects need to be organized. Davies and Brady (2000) claimed in their study of suppliers of Complex Product Systems that “learning tends to be on an ad-hoc basis, with few systematic efforts to spread the initial learning throughout the organization.” Ayas (1996) says that “learning within a project does not happen naturally; it is a complex process that needs to be managed. It requires deliberate attention, commitment, and continuous investment of resources . . .

Literature Survey 13

Learning . . . has to be managed together with the project and must be integrated into project management as standard practice.” These procedures cannot stand alone: Cavaleri and Fearon (2000) considered that organizational learning is unmanageable if seen as an adjunct to other processes and has to be integrated into core processes; they provide a framework for integrating organizational learning with project management.

Learning is so fundamental to projects that many writers espouse projects particularly as learning mechanisms. Ayas and Zeniuk (2001) discuss promoting projects as learning vehicles and developing communities of practice. Similarly, Sense (2003b) discusses the importance of managing learning in project teams and describes project teams as embryonic communities of practice as they provide an opportunity to learn provided that their focus is shifted to include learning. Arthur, DeFillippi, and Jones (2001) also look at project-based learning, classifying project success by both dimensions of project performance and learning.

Indeed, Bredillet (2004a) claims projects are the key learning arena in organizations. Brady and Davies (2004) show how knowledge generated by learning from projects can lead to far-reaching changes in the strategic focus of an organization. Project-led (bottom- up) learning happens in phases: an exploratory “vanguard project” phase, project-to- project (through lessons learned), and project-to-organization, which is fed back to senior management and used to formulate new strategy. As fi rms advance through the phases, there is a transition from exploration to exploitation, and businesses can plan to move quickly to exploitation (top-down learning).

2.3 Concepts

There are four general concepts that need to be briefl y considered before we can look at how people learn from, and increase their knowledge within, projects:

• For an individual, what is knowledge?

• For an individual, what is learning?

• For an organization, what is organizational learning?

• For an organization, what is knowledge management?

2.3.1 Knowledge The question of what knowledge is has exercised many authors since the time of Aristotle; clearly “knowledge” is not the same as “information” (McDermott 1999). It is not within the scope of this book to cover all of these arguments.

In this matter, however, the work of three authors clearly stands out. The fi rst is Polanyi

14 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

(1962), who established the idea of knowledge being internal and personal, or “tacit” and thus not necessarily easy to codify (as opposed to “explicit” knowledge, which can be expressed and shared in highly specifi ed formats). Subsequent work on how people learn and what personal knowledge means is based on his seminal work. However, individuals who learn and keep knowledge to themselves is not suffi cient to help organizations learn and develop. As the requirement to help develop “learning organizations” grew, the work of two other seminal authors has been particularly infl uential. Senge’s work (Senge 1990 and Senge et al. 1994) described the “learning organization,” and this work will be referred to later. The other particularly infl uential author (and the second whose work on “knowledge” has been particularly infl uential) was Nonaka (particularly Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995 but also Nonaka 1991), who described how Japanese companies working in innovation created “knowledge-creating” companies, and whose work requires a careful explication of what is “knowledge.” This work includes a model of knowledge creation within the organization based on the interrelationships between tacit and explicit knowledge.

When looking at knowledge as “tacit,” “tacit knowledge” is diffi cult to defi ne and operationalize. Cook and Brown (1999) provide a distinction between explicit and tacit knowledge as follows: explicit knowledge can be spelled out or formalized, and tacit knowledge is that associated with skills or “know-how.” Ambrosini and Bowman (2001) look at the defi nition of tacit knowledge and within the context of the resource-based view of the fi rm, redefi ne it as tacit skills; this enables the authors to propose ways in which tacit knowledge can be operationalized, using a methodology incorporating causal mapping, “Self-Q,” semi- structured interviews, and the use of metaphors. Johnson, Lorenz, and Lundvall (2002) say that learning (of “tacit” knowledge) is not just about codifying knowledge; when one is deciding whether to codify one needs to take into account: (a) the amount that will be lost in the transformation process and (b) whether codifi cation is an improvement or not. They recognize that codifi cation can stimulate learning when used to refi ne models and create shared vocabulary and when used to support the process of “refl ection, explication, and documentation of practices.” They then make distinctions between four different kinds of knowledge: know-what, know-why, know-how, and know-who.

Isabella’s (1990) work looks at the development of knowledge within an organization— particularly relevant to the development of knowledge within projects—as a process of sense-making. Isabella looks at how managers construe events around them and make sense of events in their organization. This will become an important theme later in this section, and also as we explore the ideas in Sections 2.3.2, 2.5.2, and 2.6.1. A key element of knowledge for this study is how groups of managers learn rather than individual managers. Knowledge creation is a social process as well as an individual process, sharing tacit knowledge (see von Krogh 1998, based on some ideas of Nonaka and Takeuchi [1995]). Thus our understanding of what knowledge is has to look at the subtle interplay between tacit and explicit, and between individual and group knowledge. Cook and Brown (1999) consider that traditional understanding of the nature of knowledge is based on the “epistemology of

Literature Survey 15

possession” as it treats knowledge as something people possess, but that this epistemology cannot account for the knowing found in individual and group practice—so that knowing as action calls for an “epistemology of practice.” Cook and Brown claim that the literature tends to treat knowledge as being essentially of one kind and that the epistemology assumed in the literature tends to favor the individual over the group and explicit knowledge instead of tacit knowledge. However, they believe that: “Organizations are better understood if explicit, tacit, individual, and group knowledge are treated as four distinct and coequal forms of knowledge (each doing work the others cannot), and if knowledge and knowing are seen as mutually enabling (and not competing)” [Paper Abstract], and go into detail on these four distinct and coequal forms of knowledge. They also see a distinction between knowledge that is “part of practice” and that knowledge which is “possessed in the head.” They refer to the latter as knowledge and the former as knowing. The focus of the article is more on knowing, and the authors discuss the interplay between the two terms as a way in which new knowledge and new ways of knowing are formed. The authors draw on Dewey’s concept of productive inquiry in examining the way in which knowledge can be visualized as “a tool at the service of knowing.” To help in this exposition, the authors apply their perspective [of seeing distinct forms of knowledge and of viewing knowledge as a tool of knowing] to three cases, which they say “help make clearer some of the actionable and theoretically signifi cant implications of this perspective.”

Schulz (2001) also looks at the relationship between the production of knowledge and the fl ow [vertical or horizontal] of knowledge within organizations. This topic is felt to be important as “. . . each process conceivably depends on the other.” The author fi nds that the production of knowledge in organizational subunits of a fi rm affects the outfl ow of knowledge to other units of the same fi rm: horizontal fl ows are to peer units and vertical fl ows are to supervisory units. The author found that “exposure to internal and external sources of newness” and the “uniqueness of experiences” intensify vertical outfl ows of knowledge, but do not affect horizontal outfl ows. On the other hand, “reciprocating” and “substitution” affect horizontal outfl ows but affect vertical outfl ows much less (the paper includes descriptions of these variables). “It thus appears that collecting new knowledge increases vertical outfl ows and combining old knowledge intensifi es horizontal outfl ows . . . different kinds of knowledge fl ow in different directions: New knowledge fl ows mainly vertically, and incremental knowledge fl ows mainly horizontally” (p. 674).

Later, we shall return to the way in which knowledge fl ows within an organization, but it is worth noting that Lesser, Fontaine, and Slusher (2000) explain how organizations are using communities in order to enhance the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge. They highlight people, places, and things as being the three basic components of communities; while IT is also important, the main emphasis is on the social aspects involved in the processes of creating and sharing knowledge.

A key element in understanding the nature of knowledge creation (that is, the manner in which knowledge is made) is the manner in which knowledge is justifi ed. von Krogh and

16 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

Grand (1999) “. . . conceive justifi cation as the permanent corporate and management activity of relating issues and tasks to a generally accepted corporate knowledge base . . . [justifi cation] means understanding the mechanisms which decide whether new insights, concepts and ideas are rejected, returned for further elaboration, or fi nally appropriated as relevant” (p. 16–17). They use the concept of “dominant logic” to try to understand justifi cation.

This discussion pertained to the nature of knowledge in general. Why are these aspects particularly relevant for understanding knowledge within projects? This is because of the following:

• Projects are complex systems, which means that the way in which we organize our thinking about those systems is also complex (Tsoukas and Hatch 2001). They point out that the nature of this complexity affects how we generate knowledge, in particular making narrative types of thinking more appropriate than logico- scientifi c (i.e., propositional) thinking.

• Real projects are often very much more concerned with sense-making rather than carrying out a full-formed plan, which affects how we can learn from projects (Ivory et al. 2004). Projects frequently take place in a context of confusion, and controversy can help to create new knowledge (Fernie, Green, Weller, and Newcombe 2003).

• Projects are temporary organizations, and there are issues around the lack of time for developing trust in such organizations, which means that knowledge generation and sharing is different from that in permanent organizational structures (Koskinen, Pihlanto, and Vanharanta 2003).

• The whole idea of project management imposes an ontology and a specifi c way of thinking within a company; this immediately frames ways of thinking when reviewing projects, and can pose diffi culties in critically thinking through what really happened (Hodgson 2002).

• We have to learn not just about technical aspects but how our social structures have behaved. For example, Vaughan’s (1996) analysis of the Challenger launch decision concluded that the Challenger disaster was not “a technical failure due to managerial wrongdoing and production pressures” (as cited for instance in the U.S. Presidential Commission Reports) but “a mistake embedded in the banality of competition, an unprecedented, uncertain technology, incrementalism, patterns of information, routinization, organizational and interorganizational structures, and a complex culture.” The argument is that “mistakes and disasters are socially organized and produced by social structures and culture” (quotes taken from Mitev 1998).

Literature Survey 17

2.3.2 Learning If this is what knowledge is, what does learning mean within the context of projects? Clearly these are related entities: “Learning and knowledge are intertwined in an iterative, mutually reinforcing process. While learning (the process) produces new knowledge, knowledge impacts future learning” (Vera and Crossan 2003 cited in Scarbrough et al. 2004).

Mumford (1994) says that we need to enable managers to recognize opportunities for learning and learn effectively from experience. He describes four approaches to learning: (a) intuitive (no explicit process, not aware of learning happening), (b) incidental (refl ection following some jolt, e.g., a mishap), (c) retrospective (learning by routinely reviewing, not just mishaps), and (d) prospective (opportunities to learn are identifi ed in advance). Managers are not shown how to refl ect on what has happened or to plan to learn. Some managers are not aware of the benefi ts of doing so, and this limits the quality of learning they can achieve.

However, clearly refl ection plays a key part in this process. Smith (2001) says that “Most of the time we have experiences from which we never learn” and describes the framework and tools for refl ective learning in an organization. Winter and Thomas (2004) believe that project management is less about applying specifi c techniques and more about the powers of managing, which implies that a project manager’s education or professional development should focus on developing practitioners’ critical awareness and refl ective practice. Scarbrough, Swan, and Preston (1999) provide a good review of recent literature on the process of learning by refl ection.

Zollo and Winter (2002) describe three types of learning behaviors: tacit accumulation of experience (semiautomatic), knowledge articulation, and knowledge codifi cation (deliberate). They indicate that dynamic capability (“a learned and stable pattern of collective activity through which the organization systematically generates and modifi es its operating routines in pursuit of improved effectiveness”) arises from the interaction of the three learning behaviors.

As discussed in the previous section, refl ection and learning within projects takes place within a team. Learning is not only about acquiring information, but also socialization and requiring appropriate social contexts (Gherardi, Nicolini, and Odella [1998]). Raelin (2001) discusses learning through refl ection with others and provides the what, why, and how to do it, claiming this is particularly applicable to learning from projects.

Two names with very particular lines of approach should be noted. The fi rst is Ralph Stacy, whose work on complex responsive processes in organizations shows the importance of socially constructed knowledge creation such as narratives and community of practice. Stacy (2001), for example, outlines Weick’s ideas about sense-making and mental models and incorporates them into the structure of complex responsive processes. This work will be important as we develop ideas about knowledge and understanding arising from the complexity of organizations and projects. The second is von Glasersfeld (1995), who can be identifi ed as the key writer in radical constructivism and who stated its basic principles

18 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

as being that knowledge is not passively received either through the senses or by way of communication but is actively built up by the cognizing subject; and that the function of cognition is adaptive and serves the subject’s organization of the experiential world, not the discovery of an objective, ontological reality: “Causality, then, is part of the design that reason imposes on experience to make it understandable” (p. 42); this work will be important as we consider “knowledge” and “knowing” with a suitably critical approach (whatever our own individual ontological or epistemological stance).

Johanssen, Olaisen, and Olsen’s (1999) paper clearly explains some of the principles related to learning. For example, the relationship between information and action in the concept of learning: “For most people learning will most likely be synonymous with information acquisition (Machlup).” However, we do not learn by acquiring information. We neither learned how to swim, nor to read or cycle, by acquiring information on swimming, reading, or cycling (Polanyi). There is, in other words, no learning separated from action (Nonaka and Takeuchi). Action is not enough to learn—time has to be built in for refl ection relative to the action as well as what is learned (Bandura, Piaget, Rolf). “A major part of learning is then carried out by means of the processes: planning, action, refl ection.”

2.3.3 Organizational Learning The move from the individual to the organization is not simple. Simon (1991) notes that: “All learning takes place inside individual human heads; an organization learns in only two ways: (a) by the learning of its members, or (b) by ingesting new members who have knowledge the organization didn’t previously have. But . . . what an individual learns in an organization is very much dependent on what is already known to (or believed by) other members of the organization and what kinds of information are present in the organizational environment.”

Kim (1993) stresses the importance of making the distinction between the organization and the individual, explicit in the analysis of organizational learning, and develops a model showing the links between individual and organizational learning by means of “shared mental models,” what he describes as “the thought constructs that affect how people and organizations operate in the world.” Cross and Baird (2000) talk about the need to embed learning within the wider company; they take a proactive stance, targeting learning when it needs to be learned.

As we move from the individual to the organization, we should note the inter-relation between these two: DeFillippi and Arthur (2002) show how workplace learning (knowledge creation and sharing) happens in four contexts: individual, company, community, and industry; and while these are usually studied in isolation, they argue that they are strongly inter-related so it is just as important to understand the connections between them. “Each learning context is a contested domain in which the context and actors operating within the context exert reciprocal infl uence on each other. It is out of such contested,

Literature Survey 19

reciprocal interactions that meaning is constructed and learning arises.” Furthermore, for many, the process of refl ection and knowledge creation is a social process. Purser, Pasmore, and Tenkasi (1992), for example, looked at deliberation in R&D teams and showed that learning for complex project development was enhanced by deliberations. They noted that small informal forums were conducive to knowledge-sharing and active inquiry—by exposing people to the big picture of the overall product system, using a participative decision-making approach. Newell and Huang (2005) use Nonaka’s work to look at knowledge creation in multidisciplinary teams, and note the importance of the collaborative nature of teams. Fong (2002) similarly assesses Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) knowledge creation model in looking at knowledge creation in multidisciplinary project teams. Fong proposes a model of the processes of knowledge creation within such teams made up of fi ve processes: boundary crossing, knowledge sharing, generation, integration, and collective project learning. Ramaprasad and Prakash (2003) point out that one needs to take local knowledge and integrate it with generic knowledge, and their methods of learning are based on ideas “emerging” from the project, based on concepts such as constructionism and critical thinking. Crossan, Lane, and White (1999) put this into a neat framework as they give what they call “the four I’s of organizational learning”: intuiting, interpreting, integrating, and institutionalizing, referring to the individual, individual, group, and organization level, respectively.

Spender (1996) tries to pull together the ideas of organizational knowledge, organizational learning, and memory. “. . . The fragmentation of the [organizational learning] literature is the result of the two methodological manoeuvres institutionalized into the contemporary analysis of organizational knowledge. The fi rst separates the notions of knowledge, learning, and memory, presuming each can be treated independently. But we see the three concepts are interdependent parts of a single system of ideas about organizations and their knowledge processes . . . This triangle of interdependency and interdefi nition is the foundation on which the rest of the organizational system must be built.” Spender then presents different types of organizational knowledge and how they interact.

The motivation for companies to become learning organizations clearly gained considerable momentum with the infl uential work of Senge with his “fi fth discipline” work (Senge 1990 and Senge et al. 1994). This work recognizes the complexity and systemicity inherent in organizational activity and sets the theme for our discussion of “systemicity” in Chapter 5 (see in particular Kofman and Senge 1993).

Some authors describe the power of learning to transform and reinvent the organization: Coutu (2002) (quoted in Morris and Loch 2004b) interviewed by Edgar Schein said “Despite all the time, money and enthusiasm that executives pour into corporate change programs, the stark reality is that few companies ever succeed in genuinely reinventing themselves. That’s because the people working at those companies more often than not fail at transformational learning—they rarely get to the point where they are eagerly challenging deeply held assumptions about a company’s strategies and processes and, in

20 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

response, thinking and acting in fundamentally altered ways. Rather most people just end up doing the same old things in superfi cially tweaked ways—practices that fall far short of the transformational learning, learning that most experts agree is the key to competing in the twenty fi rst century.”

Garvin (1993) defi nes and describes the “gritty details” of a learning organization. He discusses fi ve building blocks to becoming a learning organization: (a) systematic problem solving, (b) experimentation, (c) learning from past experience, (d) learning from others, for example, benchmarking (“learning organizations . . . cultivate the art of open, attentive listening”), and (e) transferring knowledge, for example, reports, tours, and staff transfers. For building block (c), he discusses IBM’s 360 computer series, one of the most profi table ever made, which was based on a previously failed program, but he says this was by chance rather than policy and compares this with Boeing, who carried out a lessons learned after the 737 and 747 programs, and then transferred the lessons and some of the people who carried out the exercise onto the very successful 757 and 767 programs.

We are not going to summarize here all of the vast literature on organizational learning. However, key reviews of the vast literature on organizational learning can be identifi ed. Huber (1991) gives an early and authoritative summary of the literature about organizational learning to 1991, dividing it into four aspects: knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpreting, organizational memory, listed in decreasing magnitude of maturity. Dodgson (1993) provides a similar bibliography of organizational learning generally, and notes the range of disciplines that contribute to the fi eld, with organization theory plus some psychological interpretations to comprehend the process, problems, and learning. He also discusses the approaches related to economics/management/innovations, which look at the motives and source of learning, concluding also that “together, the literatures reviewed contribute to the understanding of the complexity of factors that encourage and restrict learning.” Nair’s (2001) literature review, charting developments in the understanding of organizational learning since the 1950’s, concludes that organizational learning systems still did not have a sound theoretical base (he proposed developing a classifi cation of organizational learning systems by their complexity as a way to learn more about them). Edmondson and Moingeon (1998) also review the literature and categorize it into four groups based on the unit of analysis and research objectives: (a) organizations as residues of past learning, (b) organizations as collections of individuals who can learn, (c) organizational improvement gained through intelligent activity of individual members, and (d) organizational improvement gained through developing individuals’ mental models (note that this review is focused on the individual rather than the team).

Two recent authors analyze the literature with regard to the development of the fi eld over the recent past. Bapuji and Crossan (2004) review literature on empirical organizational learning research published between 1990 and 2002, and some of their results are noted later. Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, and Lowe (2000) try to map the development of the fi eld

Literature Survey

by reviewing the set of papers (102 in total) submitted to a particular 1999 organizational learning conference; they follow the genesis, progression, and decline of several debates in the field, some of which include:

Debate about units of analysis: if organizational or inter-organizational learning is the sum of what individuals learn, or if there is something more (including the role of the group);

Debate on distinguishing between changes in cognition and changes in behavior;

Debate around single- and double-loop learning;

Debate between organizational learning and the learning organization;

Debate about the nature and location of organizational learning (through interpersonal interactions rather than within individuals or organizational systems);

Debate on how to investigate organizational learning;

Tension between the ideas of organizational learning and knowledge management;

Shifting in focus towards a closer scrutiny of workplace activities and work practices;

Need to reconcile learning with diversity; particularly due to globalization;

Focus on power, politics, and trust “three fundamental dimensions of learning.”

One authoritative text drawing the work together is given in the Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge (Dierkes et al. 2001), giving 42 chapters of work ranging from insights on organizational learning from the major social science disciplines through to putting the knowledge into practice.

This body of work has contributed to a number of influential “how to” books. For example, DiBella and Nevis (1998) wrote How Organizations Learn, a strategic package that can be used to examine and enhance the “learning capacity” of any organization. The book describes the circumstances in which organizational learning takes place, with 10 practices or conditions which promote learning within all kinds of organizations (including experimental mind-set, climate of openness, systems perspective, etc.). It defines seven learning styles and a measurement tool for gauging an organization’s performance along a continuum for each of the seven learning orientations and 10 facilitating factors. (Early versions of this work are mentioned in Nevis, DiBella, and Gould [1995]). Schwandt and Marquardt (2000) wrote Organizational Learning: From World-Class Theories to Global Best Practices, which presents the authors’ model for organizational learning, Organizational Learning Systems Model (OLSM), which is founded on social action theory (specifically

22 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

the general theory of social action posed by Talcott Parson). In addition to setting the theoretic framework for the OLSM and describing it in detail, the book also includes “action-based recommendations for organizations,” recommending seven steps (said to have been gleaned from best practices in the authors’ experience) towards organizational learning (using the OLSM as a frame of reference).

Two issues are clearly important in understanding organizational learning: culture and organizational structure. Culture plays a key role in how organizations learn and whether or not they learn. This applies both to national culture and internal corporate culture. Carmona and Grönlund (1998), for example, looked at two situations, in Sweden and Spain, whereby learning was achieved by problem-solving at the operations level. They suggest that the subsequent deterioration of learning in one of the situations presented was infl uenced by both the structure of the organization and national culture. High power distance and high uncertainty avoidance in Spain meant that middle managers had less responsibility and less decision-making power, so they were less able to implement changes than in Sweden. Kidd (1998) also analyzed organizational learning in some Japanese-Italian companies using Nonaka’s SECI model, and found a clash of culture and context, so learning in the donor company (Japan) could not easily be translated to the receiving company (Italy). Kidd suggested that optimal learning happens in cases where there is (a) training by the donor company, (b) opportunities for peer group discussion, (c) empowerment at the local level (not just compliance), (d) appreciation of tacit knowledge held by the receiving company, and (e) good exchange of data. Kidd noted that elitism and rigid processes or systems were both hindrances. In terms of corporate culture, Lipshitz, Popper, and Friedman (2002) claimed that learning depended on structure, culture, psychology, policy, and context. Five cultural values that promote productive learning are: (a) transparency (the willingness to expose one’s thoughts and actions to others in order to receive feedback), (b) integrity (the willingness to seek and provide info regardless of its implications), (c) issue-orientation (focusing on the relevance of information to the issue under consideration regardless of the social standing or rank of source or recipient), (d) inquiry (persisting in investigation until full understanding is achieved), and (e) accountability (willingness to assume responsibility for learning and implementation of lessons learned). Reger and von Wichert-Nick (1997) state that structure and culture of an organization are important factors in determining how effectively it can learn, which requires a culture that supports teamwork, a culture that supports experimentation and a culture that is open to risks. Wreme and Sorrenti (1997) describe cases where process consultants used systems-thinking tools with organizations to help them to learn, highlighting the importance of a safe environment for learning rather than a controlling organizational culture.

The works previously cited note the importance of culture and organizational structure. Lipshitz, Popper, and Friedman (2002) state that “For learning to become organizational, there must be roles, functions, and procedures that enable organizational members to systematically collect, analyze, store, disseminate, and use information relevant to their

Literature Survey 23

own and other members’ performance.” They use the term “organizational learning mechanisms” for “observable organizational subsystems in which organization members interact for the purpose of learning.” Reger and von Wichert-Nick (1997) argue that organizational learning needs hierarchy-free communication and fl ow of information, a primary structure that is hierarchical and a secondary structure that is “supra-hierarchical and coordination-oriented.” Carmona and Grönlund (1998) suggest that strict budgeting in an organization can constrain implementation of learning, teams need to be recognized by the rest of the organization, and the benefi ts of a reward system (both intrinsic [e.g., making people feel their jobs are important] and extrinsic [e.g., fi nancial]) are important.

Bapuji and Crossan (2004) in their analysis of the empirical literature since 1990, identify facilitators to organizational learning, as well as culture and structure. They highlight strategy, environment, organizational stage, and resource position (although the contribution of the last of these is unclear). It is worth noting that Örtenblad (2002), rather than looking at structure, culture, etc., as facilitating factors to organizational learning, synthesizes the literature (including DiBella, Easterby-Smith and Araujo, Finger and Bürgin Brand, and Argyris) and sees four different meanings of the term learning organizations: those with organizational learning, those where people learn at work, those organizations with a learning climate, and those with a learning structure.

There are also a number of other issues that need to be considered when looking at how organizations learn. These include:

• It is important that organizations learn productively: Lipschitz, Popper, and Friedman (2002) say that “productive organizational learning is a process that is (a) conscious and systematic, (b) yields valid information and (c) results in actions intended to produce new perceptions, goals, and/or behavioral strategies.”

• It is important to learn from a balance of both success and failures. For example, Denrell (2003) shows the bias towards success when observing management practices, because the ones that fail aren’t there to be observed.

• The role of IT support is important. Venugopal and Baets (1995), for example, discuss how IT tools can support organizational learning; they describe different learning processes (learning through cases, participative strategy formation, sharing individual knowledge, and exploratory knowledge) and the IT tools which can support them (that is, in particular databases, group decision support systems, cognitive mapping, and artifi cial neural networks).

• The increasing use of contingent work (such as contractors), especially among high tech fi rms, offering reduced cost, greater fl exibility, and technical expertise, can have a signifi cant effect on a fi rm’s ability to create and accumulate knowledge. “Contingent work can bring public knowledge into the fi rm, such as industry best practices; moreover, it can have a catalytic effect on the knowledge-creation process, helping to create new

24 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

private [fi rm specifi c] knowledge. However, it may also act as a conduit through which private knowledge leaks into the public domain.” (Matusik and Hill 1998).

2.3.4 Knowledge Management As an organization learns, there is a need to manage proactively the knowledge within the organization. The discipline of knowledge management has been developing over a number of years. Starbuck (1992) said that “creating, applying and preserving [knowledge] intertwine and complement each other. At least over long periods, merely storing knowledge does not preserve it. For old knowledge to have meaning, people must relate it to their current problems and activities.” Its importance for the development of organizations is well-recognized: for example, Coombs and Hull (1998) note the role of knowledge management in promoting innovation and describe how different knowledge management practices can infl uence the extent to which an organization is able to generate variety and create radically new knowledge rather than being limited by existing knowledge, shared routines, shared mental models, etc. While knowledge management is often given a fairly narrow defi nition, O’Dell and Jackson Grayson (1998) describe it simply as “a conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping people share and put information into action in ways that strive to improve organizational performance” (cited in Levene and Gale 2000). It is now a widespread and accepted part of corporate life—for example, in the construction industry (a particularly projectized industry), Robinson, Carrillo, Anumba, and Al-Ghassani (2004) report on the state of knowledge management in 2004 in the construction industry and describe a framework for structuring and implementing a knowledge management strategy, noting the importance of linking it to business strategy and performance.

There are different types of knowledge management processes for different types of situations. Baumard’s (1999) Tacit Knowledge in Organizations, at a basic level, quotes Nonaka’s presentation giving four different ways of transferring knowledge: (a) tacit to tacit is socialization, (b) tacit to explicit is articulation, (c) explicit to explicit is combination, and (d) explicit to tacit is internalization; this book also provides a complex table of different tacit and explicit knowledge embodiments in organizations.

In a more complex level of categorization, Blackler, Crump, and McDonald (1998) divide knowledge into the following categories:

• embodied (action-oriented)

• embedded (in systemic routines)

• embrained (abstract knowledge)

• encultured and/or

• encoded (conveyed by signs and symbols).

Literature Survey 25

These categories use a number of types of knowledge processes, such as:

• provisional and refl exive (actively and creatively constructed rather than eternal verities)

• mediated by linguistic and technological infrastructure (people operate within interpretive or discourse communities)

• situated and pragmatic

• contested and political

• emotional as well as rational.

Although a full treatment of the huge literature on knowledge management in general is outside of the scope of this book, a few relevant summaries of the fi eld will be referenced. von Krogh, Roos, and Kleine (1998) give an overview of the state of the art in 1998. In terms of actual practice, Ruggles (1998) describes some knowledge management activities, based on a study of over 400 organizations and which include barriers to successful implementation. Prichard, Hull, Chumer, and Willmott (2000) give a compilation of articles that provide critical perspectives on work and organization. Specifi cally, broad perspectives on the developmental aspects of knowledge management, particularly exploring (inter al) the impact of knowledge management on the working life of professionals, the effect of knowledge management upon the internal mechanisms within organizations, issues relating to decision-making, and the extraction of wealth from knowledge. And of particular note, Scarbrough, Swan, and Preston (1999) give a full review of literature on knowledge management and learning organizations from 1993 through 1998. They note that literature regarding learning organizations has been declining in the latter years while that on knowledge management was increasing, largely in the IS/IT literature, much of it in practitioner-oriented journals: “The dominant discourse of KM [Knowledge Management] (to capture, codify, use and exploit the knowledge and experience of employees by developing better tools and methods and by developing a willingness and ability to use those methods) is fundamentally different to that of the LOs [Learning Organizations] (to harness the learning capability of the fi rm and individuals within it through people development, empowerment, leadership and culture change).”

A number of authors have warned against the frequency with which knowledge management work restricts its attention to knowledge that can be codifi ed. Johnson, Lorenz, and Lundvall (2002) make the common distinction between know-what, know-why, know-how, and know-who knowledge and note that learning isn’t simply about codifying knowledge. When deciding whether to codify knowledge, one needs to take into account both the amount that will be lost in the transformation process and whether codifi cation is

26 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

an improvement or not (although they recognize that codifi cation can stimulate learning when used to refi ne models and create shared vocabulary and to support the process of refl ection, explication, and documentation of practices). Connell, Klein, and Powell (2003) cover the literature on knowledge management and point to shortcomings with both the personalization view of knowledge management (knowledge is considered inseparable from the person or group that holds it) and the codifi cation view (knowledge is seen as a commodity which can be isolated and codifi ed); they make the point that one needs to consider knowledge as a property of the system, and knowledge needs to be embedded within the context.

The concentration on codifi cation is perhaps due to the frequent view of knowledge management (KM) as part of IT. Scarbrough, Swan, and Preston (1999) quote Cole- Gomolski (1997), who states “the idea behind knowledge management is to stockpile workers’ knowledge and make it accessible to others via a searchable application” to illustrate the view that KM consists simply of making a database. Venugopal and Baets (1995) do take a wide view of how IT tools can support organizational learning (as was seen in 1995). They describe different learning processes (for example, cases, participative strategy formation, sharing individual knowledge, and exploratory knowledge) and the IT tools that can support them (database, group decision support system, cognitive mapping, and artifi cial neural networks). McDermott (1999) has already been quoted previously as warning that IT cannot deliver knowledge. In more detail, Scarbrough, Swan, and Preston (1999) talk about the problem of knowledge management being only interested in IT solutions: “This obsession with tools and techniques falls foul of at least four basic problems. First, it assumes that all knowledge is codifi able, which clearly it is not . . . Secondly, it overemphasizes the utility new information technologies have for delivering organization performance improvements . . . Third, it assumes that, even if perfect systems existed, people are willing to make them work, i.e. to contribute their knowledge to the systems, to share their knowledge and to use the knowledge from the systems, which clearly they are not, or at least not readily. Fourth, the codifi cation and objectifi cation of all tacit knowledge into formal systems . . . generates its own psychopathy – i.e. the fl uid, organic, informal and intuitive practices that are essential in allowing the fl exible fi rm to cope with uncertainty will rigidify.”

Stein and Zwass (1995) indicate that while an organizational memory system can both support and impede higher level learning, an over reliance on it can lessen the degree to which people will question underlying assumptions and procedures and engage in exploratory learning.

Literature Survey 27

2.4 The Current Situation

2.4.1 Standards and Maturity Models Which standards are used for drawing lessons from projects? This is such a key element of project management that one might expect that there should be clearly defi ned guidelines and ways of measuring an organization’s effectiveness at learning project lessons.

Morris, Patel, and Wearne (2000) in their research used to revise the British project management “Body of Knowledge” (BoK) looked into what should actually be included in a BoK, and 80% of project practitioners agreed that “post-project evaluation review” should be included. In the expanded version of the British BoK, the Pathways book, Wateridge authors a chapter on project-implementation reviews (which considers “the reasons behind the variances between the plan and actual spend and effort” and “what would have been done differently with the benefi t of hindsight”), project health-checks (which look at the stakeholders’ view of the direction of the project and whether the project as a whole is moving in the direction to succeed), and project audits (particularly looking at fraud), although this chapter only gives general guidance (Wateridge 2002).

The Project Management Institute’s A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide – Third Edition), an ANSI standard and the basis of PMI’s professional qualifi cation, gives the simple statement that “The causes of variances, the reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned should be documented so that they become part of the historical database . . .” (Section 8.3.3.8). Strang (2003) notes the fact that lessons learned are included as inputs or outputs to almost all of the nine knowledge areas of the PMBOK® Guide, and in all fi ve process groups (and details many of the relevant subsections). Strang looks at theory about organizational learning in projects and looks at practice but concludes that the theory is rarely applied in practice and discusses the diffi culties. Lessons learned do come into the Project Management Institute’s OPM3 Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (Project Management Institute 2004), but with little emphasis or much guidance beyond the PMBOK® Guide.

PRINCE2 (Offi ce of Government Commerce 2002) also has a process for recording lessons learned and reporting on them. Lessons are captured in the lessons learned log; at the end of the project these are collated into a lessons learned report.

It is not just the project management BoKs that recognize this need: Turner et al. (2000) describe the use of procedures to represent captured knowledge and experience and stress the vital role of project reviews and say that “End of project reviews play a vital part in capturing experience within organizations. PRINCE2 and ISO 10006 suggest a review be conducted at the end of every project, and company standard procedures updated to refl ect this.”

So the standards generally require project reviews to be carried out, although with little guidance as to how this should operate. But is “learning lessons” featured in the more sophisticated “maturity models” that seek to defi ne how mature an organization is

28 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

in project management? Cooke-Davies and Arzymanow (2002) describe a study looking at how practices in project management differ between industries, carried out for a community of practice of project managers in the pharmaceutical industry; they identifi ed different levels of maturity in different industries but do not discuss differences in the way organizations learn. Nor did recent work on Organizational Project Management Maturity (e.g., Kalantjakos 2001); nor really the risk management maturity model standard (Risk Management Research and Development Program Collaboration 2002), in which there is no signifi cant discussion of post-project analysis and no closing the learning loop (“Level 3” has some data collection, and “Level 4” has a direct mention of “learning by experience”). But recent maturity standards work reported in Schlichter (2001) required the following:

• A process to capture and disseminate lessons learned

• “Lessons learned” stored in an accessible location

• Evidence of capture/dissemination and the reuse of information in subsequent projects.

Further, he looked for learning from projects that is translated into the corporate approach, and learning that takes place in all of its dimensions (i.e., individual, team, organizational).

Another work building further on this is from von Zedtwitz (2002), who gives a capability model only for post-project reviews. Using the standard fi ve-stage capability model, he defi nes stages:

• Initial: ad-hoc methods, reaction-driven reviews

• Repeatable: with sound review practices

• Defi ned: a standardized process with sound and consistent review criteria, “usually” with a small unit responsible for training

• Managed: review goals with “quantifi ed and measurable” quality criteria

• Optimized: post-project reviews established organization-wide with proactive review of processes.

2.4.2 Prevalence Given that the standards do require project reviews to be carried out, the literature is somewhat divided regarding its prevalence in practice.

Some papers state as an accepted fact that learning is rare. Gulliver (1987) says “in talking with business people from large British and multi-national corporations, I have found that few companies examine their completed projects in any depth.” Harris agrees,

Literature Survey 29

saying that “learning from past mistakes, or even building upon past successes, continues to be the exception rather than the rule.” Disterer (2002) says that “Only a few fi rms manage systematically to identify and transfer valuable knowledge from projects to following projects.” Carrillo et al. (2004) state that in construction management—a particularly relevant fi eld as it is project-based—“. . . teams frequently disband upon project completion without conducting post-project reviews and disseminating the lessons learned.” Keegan and Turner’s (2001) research suggested that “learning was unsatisfactory.”

Some papers on the other hand state as accepted fact that generally lessons learned activities and learning from projects generally occur in practice. Newell (2004) describes post-mortems as “ubiquitous.” Scarbrough, Swan, and Preston (1999) comment that “as fi rms increasingly become more innovative and project-based, many are recognizing the need to capture the learning from individual projects, and make it available throughout the organization. Consultancies, professional service fi rms, aerospace companies, etc., are in the vanguard of developing systems to codify and communicate such knowledge.”

More useful, of course, is actual statistics on the prevalence of project learning activity (this current PMI project will of course provide some large-sample statistics in a later document). None of the results give defi nitive or conclusive conclusions. Many describe post-project review as fairly common:

• Besner and Hobbs (2004) describe a survey of the usage of project management (PM) tools and techniques across different contexts and project types, in which “Lessons learned/post-mortem” is one of the most frequently used on all project types; however, the use of “database of lessons learned” differed signifi cantly between low and high PM maturity organizations.

• Kotnour’s (2000) infl uential paper was based on a survey of 43 project managers who were attending a PMI chapter meeting (so could be expected to be interested generally in project management learning)—of these, 31 said they completed lessons while 12 said they did not.

• Carrillo et al. (2004) (with 53 responses in the construction fi eld) found that 26% of companies did not have (or plan to have) a knowledge management strategy (although only 9.5% in the case of companies with more than 1,500 employees)

• Fong (2005) describes a survey of knowledge management among quantity surveyors in Hong Kong and the UK: in a table of “practices used,” “lessons learned from previous projects” came in as the third most common practice in the UK and fi fth in Hong Kong (although it wasn’t clear whether this referred to formalized procedures or not); however, this was clearly not seen as suffi cient in terms of what they wanted their companies to develop, 43% wanted them to develop knowledge- sharing skills, 39% wanted them to develop knowledge-capturing skills, and 18% knowledge-creating skills.

30 Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned

Others, on the other hand, found post-project reviews to be less frequent:

• An early piece of research here is described in Neale and Holmes (1990), who carried out a survey of fi nance directors from companies (with 410 replies) about their post- auditing procedures for capital projects (so the emphasis is on improving decisions about whether to invest in a project, e.g., better proposals, better evaluation, better fi nancial control): 48% used post-auditing techniques, with a bias towards the largest companies (large being a relative term as all the companies were taken from the Times 1000) and manufacturing companies.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

 Guide to the PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1. A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® Guide) 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview and Purpose of this Guide 1.1.1 The Standard for Project Management 1.1.2 Common Vocabulary 1.1.3 Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

1.2 Foundational Elements 1.2.1 Projects 1.2.2 The Importance of Project Management 1.2.3 Relationship of Project, Program, Portfolio,

and Operations Management 1.2.4 Components of the Guide 1.2.5 Tailoring 1.2.6 Project Management Business Documents

2. THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH PROJECTS OPERATE 2.1 Overview 2.2 Enterprise Environmental Factors

2.2.1 EEFs Internal to the Organization 2.2.2 EEFs External to the Organization

2.3 Organizational Process Assets 2.3.1 Processes, Policies, and Procedures 2.3.2 Organizational Knowledge Repositories

7

2.4 Organizational Systems 2.4.1 Overview 2.4.2 Organizational Governance Frameworks 2.4.3 Management Elements 2.4.4 Organizational Structure Types

3. THE ROLE OF THE PROJECT MANAGER 3.1 Overview 3.2 Definition of a Project Manager 3.3 The Project Manager’s Sphere of Influence

3.3.1 Overview 3.3.2 The Project 3.3.3 The Organization 3.3.4 The Industry 3.3.5 Professional Discipline 3.3.6 Across Disciplines

3.4 Project Manager Competences 3.4.1 Overview 3.4.2 Technical Project Management Skills 3.4.3 Strategic and Business Management Skills 3.4.4 Leadership Skills 3.4.5 Comparison of Leadership and Management

3.5 Performing Integration 3.5.1 Performing Integration at the Process Level 3.5.2 Integration at the Cognitive Level 3.5.3 Integration at the Context Level 3.5.4 Integration and Complexity

4. PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT 4.1 Develop Project Charter

8

4.1.1 Develop Project Charter: Inputs 4.1.2 Develop Project Charter: Tools and

Techniques 4.1.3 Develop Project Charter: Outputs

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan 4.2.1 Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs 4.2.2 Develop Project Management Plan: Tools and

Techniques 4.2.3 Develop Project Management Plan: Outputs

4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work 4.3.1 Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs 4.3.2 Direct and Manage Project Work: Tools and

Techniques 4.3.3 Direct and Manage Project Work: Outputs

4.4 Manage Project Knowledge 4.4.1 Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs 4.4.2 Manage Project Knowledge: Tools and

Techniques 4.4.3 Manage Project Knowledge: Outputs

4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work 4.5.1 Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs 4.5.2 Monitor and Control Project Work: Tools and

Techniques 4.5.3 Monitor and Control Project Work: Outputs

4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control 4.6.1 Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs 4.6.2 Perform Integrated Change Control: Tools

and Techniques 4.6.3 Perform Integrated Change Control: Outputs

9

4.7 Close Project or Phase 4.7.1 Close Project or Phase: Inputs 4.7.2 Close Project or Phase: Tools and Techniques 4.7.3 Close Project or Phase: Outputs

5. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5.1 Plan Scope Management

5.1.1 Plan Scope Management: Inputs 5.1.2 Plan Scope Management: Tools and

Techniques 5.1.3 Plan Scope Management: Outputs

5.2 Collect Requirements 5.2.1 Collect Requirements: Inputs 5.2.2 Collect Requirements: Tools and Techniques 5.2.3 Collect Requirements: Outputs

5.3 Define Scope 5.3.1 Define Scope: Inputs 5.3.2 Define Scope: Tools and Techniques 5.3.3 Define Scope: Outputs

5.4 Create WBS 5.4.1 Create WBS: Inputs 5.4.2 Create WBS: Tools and Techniques 5.4.3 Create WBS: Outputs

5.5 Validate Scope 5.5.1 Validate Scope: Inputs 5.5.2 Validate Scope: Tools and Techniques 5.5.3 Validate Scope: Outputs

5.6 Control Scope 5.6.1 Control Scope: Inputs

10

5.6.2 Control Scope: Tools and Techniques 5.6.3 Control Scope: Outputs

6. PROJECT SCHEDULE MANAGEMENT 6.1 Plan Schedule Management

6.1.1 Plan Schedule Management: Inputs 6.1.2 Plan Schedule Management: Tools and

Techniques 6.1.3 Plan Schedule Management: Outputs

6.2 Define Activities 6.2.1 Define Activities: Inputs 6.2.2 Define Activities: Tools and Techniques 6.2.3 Define Activities: Outputs

6.3 Sequence Activities 6.3.1 Sequence Activities: Inputs 6.3.2 Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques 6.3.3 Sequence Activities: Outputs

6.4 Estimate Activity Durations 6.4.1 Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs 6.4.2 Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and

Techniques 6.4.3 Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs

6.5 Develop Schedule 6.5.1 Develop Schedule: Inputs 6.5.2 Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques 6.5.3 Develop Schedule: Outputs

6.6 Control Schedule 6.6.1 Control Schedule: Inputs 6.6.2 Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques 6.6.3 Control Schedule: Outputs

11

7. PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT 7.1 Plan Cost Management

7.1.1 Plan Cost Management: Inputs 7.1.2 Plan Cost Management: Tools and Techniques 7.1.3 Plan Cost Management: Outputs

7.2 Estimate Costs 7.2.1 Estimate Costs: Inputs 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: Tools and Techniques 7.2.3 Estimate Costs: Outputs

7.3 Determine Budget 7.3.1 Determine Budget: Inputs 7.3.2 Determine Budget: Tools and Techniques 7.3.3 Determine Budget: Outputs

7.4 Control Costs 7.4.1 Control Costs: Inputs 7.4.2 Control Costs: Tools and Techniques 7.4.3 Control Costs: Outputs

8. PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT 8.1 Plan Quality Management

8.1.1 Plan Quality Management: Inputs 8.1.2 Plan Quality Management: Tools and

Techniques 8.1.3 Plan Quality Management: Outputs

8.2 Manage Quality 8.2.1 Manage Quality: Inputs 8.2.2 Manage Quality: Tools and Techniques 8.2.3 Manage Quality: Outputs

8.3 Control Quality

12

8.3.1 Control Quality: Inputs 8.3.2 Control Quality: Tools and Techniques 8.3.3 Control Quality: Outputs

9. PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 9.1 Plan Resource Management

9.1.1 Plan Resource Management: Inputs 9.1.2 Plan Resource Management: Tools and

Techniques 9.1.3 Plan Resource Management: Outputs

9.2 Estimate Activity Resources 9.2.1 Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs 9.2.2 Estimate Activity Resources: Tools and

Techniques 9.2.3 Estimate Activity Resources: Outputs

9.3 Acquire Resources 9.3.1 Acquire Resources: Inputs 9.3.2 Acquire Resources: Tools and Techniques 9.3.3 Acquire Resources: Outputs

9.4 Develop Team 9.4.1 Develop Team: Inputs 9.4.2 Develop Team: Tools and Techniques 9.4.3 Develop Team: Outputs

9.5 Manage Team 9.5.1 Manage Team: Inputs 9.5.2 Manage Team: Tools and Techniques 9.5.3 Manage Team: Outputs

9.6 Control Resources 9.6.1 Control Resources: Inputs 9.6.2 Control Resources: Tools and Techniques

13

9.6.3 Control Resources: Outputs 10. PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT

10.1 Plan Communications Management 10.1.1 Plan Communications Management: Inputs 10.1.2 Plan Communications Management: Tools

and Techniques 10.1.3 Plan Communications Management: Outputs

10.2 Manage Communications 10.2.1 Manage Communications: Inputs 10.2.2 Manage Communications: Tools and

Techniques 10.2.3 Manage Communications: Outputs

10.3 Monitor Communications 10.3.1 Monitor Communications: Inputs 10.3.2 Monitor Communications: Tools and

Techniques 10.3.3 Monitor Communications: Outputs

11. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT 11.1 Plan Risk Management

11.1.1 Plan Risk Management: Inputs 11.1.2 Plan Risk Management: Tools and

Techniques 11.1.3 Plan Risk Management: Outputs

11.2 Identify Risks 11.2.1 Identify Risks: Inputs 11.2.2 Identify Risks: Tools and Techniques 11.2.3 Identify Risks: Outputs

11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 11.3.1 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs

14

11.3.2 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Tools and Techniques

11.3.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Outputs 11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

11.4.1 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs 11.4.2 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Tools

and Techniques 11.4.3 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Outputs

11.5 Plan Risk Responses 11.5.1 Plan Risk Responses: Inputs 11.5.2 Plan Risk Responses: Tools and Techniques 11.5.3 Plan Risk Responses: Outputs

11.6 Implement Risk Responses 11.6.1 Implement Risk Responses: Inputs 11.6.2 Implement Risk Responses: Tools and

Techniques 11.6.3 Implement Risk Responses: Outputs

11.7 Monitor Risks 11.7.1 Monitor Risks: Inputs 11.7.2 Monitor Risks: Tools and Techniques 11.7.3 Monitor Risks: Outputs

12. PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT 12.1 Plan Procurement Management

12.1.1 Plan Procurement Management: Inputs 12.1.2 Plan Procurement Management: Tools and

Techniques 12.1.3 Plan Procurement Management: Outputs

12.2 Conduct Procurements 12.2.1 Conduct Procurements: Inputs

15

12.2.2 Conduct Procurements: Tools and Techniques

12.2.3 Conduct Procurements: Outputs 12.3 Control Procurements

12.3.1 Control Procurements: Inputs 12.3.2 Control Procurements: Tools and

Techniques 12.3.3 Control Procurements: Outputs

13. PROJECT STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT 13.1 Identify Stakeholders

13.1.1 Identify Stakeholders: Inputs 13.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and Techniques 13.1.3 Identify Stakeholders: Outputs

13.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement 13.2.1 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs 13.2.2 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and

Techniques 13.2.3 Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs

13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement 13.3.1 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs 13.3.2 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and

Techniques 13.3.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs

13.4 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement 13.4.1 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs 13.4.2 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and

Techniques 13.4.3 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs

REFERENCES

16

PART 2. THE STANDARD FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Projects and Project Management 1.2 Relationships Among Portfolios, Programs, and

Projects 1.3 Linking Organizational Governance and Project

Governance 1.4 Project Success and Benefits Management 1.5 The Project Life Cycle 1.6 Project Stakeholders 1.7 Role of the Project Manager 1.8 Project Management Knowledge Areas 1.9 Project Management Process Groups 1.10 Enterprise Environmental Factors and

Organizational Process Assets 1.11 Tailoring the Project Artifacts

2. INITIATING PROCESS GROUP 2.1 Develop Project Charter 2.2 Identify Stakeholders

2.2.1 Project Management Plan Components 2.2.2 Project Documents Examples 2.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates 2.2.4 Project Documents Updates

3. PLANNING PROCESS GROUP 3.1 Develop Project Management Plan 3.2 Plan Scope Management

3.2.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.3 Collect Requirements

17

3.3.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.3.2 Project Documents Examples

3.4 Define Scope 3.4.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.4.2 Project Documents Examples 3.4.3 Project Documents Updates

3.5 Create WBS 3.5.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.5.2 Project Documents Examples 3.5.3 Project Documents Updates

3.6 Plan Schedule Management 3.6.1 Project Management Plan Components

3.7 Define Activities 3.7.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.7.2 Project Management Plan Updates

3.8 Sequence Activities 3.8.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.8.2 Project Documents Examples 3.8.3 Project Documents Updates

3.9 Estimate Activity Durations 3.9.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.9.2 Project Documents Examples 3.9.3 Project Documents Updates

3.10 Develop Schedule 3.10.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.10.2 Project Documents Examples 3.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates 3.10.4 Project Documents Updates

18

3.11 Plan Cost Management 3.11.1 Project Management Plan Components

3.12 Estimate Costs 3.12.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.12.2 Project Documents Examples 3.12.3 Project Documents Updates

3.13 Determine Budget 3.13.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.13.2 Project Documents Examples 3.13.3 Project Documents Updates

3.14 Plan Quality Management 3.14.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.14.2 Project Documents Examples 3.14.3 Project Management Plan Updates 3.14.4 Project Documents Updates

3.15 Plan Resource Management 3.15.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.15.2 Project Documents 3.15.3 Project Documents Updates

3.16 Estimate Activity Resources 3.16.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.16.2 Project Documents Examples 3.16.3 Project Documents Updates

3.17 Plan Communications Management 3.17.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.17.2 Project Documents Examples 3.17.3 Project Management Plan Updates 3.17.4 Project Documents Updates

19

3.18 Plan Risk Management 3.18.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.18.2 Project Documents Examples

3.19 Identify Risks 3.19.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.19.2 Project Documents Examples 3.19.3 Project Documents Updates

3.20 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis 3.20.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.20.2 Project Documents Examples 3.20.3 Project Documents Updates

3.21 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis 3.21.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.21.2 Project Documents Examples 3.21.3 Project Documents Updates

3.22 Plan Risk Responses 3.22.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.22.2 Project Documents Examples 3.22.3 Project Management Plan Updates 3.22.4 Project Documents Updates

3.23 Plan Procurement Management 3.23.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.23.2 Project Documents Examples 3.23.3 Project Documents Updates

3.24 Plan Stakeholder Engagement 3.24.1 Project Management Plan Components 3.24.2 Project Documents Examples

4. EXECUTING PROCESS GROUP

20

4.1 Direct and Manage Project Work 4.1.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.1.2 Project Documents Examples 4.1.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.1.4 Project Documents Updates

4.2 Manage Project Knowledge 4.2.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.2.2 Project Documents 4.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates

4.3 Manage Quality 4.3.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.3.2 Project Documents Examples 4.3.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.3.4 Project Documents Updates

4.4 Acquire Resources 4.4.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.4.2 Project Documents Examples 4.4.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.4.4 Project Documents Updates

4.5 Develop Team 4.5.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.5.2 Project Documents Examples 4.5.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.5.4 Project Documents Updates

4.6 Manage Team 4.6.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.6.2 Project Documents Examples 4.6.3 Project Management Plan Updates

21

4.6.4 Project Documents Updates 4.7 Manage Communications

4.7.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.7.2 Project Documents Example 4.7.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.7.4 Project Documents Updates

4.8 Implement Risk Responses 4.8.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.8.2 Project Documents Examples 4.8.3 Project Documents Updates

4.9 Conduct Procurements 4.9.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.9.2 Project Documents Examples 4.9.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.9.4 Project Documents Updates

4.10 Manage Stakeholder Engagement 4.10.1 Project Management Plan Components 4.10.2 Project Documents Examples 4.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates 4.10.4 Project Documents Updates

5. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING PROCESS GROUP 5.1 Monitor and Control Project Work

5.1.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.1.2 Project Documents Examples 5.1.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.1.4 Project Documents Updates

5.2 Perform Integrated Change Control

22

5.2.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.2.2 Project Documents Examples 5.2.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.2.4 Project Documents Updates

5.3 Validate Scope 5.3.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.3.2 Project Documents Examples 5.3.3 Project Documents Updates

5.4 Control Scope 5.4.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.4.2 Project Documents Examples 5.4.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.4.4 Project Documents Updates

5.5 Control Schedule 5.5.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.5.2 Project Documents Examples 5.5.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.5.4 Project Documents Updates

5.6 Control Costs 5.6.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.6.2 Project Documents Examples 5.6.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.6.4 Project Documents Updates

5.7 Control Quality 5.7.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.7.2 Project Documents Examples 5.7.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.7.4 Project Documents Updates

23

5.8 Control Resources 5.8.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.8.2 Project Documents Examples 5.8.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.8.4 Project Documents Updates

5.9 Monitor Communications 5.9.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.9.2 Project Documents Examples 5.9.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.9.4 Project Documents Updates

5.10 Monitor Risks 5.10.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.10.2 Project Documents Examples 5.10.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.10.4 Project Documents Updates

5.11 Control Procurements 5.11.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.11.2 Project Documents Examples 5.11.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.11.4 Project Documents Updates

5.12 Monitor Stakeholder Engagement 5.12.1 Project Management Plan Components 5.12.2 Project Documents Examples 5.12.3 Project Management Plan Updates 5.12.4 Project Documents Updates

6. CLOSING PROCESS GROUP 6.1 Close Project or Phase

6.1.1 Project Management Plan Components

24

6.1.2 Project Documents Examples 6.1.3 Project Documents Updates

PART 3. APPENDICES, GLOSSARY, AND INDEX APPENDIX X1 SIXTH EDITION CHANGES APPENDIX X2 CONTRIBUTORS AND REVIEWERS OF THE PMBOK® GUIDE—SIXTH EDITION APPENDIX X3 AGILE, ITERATIVE, ADAPTIVE, AND HYBRID PROJECT ENVIRONMENTS APPENDIX X4 SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS FOR KNOWLEDGE AREAS APPENDIX X5 SUMMARY OF TAILORING CONSIDERATIONS FOR KNOWLEDGE AREAS APPENDIX X6 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES GLOSSARY

25

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

PART 1. A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (PMBOK® Guide) Figure 1-1. Organizational State Transition via a

Project Figure 1-2. Project Initiation Context Figure 1-3. Portfolio, Programs, Projects, and

Operations Figure 1-4. Organizational Project Management Figure 1-5. Interrelationship of PMBOK® Guide

Key Components in Projects Figure 1-6. Example Process: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 1-7. Project Data, Information, and Report

Flow Figure 1-8. Interrelationship of Needs Assessment

and Critical Business/Project Documents

Figure 2-1. Project Influences Figure 3-1. Example of Project Manager’s Sphere

of Influence Figure 3-2. The PMI Talent Triangle® Figure 4-1. Project Integration Management

Overview Figure 4-2. Develop Project Charter: Inputs, Tools

& Techniques, and Outputs Figure 4-3. Develop Project Charter: Data Flow

26

Diagram Figure 4-4. Develop Project Management Plan:

Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 4-5. Develop Project Management Plan: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4-6. Direct and Manage Project Work: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 4-7. Direct and Manage Project Work: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4-8. Manage Project Knowledge: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 4-9. Manage Project Knowledge: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4-10. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 4-11. Monitor and Control Project Work: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4-12. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 4-13. Perform Integrated Change Control: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4-14. Close Project or Phase: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 4-15. Close Project or Phase: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 5-1. Project Scope Management Overview Figure 5-2. Plan Scope Management: Inputs, Tools

27

& Techniques, and Outputs Figure 5-3. Plan Scope Management: Data Flow

Diagram

Figure 5-4. Collect Requirements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 5-5. Collect Requirements: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 5-6. Context Diagram Figure 5-7. Example of a Requirements

Traceability Matrix Figure 5-8. Define Scope: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 5-9. Define Scope: Data Flow Diagram Figure 5-10. Create WBS: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 5-11. Create WBS: Data Flow Diagram Figure 5-12. Sample WBS Decomposed Down

Through Work Packages Figure 5-13. Sample WBS Organized by Phase Figure 5-14. Sample WBS with Major Deliverables Figure 5-15. Validate Scope: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 5-16. Validate Scope: Data Flow Diagram Figure 5-17. Control Scope: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 5-18. Control Scope: Data Flow Diagram Figure 6-1. Project Schedule Management

Overview Figure 6-2. Scheduling Overview Figure 6-3. Plan Schedule Management: Inputs,

28

Tools & Techniques, and Outputs Figure 6-4. Plan Schedule Management: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 6-5. Define Activities: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 6-6. Define Activities: Data Flow Diagram Figure 6-7. Sequence Activities: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 6-8. Sequence Activities: Data Flow Diagram Figure 6-9. Precedence Diagramming Method

(PDM) Relationship Types Figure 6-10. Examples of Lead and Lag Figure 6-11. Project Schedule Network Diagram Figure 6-12. Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs,

Tools & Techniques, and Outputs Figure 6-13. Estimate Activity Durations: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 6-14. Develop Schedule: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 6-15. Develop Schedule: Data Flow Diagram Figure 6-16. Example of Critical Path Method Figure 6-17. Resource Leveling Figure 6-18. Example Probability Distribution of a

Target Milestone Figure 6-19. Schedule Compression Comparison Figure 6-20. Relationship Between Product Vision,

Release Planning, and Iteration Planning

Figure 6-21. Project Schedule Presentations— Examples

Figure 6-22. Control Schedule: Inputs, Tools &

29

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 6-23. Control Schedule: Data Flow Diagram Figure 6-24. Iteration Burndown Chart Figure 7-1. Project Cost Management Overview Figure 7-2. Plan Cost Management: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 7-3. Plan Cost Management: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 7-4. Estimate Costs: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 7-5. Estimate Costs: Data Flow Diagram Figure 7-6. Determine Budget: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 7-7. Determine Budget: Data Flow Diagram Figure 7-8. Project Budget Components Figure 7-9. Cost Baseline, Expenditures, and

Funding Requirements Figure 7-10. Control Costs: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 7-11. Control Costs: Data Flow Diagram Figure 7-12. Earned Value, Planned Value, and

Actual Costs Figure 7-13. To-Complete Performance Index

(TCPI) Figure 8-1. Project Quality Management Overview Figure 8-2. Major Project Quality Management

Process Interrelations Figure 8-3. Plan Quality Management: Inputs,

Tools & Techniques, and Outputs Figure 8-4. Plan Quality Management: Data Flow

Diagram

30

Figure 8-5. Cost of Quality Figure 8-6. The SIPOC Model Figure 8-7. Manage Quality: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 8-8. Manage Quality: Data Flow Diagram Figure 8-9. Cause-and-Effect Diagram Figure 8-10. Control Quality: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 8-11. Control Quality: Data Flow Diagram Figure 8-12. Check Sheets Figure 9-1. Project Resource Management

Overview Figure 9-2. Plan Resource Management: Inputs,

Tools & Techniques, and Outputs Figure 9-3. Plan Resource Management: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 9-4. Sample RACI Chart Figure 9-5. Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs,

Tools & Techniques, and Outputs Figure 9-6. Estimate Activity Resources: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 9-7. Sample Resource Breakdown Structure Figure 9-8. Acquire Resources: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 9-9. Acquire Resources: Data Flow Diagram Figure 9-10. Develop Team: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 9-11. Develop Team: Data Flow Diagram Figure 9-12. Manage Team: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs

31

Figure 9-13. Manage Team: Data Flow Diagram Figure 9-14. Control Resources: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 9-15. Control Resources: Data Flow Diagram Figure 10-1. Project Communications Overview Figure 10-2. Plan Communications Management:

Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 10-3. Plan Communications Management: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 10-4. Communication Model for Cross- Cultural Communication

Figure 10-5. Manage Communications: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 10-6. Manage Communications: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 10-7. Monitor Communications: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 10-8. Monitor Communications: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 11-1. Project Risk Management Overview Figure 11-2. Plan Risk Management: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 11-3. Plan Risk Management: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 11-4. Extract from Sample Risk Breakdown

Structure (RBS) Figure 11-5. Example Probability and Impact Matrix

with Scoring Scheme Figure 11-6. Identify Risks: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs

32

Figure 11-7. Identify Risks: Data Flow Diagram Figure 11-8. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis:

Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 11-9. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 11-10. Example Bubble Chart Showing Detectability, Proximity, and Impact Value

Figure 11-11. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 11-12. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 11-13. Example S-Curve from Quantitative Cost Risk Analysis

Figure 11-14. Example Tornado Diagram Figure 11-15. Example Decision Tree Figure 11-16. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 11-17. Plan Risk Responses: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 11-18. Implement Risk Responses: Inputs,

Tools & Techniques, and Outputs Figure 11-19. Implement Risk Responses: Data Flow

Diagram Figure 11-20. Monitor Risks: Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and Outputs Figure 11-21. Monitor Risks: Data Flow Diagram Figure 12-1. Project Procurement Management

Overview

33

Figure 12-2. Plan Procurement Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 12-3. Plan Procurement Management: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 12-4. Conduct Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 12-5. Conduct Procurements: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 12-6. Control Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 12-7. Control Procurements: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 13-1. Project Stakeholder Management Overview

Figure 13-2. Identify Stakeholders: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 13-3. Identify Stakeholders: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 13-4. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 13-5. Plan Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 13-6. Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix

Figure 13-7. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs

Figure 13-8. Manage Stakeholder Engagement: Data Flow Diagram

Figure 13-9. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and

Syllabus

Academic Honesty and Integrity Statement Not only does the University view academic dishonesty as one of the most serious offenses that a student can commit while in college, but, as your instructor, I want you to know that I also take this offense very seriously. 1 2 In addition to abiding by the expectations of the University, as a future project manager, you will also need to abide by PMI’s Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct (http://www.pmi.org/About-Us/Ethics/CodeofEthics.aspx), which includes an honesty section very similar to the academic honesty principles outlined by NEU. PMI’s Code states: “As practitioners of project management, we are committed to doing what is right and honorable. We set high standards for ourselves and we aspire to meet these standards in all aspects of our lives.” (PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, Section 1.1) Regarding honesty, this code reminds us that as project practitioners, we are obligated NOT to “engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others…” but to “make commitments and promises, implied or explicit, in good faith”. (PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, Section 5.2 & 5.3) Please understand that I will not tolerate any instances of academic dishonesty in this course. If I suspect a student of violating our academic policy, I will notify the student and give them a chance to review my concerns. If I am not completely satisfied that there was no violation of the policy, I will refer the student to the Office of Student Conduct & Conflict Resolution (OSCCR) and in most cases, the student will immediately be given a failing grade for the course. Students will not be allowed to repeat an assignment or in any way make up for the violation. There is no excuse for academic dishonesty. Please make sure that you completely understand what is expected of you. Academic honesty means being truthful at all times in your communications and in your conduct. It also means letting your instructor know if you are aware of any instances of academic dishonesty, even if you were not involved in the dishonest actions. While the following is not an all-inclusive list, I hope this will help you to understand some of the things instructors look for. The following is adapted from the University’s policy on academic honesty and integrity; the complete policy is available at http://www.northeastern.edu/osccr/academicintegrity/index.html Cheating – intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in an academic exercise of any type. This may include use of unauthorized aids (notes, texts), or copying from another student’s exam, paper, computer disk, etc. Fabrication – intentional and unauthorized falsification, misrepresentation, or invention of any data, or citation in an academic exercise. Examples include making up data for a research paper, altering the results of a lab experiment or survey, listing a citation for a source not used, or stating an opinion as a scientifically proven fact. Plagiarism – intentionally representing the words or ideas of another as one’s own in any academic exercise without providing proper documentation of the source by way of a footnote, endnote, or inter-textual note. Selfplagiarism (resubmitting materials from another course or course section as new work) is also prohibited unless specifically authorized, in writing, by the instructor. Unauthorized collaboration – Students, each claiming sole authorship, submit separate reports, which are substantially similar to one another. While several students may have the same source material, the analysis, interpretation and reporting of the data must be each individual’s alone. Note that if two students turn in the same paper, both students will be punished, regardless of which student did the work. NOTE: Unauthorized collaboration also includes lending your work to another student directly or indirectly. You may help fellow students by explaining concepts to them or suggesting additional reading, but not by giving them your work, examples of your work, or answers to specific questions or exercises. You may NOT, for example, lend papers, discs, computers, flash drives, or any other version of your work to other students. 2 3 If another student copies your work, even without your permission, you will also be charged with academic dishonesty. You are expected to safeguard your work. (Also see the section on “participation in academically dishonest activities below”). Participation in academically dishonest activities – Examples include stealing an exam; using a prewritten paper obtained through mail order or other services; selling, loaning or otherwise distributing materials that might facilitate cheating, plagiarism, or other academically dishonest acts; alternation, theft (including the unlawful use of copyright materials), forgery, or destruction of the academic work of others. Facilitating academic dishonesty – Examples may include inaccurately listing someone as co-author of paper who did not contribute, sharing a take home exam, taking an exam or writing a paper for another student, or uploading materials to websites that may be used to facilitate academic dishonesty. Withholding information about dishonesty – not notifying your instructor immediately after observing a real or potential act of academic dishonesty. Examples include, but are not limited to: (1) seeing other students take an exam together in the library or elsewhere, even if you took the exam by yourself; (2) working with a team member who tells you that the part of the team report they submitted was written by someone not on the team; (3) knowing that a student or other individual has uploaded course materials to a website, blog, or other electronic storage location; or (4) knowing that a student has told the teacher they couldn’t come to class because they were sick when you know this isn’t true. PJM6000 – Course Prerequisites PJM 5900 – You must have taken, completed, and passed this course. If you have not, then it is highly likely that you will do poorly in PJM 6000 OR • At least 2-3 years of professional experience directing and leading project tasks. Student Competencies: • Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Power Point are used throughout. Students are expected to be proficient in the use of these programs. • Students will be expected to use APA Sixth Edition writing standards. Required Textbook(s), Articles and Materials The following are texts required materials for this course: 1) A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, 6th edition. Project Management Institute, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-62825-184-5 2) Project Management: The Managerial Process, 7th Edition. Gray, C.F. & Larson, E.W. ISBN: 978-1-259-66609-4 3) Williams, T. (2007). Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned. Project Management Institute. ISBN: 978-1-933890-24-1 4) Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, ISBN: 1- 4338-0561-8 3 4 Software & Related Equipment Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint Student Competencies: • Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Power Point may be used throughout. Students are expected to be proficient in the use of these programs. • Students will be expected to use APA Sixth Edition writing standards. Learning Outcomes Based on satisfactory participation in this course, a student should be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of basic project management concepts by: a. Defining & distinguishing between projects, programs, and portfolios b. Describing the importance of project management c. Using the PMI Project Management framework d. Describing the effect of organizational structure on project management 2. Using real world examples of projects, demonstrate an ability to manage the Initiating process group by: a. Preparing or working with a business case b. Identifying key elements of the business case c. Researching and assessing environmental factors that will impact the business case 3. Using real world examples of projects, demonstrate an ability to manage the Planning process group by: a. Preparing a Project Charter document b. Creating a Scope Statement c. Evaluating processes to identify information that should be input into the Project Carter d. Describing the roles and responsibilities of the project team and project manager e. Evaluating the importance of the Project Charter and its linkage to project initiation approval 4. Using real world examples of projects, demonstrate an ability to manage the Executing and Monitoring and Controlling process groups by: a. Measuring project success b. Making cost, time, and/or scope adjustments as needed c. Describing the Integrated Change Control process 5. Using real world examples of projects, demonstrate an ability to manage the Closing process group by: a. Describing administrative project closure tasks b. Describing how to conduct a Lessons Learned and how to work with the results of this process. 6. Creating a curriculum map that outlines the student’s progression throughout the program. Course Methodology Each week typically begins on Monday and ends on Sunday, except for: The first week, which begins on a Tuesday due to the President’s Day holiday and ends on Sunday, and The final week, which begins on Monday and officially ends on Saturday. Beginning on Monday of each week, you will: 45 5 1. Review the week’s learning objectives. 2. Complete all assigned readings. 3. Complete all lecture materials for the week. 4. Participate in the Discussion Board. 5. Complete and submit all assignments by the due dates. Please note that written work needs to be clear, comprehensible, and competently produced at a graduate level as noted below.

Academic Honesty and Integrity Statement (Second inclusion in this syllabus) Not only does the University view academic dishonesty as one of the most serious offenses that a student can commit while in college, but, as your instructor, I want you to know that I also take this offense very seriously. In addition to abiding by the laws of the university, as a future project manager, you will also need to abide by PMI’s Code of Ethics & Professional Conduct (http://www.pmi.org/About-Us/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics.aspx), which includes an honesty section very similar to the academic honesty principles outlined by NEU. PMI’s Code states: “As practitioners of project management, we are committed to doing what is right and honorable. We set high standards for ourselves and we aspire to meet these standards in all aspects of our lives.” (PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, Section 1.1) Regarding honesty, this code reminds us that as project practitioners, we are obligated NOT to “engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others…” but to “make commitments and promises, implied or explicit, in good faith”. (PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, Section 5.2 & 5.3) Please understand that I will not tolerate any instances of academic dishonesty in this course. If I suspect a student of violating our academic policy, I will notify the student and give them a chance to review my concerns. If I am not completely satisfied that there was no violation of the policy, I will refer the student to the Office of Student Conduct & Conflict Resolution (OSCCR) and in most cases, the student will immediately be given a failing grade for the course. Students will not be allowed to repeat an assignment or in any way make up for the violation. There is no excuse for academic dishonesty. Please make sure that you completely understand what is expected of you. Academic honesty means being truthful at all times in your communications and in your conduct. It also means letting your instructor know if you are aware of any instances of academic dishonesty, even if you were not involved in the dishonest actions. While the following is not an all-inclusive list, I hope this will help you to understand some of the things instructors look for. The following is adapted from the University’s policy on academic honesty and integrity; the complete policy is available at http://www.northeastern.edu/osccr/academicintegrity/index.html Cheating – intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in an academic exercise of any type. This may include use of unauthorized aids (notes, texts), or copying from another student’s exam, paper, computer disk, etc. Fabrication – intentional and unauthorized falsification, misrepresentation, or invention of any data, or citation in an academic exercise. Examples include making up data for a research paper, altering the results of 16 a lab experiment or survey, listing a citation for a source not used, or stating an opinion as a scientifically proven fact. Plagiarism – intentionally representing the words or ideas of another as one’s own in any academic exercise without providing proper documentation of the source by way of a footnote, endnote, or inter-textual note. Self-plagiarism (resubmitting materials from another course or course section as new work) is also prohibited unless explicit permission for its reuse is approved by the instructor in writing. Unauthorized collaboration – Students, each claiming sole authorship, submit separate reports, which are substantially similar to one another. While several students may have the same source material, the analysis, interpretation and reporting of the data must be each individual’s alone. Note that if two students turn in the same paper, both students will be punished, regardless of which student did the work. NOTE: Unauthorized collaboration also includes lending my work to another student. I know that I may help my fellow students by explaining concepts to them or suggesting additional reading, but not by giving them my work, examples of my work, or answers to specific questions or exercises. I won’t, for example, lend my papers, discs, computers, flash drives, or any other version of my work to other students. I know that if they copy my work, even without my permission, I will also be charged with academic dishonesty. I know that I’m expected to safeguard my work. (Also see the section on “participation in academically dishonest activities below”.) Participation in academically dishonest activities – Examples include stealing an exam; using a prewritten paper obtained through mail order or other services; selling, loaning or otherwise distributing materials for the purpose of cheating, plagiarism, or other academically dishonest acts; alternation, theft (including the unlawful use of copyright materials), forgery, or destruction of the academic work of others. Facilitating academic dishonesty – Examples may include inaccurately listing someone as co-author of paper who did not contribute, sharing a take home exam, taking an exam or writing a paper for another student. Withholding information about dishonesty – not notifying your instructor immediately after observing a real or potential act of academic dishonesty. Examples include: (1) seeing other students take an exam together in the library or elsewhere, even if you took the exam by yourself, (2) working with a team member who tells you that the part of the team report they submitted was written by someone not on the team, or (3) hearing a student tell the teacher they couldn’t come to class because they were sick when you know this isn’t true. Student Support Software & Related Equipment Blackboard Collaborate – this free software provides text chats, audio chats (if you have a headset), whiteboard sharing, and most importantly, screen sharing. You can download this free from the Tools link on the left column at our Blackboard course site. A noise-canceling headset (headphones plus noise-canceling microphone) will allow you to speak with me using Blackboard IM. Headsets can be purchased from online vendors for about $30. Microsoft Project 2010 or 2013 – There is no recent version available for the Mac, but you may use one of the campus computers which provide access to MsProject. This software may also be used in a Windows virtual environment on the Mac. MS Project 2013 is the recommended version. Instructions for obtaining a copy of MS Project are posted in the course. 17 Computer access – the InfoCommons in the Snell library can be used 7 days a week. The library may also have laptops, etc. available for short-term loan. See: http://www.lib.neu.edu/ Communication resources If you need help to improve your written communication, the following free resources are available: Smarthinking (available free in Tool section of Blackboard) – this allows students to submit personal written material in any subject and have it reviewed by an e-instructor within a 24-hour window (in most cases). The Purdue Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/) provides free writing resources with help in grammar, sentence structure and general writing skills NEU Writing Center – To learn more about what the Writing Center has to offer, please see: http://www.northeastern.edu/english/writing-center/ ESL Language Co-op tutoring – is a free service that international students (both undergrad and grad) are welcome to use. This service allows students to work 1:1 with ESL trained writing specialists. You can sign up for one-hour sessions by accessing this website: (http://neu.mywconline.net/) and making an online appointment. International Tutoring Center – is dedicated to providing international students with free, high-quality English language instruction and support in Snell Library, Room 088. To sign-up for an appointment, visit http://neu.mywconline.net/ for instructions. PJM Tutor – the CPS Advising Office has recently started to offer the services of a dedicated PJM tutor on a limited basis. Contact your Academic Advisor for further information. If you have difficulty with oral presentations, then you may want to explore resources such as the Northeastern University “Toastmasters” Club. Northeastern University Online Policies and Procedures For comprehensive information please go to http://www.cps.neu.edu/online/ Technical Support Blackboard 17 Get immediate 24/7 technical support for NU Online (CPS Blackboard) by calling 855-836-3520 or email NUOnline@neu.edu. For answers to common questions you may also visit the NU Online support portal at: http://smartipantz.perceptis.com/neu/content/default.aspx If you encounter any technical issues, please open a ticket with NUOnline before contacting me and provide the name of the contact person and case number (if applicable). 18 General Technical Support For computer access, the InfoCommons in the Snell library can be used 7 days a week: http://www.lib.neu.edu/ For MyNEU issues and other technical support questions, please contact the University help desk by calling 617-373-HELP (4357) or email help@neu.eduTITLE IX Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects individuals from sex or gender-based discrimination, including discrimination based on gender-identity, in educational programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. Northeastern’s Title IX Policy prohibits Prohibited Offenses, which are defined as sexual harassment, sexual assault, relationship or domestic violence, and stalking. The Title IX Policy applies to the entire community, including male, female, transgender students, faculty and staff. If you or someone you know has been a survivor of a Prohibited Offense, confidential support and guidance can be found through University Health and Counseling Services staff (http://www.northeastern.edu/uhcs/) and the Center for Spiritual Dialogue and Service clergy members (http://www.northeastern.edu/spirituallife/). By law, those employees are not required to report allegations of sex or gender-based discrimination to the University. Alleged violations can be reported non-confidentially to the Title IX Coordinator within The Office for Gender Equity and Compliance at: titleix@northeastern.edu and/or through NUPD (Emergency 617.373.3333; Non-Emergency 617.373.2121). Reporting Prohibited Offenses to NUPD does NOT commit the victim/affected party to future legal action. Faculty members are considered “responsible employees” at Northeastern University, meaning they are required to report all allegations of sex or gender-based discrimination to the Title IX Coordinator. In case of an emergency, please call 911. Please visit www.northeastern.edu/titleix for a complete list of reporting options and resources both onand off-campus. Copyright Statements Northeastern University Online is a registered trademark of Northeastern University. PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc. 19 All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. This course material is copyrighted and Northeastern University reserves all rights. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual, or otherwise, without the express prior written permission of Northeastern University. Copyright 2016 © by Northeastern University All Rights Reserved The Instructor reserves the right to modify the course syllabus at any time.

Week 6 Paper: Project Closure & Lessons Learned

Week 6 Paper: Project Closure & Lessons Learned

Grading Rubric

Failing Below

Average

Average Above Average Superior

0 – 60 (F

range)

70 – 79 (C

range)

80 – 89 (B

range)

90 – 93 (A-

range)

94 – 100 (A range)

Topical

Content &

Focus (75%)

Paper does not

sufficiently

address the

closure and

lesson learned

processes and

does not cite

the

appropriate

number of

external

sources (2)

Paper only

partially

addresses

some or all of

the closure

and lesson

learned

processes, and

only cites in-

class sources

supporting

case

Paper fully

addresses the

closure and

lesson

learned

processes in

a thorough

manner and

makes good

use of

research by

citing at

least two

relevant,

non-course

resources

Paper fully

addresses the

closure and

lesson learned

processes and

shows

thoughtful

consideration of

the integration

between the

related topics

from the course

readings and

student’s

independent

research,

including the

citation of two

peer reviewed

sources

Paper fully addresses

the closure and lesson

learned processes,

shows thoughtful

consideration of the

integration between

the related topics from

the course readings

and student’s

independent research,

including the citation

of two peer reviewed

sources, and evidences

a superior

comprehension of the

relevant processes

Personal

Competencies

(10%)

 Critical thinking

 Problem solving

 Professi onal writing

Submission

reflects no

applicable

personal

competencies

Submission

reflects a

minimal

applicable

personal

competencies

Submission

reflects both

applicable

personal

competencie

s in an

acceptable

manner

Submission

strongly reflects

applicable

personal

competencies

integrated

throughout the

assignment

Submission reflects an

excellent use of

applicable personal

competencies

integrated throughout

the paper in a way that

synthesizes the

personal competencies

with the key topical

areas

Grammar &

Clarity (10%)

Writing

contains

numerous

errors in

spelling,

grammar,

sentence

structure, etc.

that interfere

with

comprehensio

n. The reader

is unable to

understand

some of the

intended

meaning.

Frequent

errors in

spelling,

grammar,

sentence

structure,

and/or other

writing

conventions

that distract

the reader.

Minimal

errors in

spelling,

grammar,

sentence

structure

and/or other

writing

conventions

but the

reader is

able to

understand

what the

writer

meant.

All work

grammatically

correct with rare

misspellings.

All work

grammatically correct

with rare misspellings.

Formatting

(5%)

NOTE: Gross

failure to

provide

PROPER

citations and

references –

particularly

with regard to

direct quotes –

will result in

sanctions as

outlined in the

academic

honesty policy.

Multiple

errors in

formatting,

citations, or

references.

Some errors

in formatting,

citations, or

references.

Rare errors

in

formatting,

citations, or

references.

Virtually no

errors in

formatting,

citations, or

references.

Virtually no errors in

formatting, citations,

or references.

Assignment Overview:

For this assignment, you will write a 4 to 5 page long (double spaced) paper providing an overview of the role of the discipline of project management in today’s global economy. Well-written papers will provide a complete, yet concise overview of the topic and address all the key points outlined below in the assignment details. This paper is a good opportunity for you to begin developing a strong grasp of the important role that project management plays globally and understand your own position relative to the industry.

Due Date: By Sunday (end of week) at 11:59pm Eastern (ET)

Learning Connection:

This paper is directly linked to the following key learning outcomes from the course syllabus:

· Defining and distinguishing between projects, programs, and portfolios

· Describing the importance of project management

· Describing the effect of organizational structure on project management

· Using the PMI Project Management Framework

· Describing the various frameworks that can be utilized for development (waterfall or agile etc.)

In addition to these key learning outcomes, you will also have the opportunity to evidence the following skills through completing this assignment:

· Ability to follow APA 6 writing guidelines

· Evidence a global perspective

· Reflect on your own position relative to the discipline of project management

· Critically analyze those factors that make project management relevant in today’s global economy

Assignment Instructions:

For this assignment, you need to write a 4 to 5 page paper that answers the following key topical questions:

· What is the role of project management in today’s professional environment? Be sure to speak to your own experience within a broader national and global context.

· Why has project management become, and why does it continue to be a primary lens or means of accomplishing work within most organizational settings globally?

· What is the role of projects, programs, and portfolios within most organizational settings, and what is the linkage between these and an organization’s strategic plan and direction?

· How might different organizational structures affect how projects are executed, and how does project management adapt within these differing organizational contexts?

· What are the variations between different frameworks, such as agile or waterfall, and what are the benefits that each brings to the development process?

Please note that these are prompts for you to address within your paper. Your paper should be written as an essay with topical headers; it should not be formatted in a Q&A format according to the above questions. These questions represent the minimal items that you would want to address. From your readings and your lectures, you will be exposed to other topics that may be relevant to the paper, and you would do well to consider those in writing the essay. Additionally, you are required to cite at least two sources outside the course materials in writing this paper. See the announcements for this course for tips on researching articles and writing APA formatted citations. As part of my evaluation process (see attached rubric), papers which cite peer reviewed sources as opposed to general websites or articles are considered a higher quality of source.

Below are some key guidelines you will want to ensure you follow in writing the paper. Think of this list as a quality control checklist, along with the attached grading rubric.

· Paper is 4 to 5 pages (double spaced) in length

· Use the attached template to start writing your paper

. Include a title page and reference listing, but do not count your title page and reference listing as part of the 3-4 pages of content we are expecting.

. You do not need to include an abstract. However, a short introduction paragraph and a final conclusion paragraph at the end would be very helpful to the reader…and a way to earn you a higher grade.

· Paper format complies with APA 6 guidelines

. If you are unfamiliar with APA 6 guidelines, please review the following link: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

. Also, you will find additional resources listed in the syllabus and announcements (several videos are available for you to view)

· No more than 15 percent of paper is comprised of outside sources or direct quotes

· Paper fully addresses the five topical questions listed above

· Paper is not written in a Question and Answer format, but makes appropriate use of headers and formating in compliance with APA 6 guidelines

· Paper evidences a global perspective

· Paper evidences reflection of the individual author relative to the broader discipline

· Paper is free of grammatical errors

· Paper is submitted by DUE DATE using the Week 1 Paper assignment link below these instructions.

Overall, before you turn in your paper, ask yourself this question: would you submit this paper to your boss or your project sponsor? If not, you may have some formatting and/or cleaning up of the document to do.

Please be sure to review the attached rubric that I will be using to grade the assignment. It along with these assignment instructions will ensure you have a solid understanding of the paper requirements.

That is my writing about wk 1

Week 1: Role of Project Management in Today’s Economy

Project management has been a source of the effective allocation of resources and in-time completion of the objectives. The organizations are working for the right decision at the right time. A project is the temporary working for the undertaking to create a different service, product or the result and it is collection of time management, planning, team working, leadership and budget management where the individuals in team can understand the project scope and their responsibilities being team member. The project targets must be accomplished in process of understanding the success of projects in accordance with customer expectation’ fulfilment. It has made the project management a sign of accomplishment of organizational objectives whereas sustaining the core customers of any organization. This study will provide evidence for role of project managers in global level success of the organizations and projects.

Nowadays the business environment has been more dynamic as well as challenging due to the rapid variation in the globalization and technology, whereas it has been more crucial as compared to the organizations for the commitment, the right decision making at right time and actions for staying competitive in the industry competition for achieving organizational goals (Institute, 2017). The organizations like the one I am working in are bringing up by the proper allocation of resources, planning, optimal solutions and the budgeting.

For this type of the management of organizations, there must be understanding of role that can be played by project management in the business, how it can be supportive and placing it as the core process in organizations (Kerzner & Kerzner, 2017). Being a project manager, I can state that all of the departments are interlinked with project management that makes them contingent for success. The greater the organization is at managing projects, the higher there will be surety for success of all departments in organization. The agile methodology is also one of best methods to control the risks of projects.

Project management career has already been a solid foundation for their tools, processes and methods. The Project management has attained the remarkable level of performance and most of organization select it up to some extent the PMBOK guide principles, IPMA or PRINCE2. Most of project managers possess some certifications formally in their profession (Kerzner, 2018). Global projects encompass team members from different cultures and organizations speaking different languages and spread across different time periods and countries. All of these can contribute to quality of project and team success whereas adding challenges to PMOs, program managers, project itself and team. Following are dimensions of global project management.

Dimensions of global projects

Global project management is based upon changes in the organizations for project manager attitude, program, services and practices of PMO and for the methods of communication and collaboration of team members. To provide support for this process, the framework practices are accumulated in the five major categories, each showing an element derived from theories of organizational change (Swink, 2005). The global communication, global team management, collaborative tools, global organizations and collaborative techniques are those five elements. Global project management provides solution for team management through global team leadership, cross-cultural collaboration, trust, and coaching and conflict resolution.

Projects can be explained as the starting and ending dates. There is a time limit when there is no existence of project that can be before start and after project ending. This is a key for identification of piece of work as the project. The projects in my organization are encompassing the finite budget, defined scope as well as assigned resources. Another major term associated with the projects is that they are always constructing something. The projects are methods of creating the new things. If one is finding that all one is going through is meeting, them there is no working on projects. Projects are linked with deliverables in our organization. Project must be managed in proactive way (Caputo et al., 2013).

Programs on the other hand are linked with the large level of projects. The smaller level of projects are easy for management, planning and successful finishing. The problems however, with the distribution of work in small projects is that all of projects are taking their own decision making strategy that is effective for the project itself but not for large level completion of target. The objective of the program in our organization is providing central control as well as management over the set of sub-classes of projects that are striving for a common objective (Müller, Martinsuo, & Blomquist, 2008). The program permits the projects for achieving a common benefit that will be hindrance in each project for independent achievement.

Portfolios have been deemed as the collections of different tasks and working. The portfolios are considering not only projects but also the operations, support and other forms of work as well. The organization is considering managers for portfolio management. The projects are approved, initiated and prioritized at this level. The active portfolio projects are governed, staffed, supported and monitored in this stage. The projects and programs are selected, proposed and executed at this stage (Too & Weaver, 2014). They are building the link of the organization for a strategic planning and benefit of the organizations. The directions are clear with defining these three elements.

Organizational structure is method of organizational hierarchy and chain of command. The different organizational structures can lead to various needs in project completion and processing. First organizational structure is functional. These firms are organized in the divisions of functions on the basis of core functions. The independent operations of division provides allocation and monitoring of work by functional managers (Danilovic & Browning, 2007). The second one is matrix organizational structured in which responsibilities are shared for projects. These responsibilities encompass the tasks and priorities assignment with final decision linked to functional managers. The organization of work and allocation is linked with project managers. Last major type of organizational structure is projected. In this way, the full authority will be given to project managers. This is common is long term projects, sizeable projects and construction companies.

Agile frameworks and Waterfall are different in proposing the new solutions for projects. In my organization, the software development process was disbursed in the various phases for waterfall modeling whereas the agile methodologies were based upon the lifecycle of project development in different sprints. The waterfall methodology is used in some projects when the project can be completed as the single project whereas the agile methodology can be deemed as the collection of different projects which targets the iterations of different software’s (Balaji & Murugaiyan, 2012).

Summing it up, there can be more than one solutions for any complexity. The project management can be deemed as the single level of solution for focal point of the resources management. The collection of different processes, programs and the people to work for a single aim is clear identification of objectives for a project manager. This study highlighted the role of project manager in terms of its necessary actions and reactions. The model for the project management global level role has also been displayed. The agile and waterfall methodologies have also been identified and detailed in this study.

References

Balaji, S., & Murugaiyan, M. S. (2012). Waterfall vs. V-Model vs. Agile: A comparative study on SDLC. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 2(1), 26-30.

Caputo, M., Smith, S., Wilson, S., Martin, C., Putonti, E. A., Pidun, L., . . . Lee, M. E. (2013). Method of and system for managing projects, programs and portfolios throughout the project lifecycle: Google Patents.

Danilovic, M., & Browning, T. R. (2007). Managing complex product development projects with design structure matrices and domain mapping matrices. International journal of project management, 25(3), 300-314.

Institute, P. M. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge: Project Management Institute.

Kerzner, H. (2018). Project management best practices: Achieving global excellence: John Wiley & Sons.

Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling: John Wiley & Sons.

Müller, R., Martinsuo, M., & Blomquist, T. (2008). Project portfolio control and portfolio management performance in different contexts. Project management journal, 39(3), 28-42.

Swink, M. (2005). Exploring new product innovation types and performance: the roles of project leadership, functional influences, and design integration. International Journal of Product Development, 1(3-4), 241-260.

Too, E. G., & Weaver, P. (2014). The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), 1382-1394.

Feeback: 86/100

Overall, you kind of answer all the questions requested in the assignment, but there are few things to look for in your next assignment:

1. The paper reads (especially on the first two pages) as a set of sentences running together, with multiple un-related concepts in the same paragraphs. Because it was disjointed, as a reader, it made it hard to try and read and interpret what you were attempting to say.

Recommendation: Have a peer read it or someone from university writing services – someone from outside your class. If they can clearly understand your paper, it’s good to go. But, they may have some feedback to help streamline and organize your paper a bit better. 

2. Be sure to double space the entire paper, including the References at the end.

Week 1 discussion:

Instruction: Based upon the course readings and lecture material, please respond to the following prompts in your initial posting:

1. Why you are studying Project Management?  For example, I am studying Project Management to further shape my career goals and to accomplish them more effectively and efficiently in a planned manner. I hope project management will shape my career path and tune me into perfection.

2. Identify three areas of knowledge that you would like to improve in terms of your Project Management skill set. For example, would you like to know more about influencing others, negotiation, risk management?

3. How will this program enable you to achieve you Professional goals:  For example, I believe that the Project Management Practices, Scope Management, Risk Management and Negotiation skills will entirely nurture me into a professional aiming for a better Strategies for Development Projects in a Medical device or a Pharmaceutical Industry. 

Please note:  I expect a minimum of 2 -3 paragraphs for your initial post complete with external references. Be sure to cite using the proper APA formatting. 

Your two follow-up response postings are expected to be at least a full paragraph using cited material. 

My writing about wk 1 dis:

  There are five different reasons those urged me to study the project management. The first one is working smarter rather than working harder. This is time of working smart, finding the short cuts and simplifying the complexities. The second one is improvement in the chances of achieving the desired outcomes. The goals without the planning are just wishes in the time. The people will know exactly that what they are wishing to achieve and precisely the way to be there. Gaining competitive advantage and being unique is my third urge. The quality of work will be enhanced. The skills will be achieved by this in a growing industry of construction, healthcare, engineering and many more (INSTITUTE, 2017, p. 25).

             The second major thing of the consideration is main three points to be learnt by this course. I will surely have the course learning in the mode of communication, team management and the quality management. The communication can be verbal and non-verbal in nature whereas I will be willing for the challenges management in the long run to achieve best through communication and quality management (INSTITUTE, 2017, p. 25).  

            The professional growth is an inevitable part of study and future learning. I will take much from the risk management part of this course to my study as well as future working environment (INSTITUTE, 2017, p. 25). I will also look for the change management through considering the most important and least important projects in the situation. The likelihood of the events and risks will decide the way we will act towards any action.

Reference

INSTITUTE, P. M. (2017). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (6th ed.). Newton Square, PA: PROJECT MANAGEMENT INST.

Grade; 6.5/10

2 Project Closure

Project Closure

Dr. Joseph A. Griffin, PMP®

Overview of Lecture

• Aspects of the closing phase

• Closing an unsuccessful project

3

Aspects of the Closing Phase

• Client / Sponsor processes

• Deliverables processes

• Stakeholder processes

• Project plan / file processes

• Project Team processes

4

Project Closure – Client / Sponsor

• Deliverables review

• Final acceptance

• Sign off on accepting project as complete & deliverables as acceptable

• Project Feedback

5

Project Closure – Deliverables

• Final inspections / review

• Hand off or exchange process

• Document acceptance

6

Project Closure – Stakeholders

• Contract closeout

• Accounts payable

• Performance reviews

• Waivers

• Close procurements

7

Project Closure – Project Plan / File

• Final updates to project file

• Document lesson learned

• Create project summary

• Archive file

8

Project Closure – Project Team

• Team evaluations

• Re-assignments

• Team lessons learned

9

Closing an Unsuccessful Project

• What makes a project unsuccessful?

• Internal Projects

– Work through issues with sponsor

• External Projects

– Consult with company’s attorney

– Communicate carefully

– Cancel all work

10

Assignment Overview:

Week 2 all works

Assignment:

Assignment Overview:

For this assignment, you will drafting a critical document that initiates a project which is the business case. that are often part of initiating a project.  This document provide decision-makers with the information they need to make an informed decision about whether to approve a project or not.

Due Date: By Sunday (end of week) at 11:59pm Eastern (ET)

Learning Connection:

This assignment is directly linked to the following key learning outcomes from the course syllabus:

· Preparing or working with a business case

In addition to these key learning outcomes, you will also have the opportunity to evidence the following skills through completing this assignment:

· Critical thinking

· Professional writing

· Problem solving

· Quantitative analysis

Assignment Instructions:

For this assignment, you be using the attached case study (see attached Case Study) to prepare a business case. A specific template, with instructions have been provided for each of these documents (see attached PJM6000_Wk2_AssignmentTemplate). Here are a few notes on each item:

Case Study:

The case study is fairly straightforward. You are part of a team that is trying to decide whether to use internal or external resources for a training project. As part of this case study, you will be preparing the business case which justifies the creation of the project. All the information you need is within the case study, but you will be required to draw reasonable conclusion from the case study, as every detail is not present. Please pay particular attention to the financial details provided, as well as, the considerations at the end of the case study, as it provides you with some ‘hints’ about how to consider various items. In a case study such as this, there are a range of good answers. So don’t think that you have to select one option or the other. The key is to accurately analyze the case, and then provide a recommendation that is based on evidence you provide within the business case.

Assignment Template:

The assignment template contains various sections and can be leveraged for this assignment.

· Business Case

· The business case has eight sections that lead you through an analysis of the case study. Instructions are provided within each section, along with sample questions, which act as prompts. The key to doing a good business case is drawing logical conclusions from the information provided. Take the time to read the case study carefully, allowing for reasonable assumptions on your part to complete the business case template. If this is your first time completing something of this nature, make sure to allow yourself sufficient time.

Below are some key guidelines you will want to ensure you follow in writing the paper. Think of this short list as a quality control checklist, along with the attached grading rubric.

· Each section of template is fully completed

· Calculation supporting conclusions are performed accurately, making use of the financial background data provided

· A clear recommendation is made and supported as part of the business case

· Paper is free of grammatical errors

· Paper is submitted by DUE DATE using the Week 2 Assignment link below these instructions.

· The blue text has been replaced with content; the entire document is formatted in times new roman font, size 12, black ink. There are no blank spaces in any of the tables.

Overall, ask yourself this question before submitting your assignment: would you turn this document in to your boss or project sponsor? This document is often the first written work your sponsor/boss will see from you for this project. Make a professional, good first impression with your written work – it’ll make your life easier when you run projects in the real world (and also earn a higher grade…)

Please be sure to review the attached rubric that I will be using to grade the assignment. It along with these assignment instructions will ensure you have a solid understanding of the assignment requirements.

My writing:

Business Case

Project Name: Start the Training

1.0 Background & Business Problem
The Ms. Deidre Jackson is the CEO of Acme Company and has pulished as the professional in recent magazine. The report mentioned that the poorly managed projects have the $122 million wastage for the $1billion spent. The CEO is thinking about the savings from project and investing them in the coming years. The Xin Xue has the internal project management techniques and can resolves issues through effective resources management and ideas. The Jackson is in need of the business case development that will cut cost from current practices and invest in the training of the employees for long run business valuation.
2.0 Strategic Case
The business is aimed at the effective management of the resources and cutting down the expenses. The role of the employees will be enhancing for the future time period. The savings are expected at the 3% in first years with the second year expectation of 4.5%. The concept of the internal resources management is highly effective as the well managed internal resources can lead to the maximum output for the business. The business can also be able to invest in the human resources pool for their more rate of return as mentioned currently 11.5% to 12%.
3.0 Project Overview
Scope: The project will be encompassing the trainings, the internal resources required for the trainings such as the tools, the IT infrastructure as well as the changes in project management practices internally. The external resources required at this stage will be encompassing the challenges to be managed as availability of trainers, the cost variation for training and output from this training.Assumptions: The following assumptions are for this project,1. 6% Discount rate2. 11.5% to 12% rate of return3. 3% savings in the year 1Constraints:1. There will be no addition in the team for training.2. No cost variation for the training tools3. No new projects and no variation in the current cost of project.
4.0 Expected Benefits
The expected benefits for the project are enhancing performance of the team after training, the changes in the project management skills as well as the technical information communication. The team will be able to drive the financial benefits for business. The cost cutting will also be possible by the team. Resource allocation will be logical. The internal and external resources will be managed. Project will be chained in comprehensive way.
5.0 Financial Considerations
The Year is one whereas the cash flow is 175000 with the discount rate of 6%. The net present value will be 165094 dollars.
6.0 Risks
The possible risks associated with these projects are encompassing the team mismanagement, natural calamities linked to the delay in the team training, availability of resources not ensured as well as the lack of gap meeting that is expected from the team. The business will not be able to achieve the goal as mentioned.
7.0 Timeline
TaskQuarter 1Quarter 2Quarter 3Quarter 4Resources assessmentTraining startCompletion and reviewFeedback and updates
8.0 Recommendations and Next Steps
As per the analysis, there is need for further assessment of the training plans available in market. The team must be assessed for the need of trainings to provide resources as per the need. The nature of training and available budget will be easier to be managed in financial perspectives.

Feedback: 50/100

Overall, you’ve got content listed in each of the sections. However, the content was rather challenging for me to read through and/or vastly incorrect. We want you to be successful in this program and are here for you. As mentioned in the videos and syllabus, I’d be more than happy to look at a draft of your work to help you improve – but I need that by Friday at noon so I can look at it and give feedback, so that you can hopefully raise your score before you submit your final papers. Please let me know how I can help going forward, 

Week 2 discussion instruction:

In this week’s readings and course materials, we have focused on project initiation processes, and we have specifically talked about where projects come from and how they may be generated. Answer the following 2 questions in your initial posting:

1. Thinking of either the organization you work within or an organization that you hope to work within someday, I want you to identify at least four sources of projects.  Select at least one internal driver of a project and at least one driver of a project from an external source.

2. In addition to identifying these four sources, provide an overview of the path these ideas may take until they arrive as being chartered projects assigned to a project managers.  What type of evaluation or pre-assessment may be taking place?  Provide some insight into who are the major stakeholders and influencers as these ideas transition into actual projects.

Please note:  I expect a minimum of 2 -3 paragraphs for your initial post complete with external references. Be sure to use proper APA formatting. Your response postings are expected to be at least a full paragraph using cited material. 

My writing:

1. Thinking of either the organization you work within or an organization that you hope to work within someday, I want you to identify at least four sources of projects. Select at least one internal driver of a project and at least one driver of a project from an external source.

            I will work with a marketing organization in future time period. I will be joining a marketing research organization which will work for projects of advertisement and data collection of trends in consumer preferences. In that organization there will be definitely a list of the internal and external level of the sources. External data sources for this task will be encompassing the 1) dealers, 2) consumers and 3) salesman. The  driver for the external source  for project is consumers’ wants and needs (Chand, 2019). It is need of hour always for marketing teams to keep in mind the needs of consumers.

            The information for the internal project sources can be stated as mainly coming from are 1) finance, 2) data trends, 3) customer engagement and 4) resources (Hylbak, 2014). As marketing firm will be based upon data as main cause, the  driver for internal sources  will be data trends. For that purpose the organizations must be using the CRM software for connecting with the customers and helping them in-time.   

2. In addition to identifying these four sources, provide an overview of the path these ideas may take until they arrive as being chartered projects assigned to a project managers.  What type of evaluation or pre-assessment may be taking place?  Provide some insight into who are the major stakeholders and influencers as these ideas transition into actual projects.

            Project chartering encompass the reasons of project, constraints an objectives, main stakeholders, risks identified, project benefits and the general budget’ overview. In marketing projects for customer database development and providing advertisement services to different clients, the company will first of all understand the objectives and goals. The goal will be arriving at stakeholder wealth maximization point. The objectives will be achieving best database carrying organization with high ranked research and development department. The project organization will target all major brands working internationally. The implementation planning will be managed next with a continuous check and balance (Wrike, 2019). The problem areas will be highlighted such as database issues from firewall and networking threats. Shareholders for this project will be consumers, marketing team, marketing practitioners, marketing research and development as well as employees of organization. They will be affected by the changes in system of consumer wants, preferences as well as failure from organization.       

References

Chand, S. (2019). Sources of Marketing Research: (A) Internal, (B) External Sources of Marketing Research.   Retrieved from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/sources-of-marketing-research-a-internal-b-external-sources-of-marketing-research/25860

Hylbak, L. (2014). 4 Sources of Internal Data That Should Inform Your Marketing Strategy.   Retrieved from https://www.bizible.com/blog/4-sources-of-internal-data-that-should-inform-your-marketing-strategy

Wrike. (2019). What is a Project Charter in Project Management?   Retrieved fromhttps://www.wrike.com/project-management-guide/faq/what-is-a-project-charter-in-project-management/

Grade: 10/10

Assignment Overview:

Week 3 all works:

Assignment Overview:

For this assignment, you will drafting a project charter with a scope statement using the case study that was introduced in Week Two.  Use the charter document template provided above.

Due Date: By Sunday (end of week) at 11:59pm Eastern (ET)

Learning Connection:

This assignment is directly linked to the following key learning outcomes from the course syllabus:

Using real world examples of projects, demonstrate an ability to manage critical components of the Initiating process group by:

a. Creating a project charter document

b. Preparing a scope statement

c.  Evaluating why a project charter document would be critical to the project’s success 

In addition to these key learning outcomes, you will also have the opportunity to evidence the following skills through completing this assignment:

· Critical thinking

· Professional writing

· Problem solving

Assignment Instructions:

For this assignment, you will be using the case study introduced in Week Two to prepare a project charter inclusive of a scope statement. Specific templates with instructions have been provided for the charter and scope.  It is important to note that many organizations have their own templates they utilize to draft a Project Charter, but this one contains common fields you may encounter. Here are a few notes on each element of the assignment:

The case study is a continuation of the case study discussed in Week Two.

You are still part of a team who is executing a training project for your organization.  The submission link is below this item.

Project Charter:

· At this point, we are performing a comprehensive preparation of a charter document inclusive of the scope statement, so remember that there will be many facets to this document that serves as a formal initiation artifact once approved by the sponsor. For this document, focus on those items specifically mentioned or directly implied in the case study, but consider other factors that may not be listed.  You can research common training programs and add additional categories. You will have to make some reasonable assumptions to complete the analysis, but this is often the case this early in a project.

· Ensure you complete the template fully for each section and that you include detailed information.

· Please also include a one to two page written introduction (double spaced, times new roman size 12 font) that summarized the process you utilized to prepare the charter and scope statement. 

3. There is a section at the beginning of the template for your introduction. 

3. Stronger submissions (and higher grades) have citations/references here…show your critical thinking…

3. Be sure to replace all blue text with content as indicated.

3. Be sure that the final document is to a level of quality that you would present to your boss and/or your project sponsor. Check the formatting, ensure all text is in black ink, times new roman font throughout, and no blank/empty rows in tables.

. Cite all sources using APA format; be sure to include the references in the References section at the end of the template.

Additional (optional) resources – these may be helpful when you create your project charter for the assignment this week. Again, do not copy and paste directly from these sources. That’s considered plagiarism and a serious violation of the academic integrity policy. Instead, use the resources here as inspiration for you to create your project charter.

WBS: https://www.workamajig.com/blog/guide-to-work-breakdown-structures-wbs

Examples of risks for consideration in Project Charter: https://carleton.ca/its/project-office/wp-content/uploads/ProjectRiskManagementExamples.pdf

Examples of communications for consideration in a Project Charter: https://www.isixsigma.com/implementation/communication/project-charter-communication-strategy-essential-2/

Examples of full/complete Project Charters:  (Can give you insights on what to include in your filled out template for the assignment)

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=12&ved=2ahUKEwilgduQ66zgAhUCb60KHSINA_cQFjALegQIBxAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca%2Fbiens-property%2Fsngp-npms%2Fti-it%2Fdocuments%2Fetivcapft-idsfvpcvc-eng.doc&usg=AOvVaw3Z6kv1OkizPWT96_OuXkcP

my writing:

project name: Training Programs for Project Management

Introduction

This part of the study is linked with the development of charter for a case study as discussed in last week. The case is working on the management of resources and needs assessment for training. The resource’s organization is linked with the communication methods and resources. The project is also to be less loss causing and cost effective in this procedure. The profit is analyzed for next two years whereas there is probability existing for difference in profitability. The charter development process is basically including the major resources and responsibilities of team to be included in project.

Charter can be stated as a step by step processing to define roles and responsibilities of team, communication methods, tools to be used in process of project implementation leading to winding up of project. The first crucial point in charter development is objective identification and designing the goal of project. The scope highlights that there are various major stakeholders who will have strong effects by this. The next stage is phases and deliverables. The assumptions are mentioned to be kept in mind for next phases after this. The last one is limitations those are major problems and will be eradicated for the similar next level procedure of project of training.

After that there is timeline development and signing off. The job titles, roles and responsibilities are mentioned in key point form. Communication can ensure the right message delivery to the right person in right time that is deemed as major point and detailed in the next stage of communication plan. Certain risks can be mitigated through such strategies. The charter communication and risk assessment will eradicate the major risks.

Executive Summary

This project is based upon the training initiative of project management through profitability and viability. The project is aimed at resources management and cost effectiveness. The project will affect internally in regard of HRM and profit assurance whereas at external level, they are including maximization of stakeholder’s wealth. The planning at the initiation step is possible through scope defining and charter development, leading to the business value gain at organizational level (Heldman, 2018). The customers can achieve the high skills based staff through 8-10 weeks of the training. It will add practical and classroom based mentorship. The total cost of the project will be $175000. The major assumptions for this project are financial support, less costs, and required level training. The risks can be stated as inadequate IT tools, change aversion, lack of interest by team etc.

Goals

The goal of this project is supporting for the resources utilization and cost effective training. This business is mostly in need for the savings and sustainable profitability. It will also be achieved via charter development.

Objectives

Following objectives will be used to arrive at goal.

1. The $175000 is available to invest.

2. Planning at Initial level

3. Budgeted saving and business value gain

Scope:

Work IncludesWork does not Include
Assessment of the TrainingIt will not take respondent’s Feedback
Recruiting relevant ExpertsNo utilization of E-Commerce
Budget allocationConsistent methodology changes
Cost effectiveness in entire processChange management and mapping projects

Phases ⁄ Deliverables:

PhaseDescription of PhaseDeliverables
InternalExternal
1stIn his stage the first main thing is change introduction in the team, customers etc. The venue for training will be selected along with assessing resources availability.Team professional learning and corporate profitabilityCorporate goodwill
2ndCustomers will be informed about training needs. Profiles of trainers will be checked in this stage for choosing Long run skills implementations will be listed.Team professional learning and corporate profitabilityCorporate goodwill
3rdTraining will be started and go through this stage. Issues in training goal achievement and continuous checking will be performed for positive and negative outcomes.Stakeholder assessment and stakeholder wealth maximizationCorporate profitability
4thThe expected outcomes and effects on profitability will be assessed in last stage for future recommendations.Stakeholder assessment and stakeholder wealth maximizationCorporate profitability

Assumptions:

AssumptionRationaleProbability of Assumption being TrueImpact to Project if Assumption is not True
Profit will be same as per expectationThe deviation from the expected level will lead to loss60%There is probability of loss
No changes in demands from stakeholdersStakeholders will be satisfied60%There is probability of loss for stakeholders
Training skills required will be sameMore investment will be required80%Pressure on investment range
No natural calamities100% Focus on the targets80%End of Project will be possible
Business can be operationsProject will be accomplished80%Deviation from training as major need

Risks:

Risks can be stated as possible changes in the expected situation at internal and external level (Kerzner & Kerzner, 2017).

RiskSupporting Detail (Analysis to be continued in Risk Management Plan/ Register)
Project sponsors are not focusedThere will be loss on the project success
IT resources are not availableThere will be less possible opportunities
Project can be obscureThere will be loss on the project success
Issues from Natural calamitiesThere will be Disastrous level effects
Ineffective level of Communication skillsThere will be loss on the project success

Constraints:

Constraints in project management are hurdles those will hinder achievement of goal as per planning (Badewi, 2016).

ConstraintSupporting Detail
Availability of TimeThe profitability and business value demand is more as compared to the available time.
Less Budget availableThe less budget can lead to the issues for project.
Lack of IT toolsThe business value addition needs high level new IT Tools
No Training institute is matching with the training needsThe training institutes are generally performing
Team is not Change accepterThe team will avert the change

Initial Project Sizing

Availability of Budget:

Budget provides ground for management of funds for entire process in a given limit (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016). $300000 is available budget for this project. The range for the budget is ranging from $175000 to $350000. The next level of this project is counted on the NPV as well as cost and benefit analysis for financial measures.

High Level Schedule:
Phase/DeliverableTime
Month 3Month6Month 9Month 12Month 15Month 18Month 21Month 24End
Initial level Planning phase
Start of the project
Middle stage level
End and feedback of project
Winding up phase
Project’s Milestones:

The project has milestone of having business value as planned. The main points will be encompassing the skills assessment and achieving that demanded point. There can be initiation and communication for planning phase, processing and ending phase.

Resource Requirements:

Project resources provide base for achieving as per planning (Heagney, 2016).

Team MemberRoleResponsibility
AliaProject SponsorCharter planning for roles and responsibilities for all project
EranProject LeadContinuous update and check and balance for reporting of project phases
TomTeam personChange management for the project
PommyTeam personTraining step by step assessment
XosyProject managerResources planning

Management Approaches:

Communication TypeStakeholdersFrequencyAgenda/ ContentResponsibleDistribution Media
Email type of formatProject team leader, team sponsor, trainees, Project charter developersDailyAssessment of training achievement of skillsProject SponsorIT resource person
Report type of formatProject team leader, team sponsor, trainees, Project charter developersMonthlyStakeholder maximization of benefitsProject Team2nd tier management (Middle level)
Webinar Meeting type of formatProject team leader, team sponsor, trainees, Project charter developersWeeklyTeam management and process of project communication of successProject Sponsor2nd tier management (Middle level management)
Verbal type of formatProject team leader, team sponsor, trainees, Project charter developersDailyProcess changesProject lead2nd tier management (Middle level management)
Feedback type of formatProject team leader, team sponsor, trainees, Project charter developersMonthlyBusiness value additionProject charter developerAll levels of management

Sign-offs/Reviews:

Reviews
Project SponsorHe will give at startFor services
Project CustomersHe will give at midFor change management
Project SponsorsHe will give at startIn the process of communicationReport and process management

Acceptance Criteria:

Acceptance CriteriaDetailPriorityRequestor
Effective CostThere will be check for the cost in process1Project team
Proper available ResourceLess availability of the resources3Project lead
Availability of TimeIssue in management of Time.2Project sponsor
First preference is QualityQuality will be first prioritization.4Project manager
In-time CompletionMore than one changes in process are expected5Project Team

Impacted ⁄ Interdependent Projects

ProjectInterdependency Relationship
Cost effectiveness from finance departmentCost department will be affected by team’s learning
Marketing techniquesDevelopment of marketing skills
Human resources departmentHR will have more availability of budget for other purposes
Management of Information systemAvailability for investment in financial resources.

References

Badewi, A. (2016). The impact of project management (PM) and benefits management (BM) practices on project success: Towards developing a project benefits governance framework. International Journal of Project Management, 34(4), 761-778.

Fleming, Q. W., & Koppelman, J. M. (2016). Earned value project management.

Heagney, J. (2016). Fundamentals of project management: Amacom.

Heldman, K. (2018). PMP: project management professional exam study guide: John Wiley & Sons.

Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling: John Wiley & Sons.

Feedback: 50/100

Overall, the assignment is unfortunately not well done. There are some positive points, such as using references in your definitions of what goes in certain sections – this is very nicely done.

However, you did not use the template which included all the instructions and format for this assignment. So, you were missing quite a bit of material from this assignment that was described in the template. The content was also rather challenging for me to read through. 

As mentioned in comments last week, we really do want you to be successful in this program and are here for you. As mentioned in the announcements, videos and syllabus, I’d be more than happy to look at a draft of your work to help you improve – but I need that by Friday at noon so I can look at it and give feedback, so that you can hopefully raise your score before you submit your final papers. 

I’m concerned for your overall scores in the course thus far, as it will be a bit of a challenge to get a passing score for the course at this point. 

From the rubric:

Topic Content & Focus: 35/65 Personal Competencies: 7/15 Grammar: 5/10 

Formatting: 3/10

Week3 dis instruction:

This week in the course materials, we are covering a number of activities included within the initiation & planning process groups, such as the creation of the project charter and drafting an initial scope statement.

After completing the lecture and course readings for this week and thinking back on your own experiences, answer the following questions:

1. What is the role of the project manager and team for creating the project charter and completing an initial draft of the scope statement?

2. How critical is it for the project manager to be leading the drafting of the charter document?

3. Who should the project manager be working with when creating the charter?  

For items (2) and (3) above, be sure to provide specific information and a well-reasoned rationale for your position. Support your opinion(s) and observation(s) with external resources using proper APA formatting. 

Please note:  I expect a minimum of 1 paragraph per question for your initial post. Your response postings are expected to be at least a full paragraph using cited material. 

My writing:

Project Management Discussion 3

1. What is the role of the project manager and team for creating the project charter and completing an initial draft of the scope statement?

The charter is a document that is issued by sponsors and authorizes the project managers for authority for applying the organizational resources to complete project activities. The project managers are supportive for this phase and scope management as the provide help in the requirement assessment and business needs assessment of projects. The summarized schedules are mentioned hereafter. The assumptions and constraints can then be mentioned to provide detail for what can be achieved and what cannot be achieved(S, 2005). The last one is return on investment based business case. The scope statement mentions that what is crucial and what will be detrimental for the other parties linked to this project.

2. How critical is it for the project manager to be leading the drafting of the charter document?

In case the project manager is chartering the document, the major points to keep in mind are the characteristics of the project charter document those must be fulfilled. The first of all is recognition of the charter for existence of the project. The project charter also appoints the project manager. It provides authority for the resources application. The project objectives are defined by this. It is encompassing the list of major stakeholders. Mainly, it is having one or maximum two pages (Usmani, 2019). This can be created by the project manager. The project sponsor can sign for that.  

3. Who should the project manager be working with when creating the charter? 

The team for the creation of project charter will be project sponsor, project charter organizing authorities, the team that will be affected by this etc (Kerzner & Kerzner, 2017).

References

Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling: John Wiley & Sons.

S, B. A. (2005). The charter selling your project.   Retrieved fromhttps://www.pmi.org/learning/library/charter-selling-project-7473

Usmani, F. (2019). Project Charter – A Document to Formally Authorize the Project.   Retrieved fromhttps://pmstudycircle.com/2012/05/project-charter-a-document-to-formally-authorize-the-project/

Feedback:

9/10

Good work and nicely researched.  The initial posting, however, doesn’t quite directly answer the questions. For example, the second question asks about how critical it is for a project manager to be involved in creating the project charter; your response was more on the format and what is included in a project charter.