Assignment: Draft Doctoral Study Prospectus

DDBA_8300_Week_6_Assignment_Rubric

Faculty Comments: Thank you for Week 6 – Assignment. I have graded your Application to reflect the Rubric assessment: DDBA_8300_Week_6_Assignment_Rubric. Grade: 79/100 = 71.1/90

Superior CriteriaExcellent CriteriaSatisfactory CriteriaMarginal CriteriaUnsatisfactory CriteriaNot Submitted
Element 1:ProblemStatement(not to exceed150 words)10 (10%)Student presents a thorough and detailed problem statement that includes four specific components: the hook, anchor, general business problem, and specific business problem.9.5 (9.5%)Student presents a thorough and detailed problem statement that includes four specific components: the hook, anchor, general business problem, and specific business problem. There are one or two minor errors.8.5 (8.5%)Student presents some details on the problem statement that includes four components: the hook, anchor, general business problem, and specific business problem; however, there is some issues with alignment and/or one of the four components.7.5 (7.5%)Student presents a cursory or incomplete problem statement of the four specific components: the hook, anchor, general business problem, and specific business problem, and/or is more than 150 words.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 2:PurposeStatement(not to exceed200 words)10 (10%)Student presents a thorough and detailed purpose statement that identifies the research method, the research design, independent and dependent variables, specific population group, geographic location, and the contribution to social change is described.9.5 (9.5%)Student presents a thorough and detailed purpose statement that identifies the research method, the research design, independent and dependent variables, specific population group, geographic location, and the contribution to social change is described. There are one or two minor errors.8.5 (8.5%)Student presents a purpose statement that identifies with some details the research method, the research design, independent and dependent variables, specific population group, geographic location, and the contribution to social change is described but there may be some issues with alignment and/or some of the components.7.5 (7.5%)Student presents a cursory or incomplete purpose statement that identifies with vague or missing details the research method, the research design, independent and dependent variables, specific population group, geographic location, and the contribution to social change is described, and/or is more than 200 words.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 3:Nature of theStudy (a singleparagraph foreach component)10 (10%)Student presents a thorough and detailed nature of the study section that identifies the selection of one method and why other methods would not work, including at least one citation as well as identifies the selection of the design and why it was selected over other designs, including at least one citation.9.5 (9.5%)Student presents a thorough and detailed nature of the study section that identifies the selection of one method and why other methods would not work, including at least one citation as well as identifies the selection of the design and why it was selected over other designs, including at least one citation. There are one or two minor errors.8.5 (8.5%)Student presents a nature of the study section with some details on the selection of one method, why other methods would not work, and at least one citation as well as some details on the selection of the design, why it was selected over other designs, and at least one citation; however there are some issues with details or citations.7.5 (7.5%)Student presents a cursory or incomplete nature of the study section with few details on the selection of one method and why other methods would not work, and/or does not include at least one citation and/or few details on the selection of the design and why it was selected over other designs, and/or does not include at least one citation.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 4:CentralResearchQuestion(20 words maxper item)& InterviewQuestions(6-10 questions)10 (10%)Student presents research question(s) that align to the problem statement and 6-10 interview questions that address research questions. There are no errors.9.5 (9.5%)Student presents research question(s) that align to the problem statement and 6-10 interview questions that address research questions. There are one or two minor errors.8.5 (8.5%)Student presents research question(s) and 6-10 interview questions that address research questions; however, research question(s) loosely align to the problem statement and/or is too broad or too narrow and/or interview questions are not open-ended or do not address research questions.7.5 (7.5%)Student presents vague research question(s) that do not align to the problem statement and interview questions are not appropriate for the study.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 5:ConceptualFramework(not to exceed1 page)10 (10%)Student presents a thorough and detailed conceptual framework that includes the name of the framework, name of the theorist (if applicable), lists key concepts, identifies key propositions, and identifies application to his/her study.9.5 (9.5%)Student presents a thorough and detailed conceptual framework that includes the name of the framework, name of the theorist (if applicable), lists key concepts, identifies key propositions, and identifies application to his/her study. There are one or two minor errors.8.5 (8.5%)Student presents a conceptual framework that includes some details including the name of the framework, name of the theorist (if applicable), lists some key concepts, identifies some key propositions, and identifies some details of the application to his/her study.7.5 (7.5%)Student presents a cursory or incomplete conceptual framework that includes vague or missing details on the name of the framework, name of the theorist (if applicable), lists few key concepts, identifies few key propositions, and/or identifies few details of the application to his/her study.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 6:References10 (10%)Student identifies several peer-reviewed references in proper APA format in his/her Reference section. All references are correctly formatted, current, and relevant to study. There are no errors.9.5 (9.5%)Student identifies several peer-reviewed references in proper APA format in his/her Reference section. All references are correctly formatted, current, and relevant to study. There are one or two minor errors.8.5 (8.5%)Student identifies some peer-reviewed references in proper APA format in his/her Reference section. Most references are correctly formatted, current, and relevant to study.7.5 (7.5%)Student identifies few peer-reviewed references and/or references are not in proper APA format in his/her Reference section and/or references are not current or relevant to study.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 7:CriticalThinking10 (10%)Writing exhibits excellent evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking; careful examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with detailed supporting rationale. Writing synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyze patterns or connections between theory and practice; and draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned, superb arguments.9.5 (9.5%)Writing exhibits excellent evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking; careful examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with detailed supporting rationale. Writing synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyze patterns or connections between theory and practice; and draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned, superb arguments. There are one or two minor errors in explanation.8.5 (8.5%)Writing exhibits some evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking. A good examination is made of assumptions and possible biases, with some supporting rationale. Writing synthesizes the classroom experiences and content; analyzes patterns or connections between theory and practice; and draws logical conclusions based on well-reasoned arguments adequately, but not superbly.7.5 (7.5%)Writing exhibits little evidence of thoughtful critical analysis and thinking. Examination is not made of assumptions and possible biases. Writing does not synthesize the classroom experiences and content; nor analyzes patterns or connections between theory and practice. Logical conclusions based on well-reasoned arguments are not exhibited.(5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 8:WrittenDeliveryStyle & Grammar15 (15%)Student consistently follows APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style. Student communicates in a cohesive, logical style. There are no spelling or grammar errors.14.25 (14.25%)Student consistently follows APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style. Student communicates in a cohesive, logical style. There are one or two minor errors in spelling or grammar.12.75 (12.75%)Student mostly follows APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style. Student mostly communicates in a cohesive, logical style. There are some errors in spelling or grammar.11.25 (11.25%)Student does not follow APA writing style and basic rules of formal English grammar and written essay style and does not communicate in a cohesive, logical style.7.5 (7.5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.
Element 9:Formal andAppropriateDocumentationof Evidence,Attribution ofIdeas (APA Citations)15 (15%)Student demonstrates full adherence to scholarly reference requirements and adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. There are no APA errors.14.25 (14.25%)Student demonstrates full adherence to scholarly reference requirements and adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. There are one or two minor errors in APA style or format.12.75 (12.75%)Student mostly adheres to scholarly reference requirements and/or mostly adheres to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. Some errors in APA format and style are evident.11.25 (11.25%)Student demonstrates weak or inconsistent adherence scholarly reference requirements and/or weak or inconsistent adherence to APA style with respect to source attribution, references, heading and subheading logic, table of contents and lists of charts, etc. Several errors in APA format and style are evident.7.5 (7.5%)Does not meet minimal standards.(0%)Did not submit element.

Draft: Qualitative Doctoral Study Prospectus

Walden University

Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology for Applied Business Research

2/17/2019

Problem Statement

Since the mid-2010s, inadequate dispute resolution has been blamed for the increase in the rate of turn-over in firms of all sizes. According to Presbitero, Roxas, & Chadee (2016), firms in the United States have witnessed a rise of between 15% and 22% in employee turn-over rate beginning in 2013 to the end of 2018. Of those who have left, only 4.5% have retired. A whopping 63.6% resigned, while another 31.8% got fired. Resigning and firing are drastic measures, and it means that the parties involved are no-longer in good terms.

James (2016) dug deeper and established that if the stakeholders had a reliable way of handling their disagreements, the rate at which extreme measures are being taken would drop remarkably. As of now, it seems as if not enough managers appreciate the value of proper arbitration. For those who do, they get derailed by lack of an appropriate framework.

Purpose Statement

A significant number of stakeholders tend to regard dispute resolution and negotiation as competition. As such, conflicts arise when individuals have divergent views, or when some find the status quo being unsatisfactory. However, attempts to resolve disagreements are geared towards establishing a common ground. The proposed study will help the understanding of how overlapping interests could be identified and accommodated. A common interest would be increased economic gains. As the employees endeavor to earn extra, the management are out to maximize profits. Supposing the dispute was about pay, a proposed objective would be to tie bonuses with organizational performance (Nixon et al., 2017).

The management must appreciate that no man is an island and, besides, none has the monopoly of ideas. One could be defending observations which do not make sense at all to another. If these stakeholders bring their heads together, a common understanding would be in the offing. Otherwise, unilateral decision making deteriorate the dispute. The proposed study will highlight the reason the failure to accommodate relational and emotional wellbeing could be the cause of high employee turnover (Kelly, 2016).

Nature of the Study

The proposed study is causal research, or explanatory. The idea is to investigate the cause and effect relationship between failed dispute resolution and employee turn-over. In that case, the variation in the effectiveness of dispute resolution will be observed. This will be in an endeavor to establish how the changes impact on employee retention. There could be confounding influences, and these will be controlled as much as possible. This will be by using statistical methods and experimental data creation to hold them constant (Buonocore, Russo, & Ferrara, 2015).

Of course, the research has the drawback of not really exhausting the confounding influences. It is impossible to, say, hold people’s varied motivations and attitudes constant. There tend to be other deeper psychological considerations which neither the respondent nor the researcher is aware of. Nevertheless, it is still possible to establish a reliable causal link. The objective of discovering new insights and ideas will be realized. At least it is a versatile and flexible strategy, and it could be considered as preceding total research design (Kalliath & Kalliath, 2014).

Among the methods to be used include pilot surveys, expert surveys, secondary data, and qualitative research. The goal will be to come-up with clear and precise conditional statements of the nature “if a, then b”. The problem and the hypotheses will be defined in a precise manner, and this is in a bid to enhance the relevance of the findings. The sources of secondary data include journals, books, and special reports. The analysis of these kind of data will be the core of the exploratory research (Buonocore et al, 2015; Charlwood & Pollert, 2014).

In addition to secondary data, there will be experience surveys where information will be sought from individuals thought to be aware of the issues in question. Next is case analysis, and this will facilitate the study of former situations which bear similarity to the current research problem. Focus groups will facilitate bringing stakeholders together in small groups through the guidance of a moderator. The purpose will be to gain and analyze relevant information (James, 2016; Presbitero et al., 2016).

Research Question

a. What is the influence of unclear expectations in triggering resignation?

b. How does poor and/or ineffective communication escalate disputes?

c. In what ways does lack of boundaries frustrate individuals who would otherwise be highly productive?

d. To what extent are interpersonal attitudes and styles endangering proper dispute resolution?

e. What is the connection between unresolved conflicts of interest and employee turnover?

f. To what extent does organizational change impact on disputes within the organization?

The Conceptual Framework

Buonocore et al (2015) argues that unclear expectations make it hard to accomplish the task at hand. This is because the employees do not understand what is expected of them. Such a situation depicts poor or ineffective communication between the stakeholders involved. For instance, there could be poor listening skills, incorrect assumptions, and faulty perceptions. Another challenge is lack of distinctive jurisdiction and/or boundaries. There could be disputes over funds, time, and equipment due to confusion as to who should be in charge and how they should be utilized (Buonocore et al., 2015; Nixon et al., 2017).

Interpersonal attitudes and styles could trigger disputes. The workplace could have individuals drawn from varied backgrounds; and the views of an individual are influenced by their age, nationality, religion, ethics, politics, and/or values. If such individuals fail to find common ground, the conflict of interest would escalate. The worst case scenario is when departments, and not just individuals, engage in an unhealthy competition rather than focus on realizing the common objective (Kelly, 2016).

Changes are inevitable, and it would be unrealistic to suggest that an individual or a group of individuals will not accommodate them. Sometimes the changes happening in teams intensify diversity. With diversity, it means that individuals will be having varied perspectives in regard to the issues at hand. It is upon the management to ensure that organizational change is a source of strength and does not end-up being a trigger for divisions (Kalliath & Kalliath, 2014). The conceptualization of these ideas is depicted in Figure 1below.

image1.png

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

Charlwood & Pollert (2014) notes that it is not the most toxic employees who quit. The stakeholders who can easily bring a firm down are those who undermine it from within. In that case, the management ought to ensure that everybody recognizes the need for being accommodating, else they risk losing top talents while remaining with others who take sadistic pleasure in tormenting their colleagues.

References

Buonocore, F., Russo, M., & Ferrara, M. (2015). Work–family conflict and job insecurity: Are workers from different generations experiencing true differences? Community, Work & Family, 18(3), 299–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2014.981504

Charlwood, A., & Pollert, A. (2014). Informal employment dispute resolution among low-wage non-union workers: Does managerially initiated workplace voice enhance equity and efficiency? British Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(2), 359–386. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2012.00903.x

James, A.R. (2016). Because arbitration can be beneficial, it should never have to be mandatory: Making a case against compelled arbitration based upon pre-dispute agreements to arbitrate in consumer and employee adhesion contracts. Loyola Law Review, 62(2), 531–576 doi / url is missing

Kalliath, P., & Kalliath, T. (2014). Work–family conflict: Coping strategies adopted by social workers. Journal of Social Work Practice, 28(1), 111–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650533.2013.828278

Kelly, D.R. (2016). NASW law note: Social workers and alternative dispute resolution. Social Work, 61(2), 190–191. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/sww004

Nixon, A.E., Bruk, L.V., & Spector, P.E. (2017). Grin and bear it? Employees’ use of surface acting during co-worker conflict. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 33(2), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2689

Presbitero, A., Roxas, B., & Chadee, D. (2016). Looking beyond HRM practices in enhancing employee retention in BPOs: focus on employee–organization value fit. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(6), 635–652. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1035306

�DBA Rubric 1.3 (a-d). The Problem Statement needs to be succinctly written in 150 words as noted in the DBA Rubric.

The problem statement needs four elements:

Hook (with citation from the peer reviewed literature)

Anchor (with citation and statistic from the peer reviewed or government literature)

General business problem

Specific business problem (this is what you will study)

Link to Problem Statement Tutorial: � HYPERLINK “http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo” �http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo�

�Secondary

Follow APA Table 6.1, p. 177 on the correct way to use an ampersand within the text of your paper. Follow APA section 7.01, p. 198 for examples on how to use the ampersand in references.

Want to learn additional information regarding APA to support your scholarly knowledge and competence – review the resources and tutorials at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa�

�DBA Rubric 1.4 (a-g) -The purpose statement of the study clearly describes the intent of the investigation. The purpose statement is a mini story and should not exceed 200 words and contains the following six elements:

Research method is identified as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods

Research design is clearly stated

Reserved for quantitative studies: Research variables briefly identified: independent, dependent (experimental study) or a correlation (relationships, comparison)

Specific population group of proposed study is identified & justified (use of reference)

Geographic location of study is identified

How study might contribute to social change and/or impact a business practice

View the tutorial at: � HYPERLINK “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLP4r0mfT9A” �https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLP4r0mfT9A�

�DBA Rubric 1.5 (a & b)

The Nature of the Study component serves two purposes. The first purpose is describing and justifying the methodology (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method). The second purpose is describing and justifying the design (i.e. case study, phenomenological, correlation). Therefore, a well-crafted Nature of the Study can be presented in two paragraphs but not exceed one page.

The first paragraph is to describe and justify the methodology. State why you selected a specific method and why other methods were not appropriate. The second paragraph is to describe and justify the design. State why you selected a specific design and why other designs were not appropriate. Map to the rubric and only include the required content!

�Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

�Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

��Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

��Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

��Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

��Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

��Secondary

This is passive voice. Follow APA sections 3.11, p. 73 and 3.18, p. 77. “Use active rather than passive voice – passive voice is acceptable in expository writing and when you want to focus on the object or recipient of the action rather than the actor” (APA, p. 77). However, to enhance clarity, students should strive to use the subject-verb-object sentence structure and avoid passive voice.

You can learn more how to use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice by accessing the resources and tutorials offered through the Walden Writing Center at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/scholarlyvoice/activepassive�

�DBA Rubric 1.8 (a & b)

Research Question: a. Defines why study is being conducted in a question format (about 10-15 words – 20 words max as per the DBA Rubric). This is not the interview questions, but the overarching question on what will be researched for the study. B. Ensures research question aligns with the specific Business Problem and Purpose Statement.

�DBA Rubric 1.10 (a – e)

A Conceptual framework contributes to a doctoral study in at least two ways because it (1) identifies research variables, and (2) clarifies relationships among the variables. Linked to the problem statement, the conceptual framework sets the stage for presentation of the specific research question that drives your investigation.

To meet the DBA Rubric elements, you must: Identify and describe the theory or conceptual model for theoretical / conceptual framework.

Identify the theorist(s) of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical / conceptual framework.

Identify the date of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework (if applicable).

Identify key concepts / propositions / tenets of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework.

Ensure you focus on explaining Why and How you expect your selected theory is useful for understanding the findings from your study.

This component should not exceed one page. It will be expanded upon in the literature review.

To enhance your understanding of how to develop a Theoretical / Conceptual Framework, view the Video Tutorial at: � HYPERLINK “http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8” �http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8�

�Follow APA Table 6.1 – you do not place the et al. in italics

�Secondary

For grammatically correctness use past tense when writing about published literature. See APA 3.18 Page 78 top of page. Since I will not review further past tense issues beyond this point, you should review and revise all such instances throughout your paper to ensure it reflects APA requirements.

For example, Jones et al. (2011) argued

Want to learn additional information regarding how to avoid unnecessary shifts in verb tense within a paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs to help ensure smooth expression, as per APA requirements; and to support your scholarly knowledge and competence – review the resources and tutorials at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammar/verbtenses” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammar/verbtenses�

�Secondary

Follow APA Table 6.1, p. 177 on the correct way to use an ampersand within the text of your paper. Follow APA section 7.01, p. 198 for examples on how to use the ampersand in references.

Want to learn additional information regarding APA to support your scholarly knowledge and competence – review the resources and tutorials at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa�

�Secondary

For grammatically correctness use past tense when writing about published literature. See APA 3.18 Page 78 top of page. Since I will not review further past tense issues beyond this point, you should review and revise all such instances throughout your paper to ensure it reflects APA requirements.

For example, Jones and Hoff (2011) noted

Want to learn additional information regarding how to avoid unnecessary shifts in verb tense within a paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs to help ensure smooth expression, as per APA requirements; and to support your scholarly knowledge and competence – review the resources and tutorials at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammar/verbtenses” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammar/verbtenses�

�Secondary

There are errors in your references as per APA Chapter 7. Keep in mind there are four general sources of references for doctoral work, so ensure that your references meet the style and format requirements. See the examples below to support your APA knowledge and competence. As well, enhance your scholarly knowledge of APA by reviewing the resources and tutorials at: � HYPERLINK “https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa” �https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/apa�

Electronic Journal Articles (APA, p. 198)

LaPlante, J. M. (2011). Seven habits of unsustainable budget building: A state policy perspective. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management, 23, 215-267. doi:123456.abcd/x

LaPlante, J. M. (2011). Seven habits of unsustainable budget building: A state policy perspective. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management, 23, 215-267. Retrieved from http://pracademics.com/jpbafm.html

Book (APA, p. 202)

Ross, M. (2010). Branding basics for small business: How to create an irresistible brand on any budget. Bedford, IN: NorLights Press.

Chapter in an Edited Book (APA, p. 202)

Quinn, R. E. (2008). Moments of greatness: Entering the fundamental state of leadership. In J. V. Gallos (Ed.), Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader (pp. 142-154). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Dissertation (APA, p. 208)

Kirwan, J. G. (2005). An experimental study of the effects of small-group, face-to-face facilitated dialogues on the development of self-actualization levels: A movement towards fully functional persons (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3159996)

Government or Corporate Websites (APA, p. 205 – See technical and Research Reports)

Office for Business & Community Economic Development. (2010). Small business profile list. Retrieved from http://www.bced.umn.edu/MapSB1.cgi

Doctor of Business Administration

Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook

FOREWORD

Walden University

DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook1 December 2018

This document consists of two components: the Doctoral Study Rubricand the Research Handbook. Thus, the purpose of this document is two-fold. First, the purpose of the rubric is to guide DBA students and DBA Doctoral Study supervisory committees as they work together to develop high-quality proposals and Doctoral Study research. The committee will use the rubric to provide on-going and flexible evaluation and reevaluation of the proposal and DBA Doctoral Study drafts. The University Research Reviewer (URR), who reviews the proposal/DBA Doctoral Study on behalf of the University, will also use this rubric to communicate feedback and any required revisions.

Second, the Research Handbook is an accompanying guide to the rubric that provides detailed instructions and knowledge pertaining to corresponding rubric components. The doctoral student is still responsible for utilizing self-identified resources to aid in the understanding and presentation of the rubric requirements. Elements in the Doctoral Study rubric correspond to elements in the Research Handbook. For example, one will find more detailed information on the Problem Statement (Heading # 1.3 in the DBA Rubric) in Heading # 1.3 (Problem Statement) of the Research Handbook. Using the Doctoral Study Rubric in conjunction with the Research Handbook when writing the proposal/Doctoral Study is highly recommended.

In the writing process, use the DBA Template and Rubric as a suggested outline for the DBA Proposal and Doctoral Study and as a basis for feedback on early drafts.

Before the Proposal Oral Conference or DBA Doctoral Study Oral Conference, the committee and URR will complete the rubric in MyDR and upload the proposal per the process checklist. Find the MyDR Process Checklist at http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra/dba.The guidance on orals is located at http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra/oraldefense.

After the Proposal Oral Conference or DBA Doctoral Study Oral Conference, and once the student completes any committee or methodologist revision requests for the proposal/Doctoral Study, the committee will review the proposal/Doctoral Study and make any needed modifications. When the committee members agree that the student met all of the rubric requirements for the proposal and passed the oral defense, the chair then notes in MyDR that the student passed the oral defense.

The DBA Rubric and Research Handbook video tutorial can be viewed at: http://youtu.be/KiiDGmLbRN0.

The guidance in the rubric supersedes any guidance you might see depicted elsewhere. For example, the Problem Statement video tutorial on YouTube depicts a maximum word count of 250 for the Problem Statement. The Problem Statement is recommended not to be too lengthy (recommended not to exceed 150 words). It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).

2016

vi

About consensus: For the final copy of the proposal or DBA Doctoral Study, there must be unanimous agreement by the DBA Doctoral Study supervisory committee before the student proceeds to the next step in the process checklist.

Timely Review and Return of Student Work

For research courses (i.e., KAMs, dissertations, and doctoral studies), the guideline for review and return of student research drafts is generally within 2 weeks; or, alternatively, provide a substantive overview of issues and concerns and an estimate of when of the full review will be complete. The 2-week time frame is a guideline and representative of what the university believes to be best practices. It is a desired practice for faculty members to respond to students upon receipt of research drafts and indicate when the draft will be returned. The faculty mentor or committee chair should provide students guidance on activities to work on that support student progress in the meantime. If a review of student research work requires significantly more time, for example, due to the length or complexity of the submission from one or more students, then faculty members are expected to notify the student of the additional time estimated to review their work.Committee chairs or faculty mentors should set expectations early in the term for deadlines relating to submission and return of specified research documents that provide evidence of substantial academic progress. This is part of the term plan and should include deadlines for submission of designated documents and the final term report. Please note: Faculty members are not expected to review research drafts between terms, outside of what is required for end-of-term grading. Any research draft submitted within 5 days of the final day of the term may not receive detailed feedback until approximately 10 days into the subsequent term.If the review takes place during any of the official Walden holidays (New Year’s Day; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day; Memorial Day; Independence Day; Labor Day; Thanksgiving Day; day after Thanksgiving; or Christmas Day), the holiday will not count in the review cycle. It is important to note that MyDR, which includes a general 14-day review timeline, does not adjust for holidays and end-of-terms, so any late notices received from the workflow as a result of a holiday are not an accurate reflection of the review time frame.Note: As you consider your references, it is recommended that in business 85% should be within the past 5 years. Other than data collected from the study site, students cannot use magazines, trade publications, summary textbooks, websites, and blogs as references.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD II DBA DOCTORAL STUDY RUBRIC 1 DBA RESEARCH HANDBOOK 26 SECTION 1: FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY 27 – Abstract 28 – Background of the Problem 28 Applied DBA Versus a Speculative/Theoretical PhD 28 Preparing the Background of the Problem 29 – Problem Statement 30 Avoiding Rubric Creep 31 Strategy for Mapping to the Rubric 31 Specific Business Problem 31 Aligning the Specific Business Problem With the Purpose Statement and RQ … 33 1.4 – Purpose Statement 35 Six Elements of the Purpose Statement 35 – Nature of the Study 37 Hypothetical Quantitative Example 38 Hypothetical Qualitative Example 38 – Research Question (Quantitative Only) 39 – Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed-Method Only) 40 Hypotheses 40 Correlation 40 Quasi-experimental 40 – Research Question (Qualitative Only) 40 – Interview Questions (Qualitative Only) 42 Example Research Question 43 Example Applied DBA Interview Questions 43 – Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 43 – Operational Definitions 46 – Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations 46 – Significance of the Study 47 – Review of the Professional and Academic Literature 47 – Transition 49 SECTION 2: THE PROJECT 50 – Purpose Statement 51 – Role of the Researcher 51 – Participants 52 – Research Method 53 – Research Design 53 Data Saturation in Qualitative Study Designs 53 How to Use Multiple Sources to Support Claims and Decisions 54 – Population and Sampling (Quantitative Only) 54 Population 54 Sampling 55 – Population and Sampling (Qualitative Only) 55 Defining the Population 55 Sampling 55 Data Saturation and Sampling 56 – Ethical Research 56 – Data Collection—Instruments (Quantitative) 57 – Data Collection – Instruments (Qualitative) 57 – Data Collection Technique 60 Quantitative Studies 60 Qualitative Studies 60 – Data Organization Technique (Qualitative Only) 60 – Data Analysis (Quantitative Only) 60 – Data Analysis (Qualitative Only) 61 – Study Validity (Quantitative Only) 63 Internal Validity 63 External Validity 65 – Reliability and Validity (Qualitative Only) 65 Reliability 65 Validity 65 – Transition and Summary 66 SECTION 3: APPLICATION TO PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CHANGE 67 – Introduction 68 Quantitative Example 68 Qualitative Example 68 – Presentation of Findings (Quantitative) 68 Quantitative Example 68 Tests of Assumptions 69 Descriptive Statistics 71 Inferential Results 71 – Presentation of Findings (Qualitative) 74 – Application to Professional Practice 74 – Implications for Social Change 74 – Recommendations for Action 75 – Recommendations for Further Research 75 – Reflections 75 – Conclusion 75 – Appendices/Table of Contents 75 APPENDIX A: WALDEN UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM VIDEO TITLES AND URL ADDRESSES 76 APPENDIX B: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PRIMER: PROBLEM STATEMENT, PURPOSE STATEMENT, RESEARCH QUESTION(S), AND HYPOTHESES 77 APPENDIX C: MAJOR QUANTITATIVE DESIGNS 83 APPENDIX D: SAMPLING TYPOLOGIES 84 APPENDIX E: SAMPLE POWER ANALYSIS 85 APPENDIX F: SAMPLE QUANTITATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW OUTLINE 86 APPENDIX G: SAMPLE APA TABLES 89 APPENDIX H: SAMPLE INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY: SUGGESTED READINGS LISTS 97 Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations 98 Assumptions 98 Limitations 100 Delimitations 103 Case Study Sources 105 Case Study Seminal Books 110 Data Saturation and Data Collection Sources 111 Ethical Considerations/IRB 117 Ethnography Sources 129 Focus Groups 137 Interview Protocol Sources 142 Interviews Sources 144 Journaling Sources 155 Member Checking Sources 158 Mixed Methods Research 160 Notetaking and Fieldwork 166 Phenomenological Sources 168 Pilot Studies 174 Qualitative Research Foundation 175 Qualitative and Quantitative Sources 180 Reliability, Validity, Transferability, and Generalizability Sources 189 Sampling and Incentives 196 Sensemaking 202 Qualitative Software Analysis Sources 205 Triangulation Sources 210

DBA DOCTORAL STUDY RUBRIC

2

Student and Committee Information3
Student’s Name (Last, First):
Student ID (For office use only):
Chairperson:
Second Committee Member:
University Research Reviewer:
Student to provide total number of references:(As you consider your references, it is recommended that in business 85% should be within the past 5 years).

Note: Provide the required information in the yellow highlighted column.

Chair will complete the yellow highlighted fields in this section before submitting the rubric. Be sure to include the names of all members of the committee.

Evaluation4

5Date/Stage of the Rubric:

Date of Review
Before Proposal Oral Defense
Before Proposal Oral (Revised)6
Before Doctoral Study Oral Defense
Before Doctoral Study Oral (Revised)7

Note: Place an “X” in column (yellow highlight) associated with the appropriate stage.

Evaluation of State of the DBA Doctoral Study or Proposal:
No changes required, advance to next step; rubric requirements met
Changes required for resubmission; rubric requirements not met

Note: Place an “X” in the column (yellow highlight) associated with the appropriate evaluation decision.

Member Information:
Name of member providing this review
Role of the member providing this review

Note: Enter the information in the yellow highlighted column.

Each member of the committee completes the evaluation.

Be sure to follow the Process Checklist (located at http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/osra) naming convention when sending the document through the review process. Following the naming convention is vital for tracking student progress throughout the doctoral study process.

Check when second and subsequent rubrics are needed if previous proposal defense was not passed.

Check when second and subsequent rubrics are needed if previous Doctoral Study defense was not passed.

March 2016

Section 1Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.1) Abstract (To be completed only after completion of Section 3)
a. Includes a WOW statement illuminating the problem under study.
b. Identifies the design (i.e., case study, phenomenological, quasi-experimental, correlation, etc.) NOTE: Do not mention the method (qualitative/quantitative) in the abstract.
c. Identifies the study’s population and geographical location.
d. Identifies theoretical (quantitative) or conceptual framework (qualitative) that grounded the study; theory/conceptual framework names are lower case.
e. Describes the data collection process (e.g., interviews, surveys, questionnaires, etc.).
f. Describes the data analysis process (e.g., modified van Kaam method) to identify themes; in qualitative studies (e.g., test, ANOVA, or multiple regression), to report statistical data in a quantitative study.) Omit SW Titles.
i. Identifies two or three themes that morphed from the study (qualitative).
j. Presents the statistical results for each research question (quantitative studies).
k. Describes how these data may contribute to social change (use the word social change and be specific on who specifically may benefit).8
l. Ensures the first line in the abstract is not indented.
m. Ensures Abstract does not exceed one page.
n. Use plural verbs with data (e.g., the data were – the word data is the plural of datum).

8 Begin this section as follows: The implications for positive social change include the potential to…”.

Section 1Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
o. Ensures all numbers are expressed in digits (i.e., 1, 2, 10, 20, etc.) and not spelled out unless beginning a sentence; Ensures Abstract does not include seriation (i.e., (a), (b), (c), etc.).
(1.2) Background of the Problem 9Provides a brief and concise overview of the context or background of the problem. DBA Doctoral Studies are focused on applied business research. This sets the stage for the study. This heading should comprise no more than one page in length.
(1.3) Problem StatementPlease review the video tutorial located @: http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo to aid you in preparing the Problem Statement.
a. Provides a hook10 supported by peer- reviewed or government citation 5 or less years old from anticipated completion date (CAO approval).
b. Provides an anchor11 supported by peer- reviewed or government citation 5 or less years old from anticipated completion date (CAO approval).
c. States the general business problem Note: This element should start as follows: The general business problem is…
d. States the specific business problem. Be sure to state who has the specific problem (i.e., small business leaders, project managers, supply chain managers, etc.) Note: This element should start as follows: The specific business problem is that some (identify who has the problem)…

Include an introductory paragraph before the Background of the Problem component. However, do not label this introductory paragraph with a L1 APA heading. The purpose of the background is to introduce the topic and problem you will address. Briefly indicate why the problem deserves new research. More important, the Doctoral Study must address applied research, so you will want to identify the need to solve an applied business problem. The goal of this section is to encourage readers to continue reading, to generate interest in the study, and provide an initial frame of reference for understanding the entire research framework

10 The hook should be a succinct WOW statement to catch the reader’s attention.

11 An anchor comprises a number, percentage, dollar value, ratio, index, etc.

Section 1Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
e. Ensures the specific business problem aligns with the research question and purpose statement.
f. Problem Statement should be clear and succinct (It is recommended not to be approximately 150 words).
· Check with Ulrich’s Periodical Directory http://library.waldenu.edu/728.htm to ensure citations are peer reviewed.12· See Problem Statement Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo.
(1.4) Purpose StatementDescribes the intent of the research13. The Purpose Statement is a ministory and it should be approximately 200 words. The Purpose Statement must address the following six elements:
a. Identifies the research method as qualitative14, quantitative15, or mixed- method.
b. Identifies research design16 (i.e., case study, phenomenological, quasi- experimental, correlational, etc.).
c. If quantitative or mixed method: Identifies a minimum of two 17 independent (experimental/quasi-experimental designs) or predictor (correlational designs) and at least one dependent variable18. Note: The quantitative study must include at least two independent/predictor variables.19 Ensures the independent

12 Ulrich’s is not 100% correct; the student must verify peer review status via the journal home page.

13 The first sentence of the purpose statement must align with the research question and specific business problem in the problem statement.

14 Visit the Center for Research Quality qualitative methodology tutorial at: http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/resources/Design

15 See the quantitative Research Primer located at Appendix B Visit the Center for Research Quality quantitative methodology tutorial at: http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/resources/Design

16 See Appendix C for a depiction of basic quantitative designs and their characteristics.

17 Covariates, mediator, and moderator variables are types of independent/predictor variables; be sure to clearly identify these types of variables as applicable.

18 The terms “independent” and “predictor variables are often used interchangeably in correlation studies. Please be consistent with the chosen terminology.

19 See Heading 1.6, Research Questions (Quantitative Only), in the Research Handbook.

Section 1Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
variables appropriately align with the variables/constructs identified in component 1.10, Theoretical/Conceptual Framework.
d. Identifies specific population group for proposed study.
e. Identifies geographic location of the study.
f. Identifies contribution to social change.
g. Ensures the first sentence links/aligns directly with the specific business problem.
· See Purpose Statement Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/pLP4r0mfT9A.
Section 1 Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.5) Nature of the Study 20Provides a brief discussion on the research method (i.e., quantitative or qualitative) and design (i.e., correlation for quantitative study; phenomenological, case study, etc., for a qualitative design); cite a minimum of one source (The method and design will be discussed in detail in Section 2).· Note: A single paragraph is sufficient for each component: one for the method and one for the design.
a. Identifies the selection of one method (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method) and why other methods would not work (cite a minimum of one source).
b. Identifies the selection of the design21 (within the method) and why it was selected over other designs (cite a minimum of one source).
(1.6) Research Questions (Quantitative Only)
a. Lists research question(s) in about 10-15 words.

20 A single paragraph can be used for each component: one for the method and one for the design.

21 See Appendix C for a brief depiction of the major research designs.

b. Ensures research question(s)22 align(s) with the specific business problem and first line of the Purpose Statement.
c. Includes the independent/predictor and dependent/criterion variables as identified in the Purpose Statement; ensures the independent/predictor variables appropriately align with the constructs/variables identified in component 1.10, Theoretical/Conceptual Framework.
(1.7) Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed-Method Only)States, in accurate format, the null and alternative hypotheses for each research question23.
(1.8) Research Question – Qualitative Only
a. Lists overarching research question in approximately 10-15 words.
b. Ensures research question aligns with the specific Business Problem and Purpose Statement.
Section 1 Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.9) Interview Questions – Qualitative Only
a. Lists each interview or focus group question. Questions must contribute knowledge to the research question. Questions must be open-ended, and cannot be answered with a Yes or No.
b. Ensures interview/focus group questions align with the research question.

22 The research question(s) must contain the independent/predictor and dependent/criterion variables identified in the Purpose Statement.

23 Hypotheses must include the variables identified in the research question.

(1.10) Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 24Clearly and concisely identify the theoretical/conceptual framework. In quantitative studies, the theoretical framework is the appropriate term and in qualitative studies, the conceptual framework is the appropriate term. The student will articulate the theoretical/conceptual framework with concepts from the literature to ground and complement the applied business study.· This component should not exceed one page. It will be expanded upon in the literature review. See Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8
a. Identifies and describes the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework.
b. Identifies theorist(s) of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework.
c. Identifies date of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework (if applicable).25
d. Identifies key concepts/propositions/tenets of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework26.
e. Quantitative only – Ensures the theoretical constructs/variables underlying the theory are clearly identified and align with the constructs/variables (independent variables) identified in the Purpose Statement and Research Question(s).Note: The independent variables/constructs represent the underlying concepts of the theoretical framework in quantitative research.
· Identifies how/why the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework is applicable and fits/applies to the study.
Section 1 Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.11) Operational Definitions

24 The theoretical/conceptual framework informs the research (quantitative) and interview (qualitative) questions. Be sure to review the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8

25 Some literature identifies the specific date the theorist introduced the theory; provide this date if this is the case. If date is missing, then requirement (c) is not applicable.

26 Ensures the independent variables appropriately align with the theoretical framework(s) identified in component 1.10, Theoretical/Conceptual Framework.

a. Presents technical terms, jargon, or special word used in the study.
b. Lists in alphabetical order. Formats in italics followed by an italicized colon. The definition follows on the same line. (This is similar to an APA Level 5 heading with a colon replacing the period.)
c. Provides citations (for each definition) from credible sources (peer-reviewed, seminal work/text, government sites, etc).
d. Does not include terms found in a basic academic dictionary (i.e., Webster’s).
e. Does not exceed 10 key operational definitions.
(1.12) Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
a. Defines the term Assumptions and provides citation; lists facts that the student assumes to be true but cannot actually be verified.
b. Defines the term Limitations and provides citation; lists potential weaknesses of the study that are not within the control of the researcher.
c. Defines the term Delimitations and provides citation; identifies the bounds of the study.
(1.13) Significance of the Study 27
a. States why the study findings may be of value to businesses.
b. States how this study may contribute to effective practice of business (improvement of business practice).
c. Identifies how the results might contribute to positive social change.

27 This area is important in determining Doc Study of the Year Award-justify well.

Section 1 Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.14) Review of the Professional and Academic Literature 28
A. Literature Review Opening Narrative
i. Contains a brief discussion of the content of the literature that includes a critical analysis and synthesis of various sources/content of the literature (journals, reports, and scholarly seminal books, etc.) to convince readers of depth of inquiry.
ii. Explains the organization of the review.
iii.Explains the strategy for searching the literature.
iv. The majority of references should be from peer-reviewed sources. (Consider 85% of the total sources should be peer-reviewed.)
v. The majority of references should be current. (As you consider your references, it is recommended that in business around 85% should be within the past 5 years).
B. Application to the Applied Business Problem
i. Introduces the purpose of the study.
ii. Identifies hypotheses if a quantitative/mixed method study.
iii.Contains a critical analysis and synthesis of literature pertaining to the theoretical/conceptual framework the student identified in item #1.10, Theoretical/Conceptual Framework, above29. The student includes a critical analysis with supporting and contrasting theories/conceptual models for the theory in the theoretical/conceptual framework.
Section 1 Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell

28 The average length of substantive literature review is between 30 to 40 pages (25 pages minimum). However, the need for depth and breadth is required. See quantitative example at Appendix F and visit the Writing Center at: http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/50.htm for more information on writing the literature review.

29 A key portion of the Review of the Literature must focus on the specific theoretical/conceptual framework you are using in your study. This is a “ key requirement for you to be able to adequately address items 3.2g, Presentation of Findings (quantitative studies) and 3.3c, Presentation of Findings (qualitative studies).

iv. Contains a critical analysis and synthesis of literature pertaining to the independent variables (quantitative/mixed-method studies) the student identified in item # 4c (Purpose Statement).
v. Contains a critical analysis and synthesis of literature pertaining to the dependent variable(s) (quantitative/mixed-method studies) the student identified in item # 4c (Purpose Statement).
vi. Discusses measurement of variables (quantitative/mixed-method studies) the student identified in item # 4c (Purpose Statement).
vii. Contains a critical analysis and synthesis of literature pertaining to potential themes and phenomena (qualitative studies) the student identified in the Purpose Statement.
viii. Compares and contrasts different points of view, and the relationship of the study to previous research and findings (sample size/geographical location variance, etc.).
ix. Provides a comprehensive critical analysis and synthesis of the literature.
C. Relevancy of the Literature
The literature review is well organized. Introduce the purpose of the study. Include hypotheses if a quantitative/mixed method study) in the opening narrative.
D. Literature Review Organization
i. Presented in a well-organized manner.
ii. Adheres to APA formatting standards.
(1.15) Transition
a. Ends with a Transition Heading that contains a concise summary30 of key points of Section 1.
b. Provides an overview introducing Sections 2 and 3.

30 A concise summary recaps the major elements of the review of the literature and does not introduce new information.

Section 2The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
(2.1) Purpose Statement
Begins Section 2 with a restatement of the Purpose Statement presented in Section 1.· Note: Copy-and paste the purpose statement from Section 1
(2.2) Role of the ResearcherDescribes the role of the researcher in the data collection process and provides a peer-reviewed or seminal source. Describes any relationship the researcher may have had with the topic, participants, or research area.
a. Describes the role of the researcher in the data collection process and provides a peer-reviewed or seminal source.
b. Describes any relationship the researcher may have had with the topic, participants, or research area.
c. Provides a brief description of the researcher’s role related to ethics and the Belmont Report31 protocol.
d. Qualitative studies: Describes how the student will mitigate bias and avoid viewing data through a personal lens/or perspective.
e. Qualitative studies with interviews: Briefly describes the rationale for an interview protocol.
f. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.3) Participants32
a. Describes the eligibility criteria for study participants.
b. Discusses strategies for gaining access to participants.
c. Identifies strategies for establishing a working relationship with participants.
d. The participants’ characteristics must align with the overarching research question.

31 See Belmont Report at: http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html.

32 Select “N/A” and explain why if participants are not used in the study.

13

Section 2The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
e. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).

46

Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
(2.4) Research MethodExpands on the discussion in Heading 1.5 (Nature of the Study).
a. Identifies the use of a specific research method by indicating whether the proposed study is quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods.
b. Justifies the use of the research method over the other research methods.
c. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.5) Research DesignExpands on the discussion in Heading 1.5 (Nature of the Study).
a. Identifies the use of a specific research design.
b. Justifies the use of the research design over other key designs for the study.
c. For qualitative studies, identifies how the student will ensure data saturation.
d. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.6) Population and Sampling (Quantitative Only)
a. Describes the population from which the sample will come.
b. Demonstrates that population aligns with the overarching research question.
c. Describes and justifies the sampling method (i.e., probabilistic or nonprobabilistic) and specific subcategory (i.e., simple random or convenience). Addresses the strength and weaknesses associated with the chosen sampling method and subcategory ( Appendix C.)
d. Justifies sample size via power analysis (see example in Appendix E). Provides justification for the proposed effect size, alpha, and power levels.
e. Cites the source for calculating or the tool used to calculate the sample size.
f. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
(2.7) Population and Sampling (Qualitative Only)
a. Justifies the number of participants33· Describes and justifies the sampling method (e.g., purposeful, snowball, etc.).· Describes and justifies the number of participants.· Identifies how the student will ensure data saturation.
b. Demonstrates criteria for selecting participants and interview setting are appropriate to the study. (Rich descriptions are encouraged.)
c. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.8) Ethical Research
a. Discusses the informed consent process. Includes informed consent form in an appendix and lists in the Table of Contents.
b. Discusses participant procedures for withdrawing from the study.
c. Describes any incentives for participating.
d. Clarifies measures that the student will use to assure that the ethical protection of participants is adequate.
e. Refers to agreement documents in the (a) appendices, and (b) Table of Contents.
f. Includes statement that the student will store the data securely for 5 years to protect confidentiality of participants.
g. Final Doctoral Study includes the Walden IRB approval number.
h. Identifies how the student will protect names of individuals or organizations to keep the participants and organizations confidential.
i. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.9) Instrumentation (Quantitative Only)

33 The DBA policy for phenomenological studies is a minimum of 20 participants.

Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
a. States the name of the instrument(s).
b. Identifies name of publisher/developer(s) and year of development (if applicable).
c. Discusses concept(s) measured by the instrument(s).
d. Includea detailed description of data that comprise each construct/variable measured by the instrument(s).
e. Identifies scale of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) for each construct/variable measured by the instrument. Please see Scales of Measurement video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/PDsMUlexaMY.
f. Discusses appropriateness to the current study (i.e., why is this the best instrument to use for measuring the variables/constructs?)
g. Discusses instrument administration (e.g., how long, any special requirements/tools, special instructions, pencil and paper, online, etc.).
h. Describes how scores are calculated and what the scores mean; identifies items to be reverse- coded (if applicable).
i. Identifies where and/or with what populations the instrument was normed; identifies where and with what populations other researchers have used the instrument(s) for collecting data.
j. Identifies published reliability (e.g., test-retest reliability, internal consistency, split-half, etc.) and validity properties (e.g., construct validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity) of the instrument(s)34.
k. Identifies strategies used to assess validity (e.g., construct validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity) and reliability (e.g., test- retest reliability, internal consistency, split-half, etc.).
l. Discusses and justifies any adjustments or revisions to the use of standardized research instruments.
m. Identifies where in appendices the instrument(s) (or copy of permission to use instrument or purchase is (are) located). Ensures Table of Contents lists appendices. [Copies of the instrument may not be reproduced in an Appendix without written permission.]

34 Published reliability and validity properties might be found in the test review and in other studies where the instrument was used to collect data.

Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
n. Describes where raw data will be available (appendices, tables, or by request from the researcher).
o. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.10) Data Collection Instruments (Qualitative Studies Only)
a. In addition to identifying the student as the primary data collection instrument, identifies the data collection instrument/process (e.g., informal interview, semistructured interviews, phenomenological in-depth interviews, focus groups, company/archival documents, etc.).
b. Clarifies how the student will use the data collection instrument/technique (the process/protocol).
c. Identifies how the student will enhance the reliability and validity of the data collection instrument/process (e.g., member checking, transcript review, pilot test, etc.).
d. Identifies where in appendices the instrument (e.g., interview protocol, focus group protocol, interview questions, etc.) is (are) located. Ensures Table of Contents lists appendices.
e. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.11) Data Collection Technique
a. Describes the technique used to collect data such as an online/paper survey, interview, observation, site visit, video recording (think recipe card—step-by- step-process and describe richly. Provides abridged interview protocol (seeAppendix H), focus group protocol, observation protocol, etc. and identifies location in an appendix.
b. Describes advantages and disadvantages of data collection technique.
c. As applicable, describes the process for conducting a pilot study after IRB approval.
d. For qualitative studies, identifies how the student will use member checking of the data interpretation or transcript review (if applicable).
e. Supports every decision with a minimum of three scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources.
Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
(2.12) Data Organization Techniques (Qualitative Only ).
a. Describes the systems for keeping track of data, emerging understandings such as research logs, reflective journals, and cataloging/labeling systems.
b. Reminds readers all raw data will be stored securely for 5 years.
c. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.13) Data Analysis (Quantitative Only)
a. Restates the research questions and hypotheses from Section 1.
b. Describes and defends, in detail, the statistical analyses that the student will conduct (e.g., multiple regression, two-way ANOVA, etc.).
c. Describes and defends, in detail, why other statistical analyses are not appropriate.
d. Provides explanation of data cleaning and screening procedures as appropriate to the study.
e. Provides explanation for addressing missing data.
f. Identifies and explains the assumptions pertaining to the statistical analyses.
g. Identifies the process for testing/assessing the assumptions.
h. Identifies appropriate actions to be taken take if the assumptions are violated35.
i. Describes how the student will interpret inferential results (i.e. key parameter estimates, effect sizes, confidence intervals, probability values, odds ratios, etc.).
j. Identifies statistical software and version that the student will use in the data analysis process (e.g., SPSS, Excel, R, etc.).
k. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).

35 Bootstrapping can be used as an effective method for addressing violations of assumptions.

Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
(2.14) Data Analysis (Qualitative Studies Only)
a. Identifies the appropriate data analysis process for the research design (e.g., one of the four types of triangulation for case study; modified van Kaam, van Maanen, etc. for phenomenology).
b. Provides a logical and sequential process for the data analysis.
c. Details the student’s conceptual plan or software (e.g., NVivo, Atlasti, Ethnograph, Excel, etc.) for coding, mind-mapping, and identifying themes.
d. Identifies how the student will focus on the key themes, correlate the key themes with the literature (including new studies published since writing the proposal) and the conceptual framework.
e. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer- reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.15) Study Validity (Quantitative Only) 36
a. Experimental/quasi-experimental designs only: Describes threats to external validity (e.g., testing reactivity, interaction effects of selection and experimental variables, specificity of variables, reactive effects of experimental arrangements, and multiple-treatment interference, as appropriate to the study) and how the student will address the threats to external validity.
b. Experimental/quasi-experimental designs only: Describes threats to internal validity (e.g., history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, statistical regression, experimental mortality, and selection-maturation interaction, as appropriate to the study) and how the student will address the threats to internal validity.
c. Discusses threats to statistical conclusion validity37 (e.g., factors that affect the alpha/Type I error rate) and how the student will address the threats to statistical conclusion validity.
d. Describes the extent to which, and rationale for justifying if, and if so why, research findings can be generalized to larger populations (external validity) and applied to different settings.

36 Items “a” and “b” pertain to experimental and quasi-experimental designs only. Item “c” pertains to all quantitative designs. Discuss validity as it pertains to the study outcomes. This component is not to address the reliability and validity of the study instruments. The reliability and validity of the study instruments is addressed in item 2.9 (quantitative) and 2.10 (qualitative). Item “d”, external validity, pertains to all quantitative designs.

37 The three factors to be discussed are (a) reliability of the instrument, (b) data assumptions, and (c) sample size.

Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
e. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer-reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.16) Reliability and Validity (Qualitative Only) A key difference from quantitative research is the reliability and validity headings. The analogous criteria for qualitative studies are credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. These criteria are not measurable and need to be established using qualitative methods such as member checking–Marshall and Rossman (2016) have a good definition, and triangulation (data triangulation, investigator triangulation, theoretical triangulation, and methodological triangulation). See Norman Denzin’s (1978, 2009) works on triangulation). Please review more detailed information on qualitative validity at: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualval.php
Reliability
a. Identifies how the student will address dependability. (i.e., member checking of data interpretation, transcript review, pilot test, etc.).
b. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer- reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate)..
Validity
c. Identifies how the student will ensure credibility (i.e., member checking of the data interpretation, participant transcript review, triangulation, etc.).
d. Identifies how the student will address transferability in relation to the reader and future research.
e. Identifies how the student will address confirmability.
f. Identifies how the student will ensure data saturation.
g. It is recommended to support claims and decisions with multiple scholarly peer- reviewed or seminal sources (as appropriate).
(2.17) Transition and Summary
a. Ends with a Transition Statement that contains a summary of key points.
b. Includes an overview of what the student will cover in Section 3.
Proposal Stage. Before IRB approval, the paper is written in future tense and after IRB approval, the paper is changed to past tense.
Writing Style. The paper is written in predominantly active voice without slang, euphemisms, or anthropomorphisms.
Section 2 The Project(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
Follows APA 6th edition in the text and in the reference list
References: Of the total sources cited, a minimum of 85% must be peer reviewed (it is recommended that in business 85% should be within the past 5 years of anticipated completion date); ensures there is a match between citations and reference list.
Congratulations! This ends the Proposal section. See the Process Checklist located at the Center for Research Quality website (see URL below).http://researchcenter.waldenu.edu/Documents/DBA_Process_Checklist.pdf
Section 3Application for Professional Practice and Implications for Social Change (FOR DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
(3.1) Introduction
a. Begins with the purpose of the study. Do not repeat the entire purpose statement. Typically, the first sentence of the purpose statement will suffice.
b. Provides a brief summary of the findings (do not exceed one page).
(3.2) Presentation of Findings (Quantitative Only)
a. Describes the statistical test(s), the variables, and the purpose of the test(s) and how they relate to the hypotheses.
b. Presents relevant descriptive statistics38 (i.e. mean, standard deviation for scale variables; frequencies and percentages for nominal variables).
c. Provides evaluation of statistical assumptions from Heading 2.13e.
d. Reports inferential statistical analyses results, organized by research question, in proper APA statistical notation/format. Includes the alpha level chosen for the test, test value, (significance level) values, effect size, degrees of freedom, confidence intervals (when appropriate), etc.
e. Includes appropriate tables39 and figures to illustrate results, as per the current edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
f. Summarizes answers to research questions.

38 See the following link for further information on descriptive statistics: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php

39 See Appendix E for basic formatted descriptive and inferential statistic tables.

Section 3Application for Professional Practice and Implications for Social Change (FOR DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in EachCell
g. 40Describes in what ways findings confirm, disconfirm, or extend knowledge of the theoretical framework and relationship(s) among variables by comparing the findings with other peer- reviewed studies from the literature review that includes studies addressed during the proposal stage and new studies since writing the proposal. Ties findings or disputes findings to the existing literature on effective business practice.
h. Analyzes and interprets the findings in the context of the theoretical framework, as appropriate.
i. Ensures interpretations do not exceed the data, findings, and scope.
(3.3) Presentation of Findings (Qualitative Only)
a. Lists the overarching research question.
b. Identifies each theme. Analyzes and discusses findings in relation to the themes.
c. 41Describes in what ways findings confirm, disconfirm, or extend knowledge in the discipline by comparing the findings with other peer-reviewed studies from the literature review that includes new studies since writing the proposal.
d. Ties findings to the conceptual framework
e. Ties findings or disputes findings to the existing literature on effective business practice.
(3.4) Application to Professional Practice42
Provides a detailed discussion on the applicability of the findings with respect to the professional practice of business. This major subsection provides a rich academic argument for why and how the findings are relevant to improved business practice.

40 It is important to ensure the review of the literature is a critical analysis and synthesis of the theory and variables identified in the study.

41 It is important the student includes a critical analysis and synthesis of the new literature (studies) published since the proposal and correlates the literature with the findings in the study.

42 This is an important area for Doctoral Study of the Year Award.

(3.5) Implications for Social Change43
Expresses implications in terms of tangible improvements to individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies as the findings could beneficially affect social change/behaviors.
(3.6) Recommendations for Action
a. Ensures recommendations flow logically from the conclusions and contain steps to useful action.
b. States who needs to pay attention to the results.
c. Indicates how the results might be disseminated via literature, conferences, training, etc.
(3.7) Recommendations for Further Research44
Lists recommendations for further study related to improved practice in business. Identifies how limitations identified in Section 1.12b, Limitations, can be addressed in future research.
(3.8) Reflections
Includes a reflection on the researcher’s experience within the DBA Doctoral Study process, in which the researcher discusses possible personal biases or preconceived ideas and values, the possible effects of the researcher on the participants or the situation, and any changes to the researcher’s thinking after completing the study.
(3.9) Conclusion
Closes with a strong concluding statement making the take-home message clear to the reader.
(3.10) Appendices/Table of Content
a. Consent form(s) attached. (Redact/blackout all personal or identifying data.)
b. Organizational permission (Blackout name).
c. Sample of Instrument (i.e., survey, interview protocol with interview questions, observation protocol, etc.; copyrighted surveys cannot be included w/o written permissions.)

43 This is an important area for Doctoral Study of the Year Award.

44 Limitations identified in section 1.12b, as a minimum, are ideal sources for future studies.

Doctor of Business Administration

DBA RESEARCH HANDBOOK

Research Handbook

SECTION 1: FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY

Section 1 – Foundation of the Study

Note: This handbook is not in the DBA Doctoral Study Template. Make certain that the proposal and study conform to DBA Doctoral Study Template heading sequencing, and formatting with the correct margins and line spacing.

1.1 – Abstract

The abstract must not exceed one page. The abstract text must be double-spaced with no paragraph breaks. The first line must not be indented. Describe the overall research problem being addressed in the first couple of sentences and indicate why it is important (e.g., who would care if the problem were solved). You can include a general introduction of the issue in the first sentence, but you need to move to a clear statement of the research problem. Identify the purpose and theoretical foundations, summarize the key research question(s), and briefly describe the overall research design and data analytic procedures. Identify the key results, themes, one or two conclusions, and recommendations that capture the heart of the research. Conclude with a statement on the implications for positive social change. Here are some form and style tips: (a) limit the abstract to one page; (b) maintain the scholarly language used throughout the doctoral study; (c) keep the abstract concise, accurate, and readable; (d) use correct English; one may use passive voice in the abstract; (e) ensure each sentence adds value to the reader’s understanding of the research; (f) use the full name of any term and if the acronym is used more than once in the abstract include the acronym in parentheses. Do not include references or citations in the abstract. Per APA style, unless at the beginning of a sentence, use numerals in the abstract, and don’t identify the titles of any software. Do not include seriation (i.e., (a), (b), (c), etc.)

1.2 – Background of the Problem

The purpose of the background is to introduce the topic and problem you will address.

Briefly, you want to indicate why the problem deserves new research. More important, the Doctoral Study must address applied research, so you will want to identify the need to study how some business leaders are solving or have solved an applied business problem. The goal of this heading is to encourage readers to continue reading, to generate interest in the study, and provide an initial frame of reference for understanding the entire research framework.

Applied DBA Versus a Speculative/Theoretical PhD

A DBA study is an applied business study linking theory to professional practice.

Students can use the following criteria to ensure that they have a clear DBA business study or a DBA business study rather than a PhD business study. In contrast to a DBA study, a PhD study is a hypothetical/theoretical study that leads to expanding or creating theory rather than solving a business problem.

Qualitative studies. A qualitative study about people’s perceptions on how to address a business problem is hypothetical and is a PhD study. In contrast, a qualitative study is about a strategy that a business leader or manager has implemented /is implementing to solve a business problem or a strategy that a business leader or manager has implemented to solve a business problem is an applied DBA study.

Quantitative studies. A quantitative study that includes one or more variables in which the leader or manager cannot change to solve a business problem is a hypothetical/theoretical PhD study. Whereas, a quantitative study that includes only variables which business leaders or business managers can manipulate or change to solve a business problem is an applied DBA study.

Preparing the Background of the Problem

The Background of the Problem can be effectively accomplished in no more than one page; brevity and clarity are essential. The Review of the Literature will provide a more detailed discussion on the literature pertaining to the topic/problem. Immersing yourself in the literature on your topic/problem is crucial to uncovering a viable business problem. Do not underestimate the importance of the literature in helping identifying a viable business problem.

The research topic is broad in nature; do not narrow the focus too quickly. You want to provide the reader, especially those not familiar with the topic, time to become familiar with the topic. Transition the reader to a more a concise presentation of the specific business topic/problem under study. This component focuses on identifying why the study is important, how the study relates to previous research on the topic/problem, and gives the reader a firm sense of what your study is going to address and why. The Background of the Problem contains information supporting the business problem. Do not describe, explain, justify, etc., the need for the study in the Problem Statement. Provide these critical elements (description, explanation, justification, etc.) in the Background of the Problem component. As such, the Problem Statement can be written effectively in as little as four sentences: (a) hook, (b) anchor (c) general business problem, and (d) specific business problem. Transfer the supporting references in the Background of the Problem to the Problem Statement, but submit in a concise manner. For example, the hook and anchor reference provided in the Background of the Problem should be used in the Problem Statement.

Include a transition statement that leads to problem statement that will provide more specificity regarding the problem identified in the Background or the Problem component. A well-written transition signals a change in content. It tells your reader that they have finished one main unit and are moving to the next, or it tells them that they are moving from a general explanation to a specific example or application. A transition form the background to the Problem Statement is often as brief as one sentence, as follows: The background to the problem has been provided; the focus will now shift to the Problem Statement. Tip: Many potential business topics/problems can be found in the Area for Future Research heading of most peer- reviewed journal articles.

1.3 – Problem Statement

As shown in the following graphic, the Problem Statement must include four specific components the (a) hook, (b) anchor, (c) general business problem, and (d) specific business problem. The Problem Statement is not to exceed 150 words. One should utilize the Tool/Word Count feature in Microsoft Word to ensure the word count does not exceed the 150 maximum word requirement. More important, ensure the problem statement reflects an applied business problem; avoid Rubric Creep45. You must ensure you map to the rubric requirements. This is the most critical component of the doctoral study and will be highly scrutinized in the review process. Again, the Problem Statement is not to identify causes for the problem, solutions to the problem, or any other superfluous information. A well-written problem statement can be presented in four to five sentences. Please review the training video (see link below) developed by the DBA methodology team to aid in writing your problem statement. The video will help add clarity and save you time. The Problem Statement Video Tutorial can be found at: http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo.

45 Rubric creep occurs when the problem statement does not reflect an applied business problem.

DBA students are seeking a degree in business and must ensure the problem statement is business focused. The problem statement must not represent a problem that has a social, psychological, educational, or other discipline specific emphasis. A business problem is something that is a problem for a business from the perspective of the business managers or the industry’s leaders. Therefore, it is important to adopt a management perspective, and not that of social advocates. The perspective must be from the position of the managers and leaders of business who can address the problem.

Avoiding Rubric Creep

To ascertain if a problem addresses a business issue or has Rubric creep/Rubric drift, please consider the following:

· An important indicator that a business related problem is a specific business problem is that the problem statement relates to a key business process that organizational leaders need to address and effectively meet the organization’s mission.

· A business problem relates to one or more critical success factors (CSFs). Business leaders use business processes to function effectively to complete one or more CSF’s needed to carry out their business mission.

· A business problem is one that a business manager/leader can solve.

Conduct a final check of the problem statement by putting the hook, anchor, general business problem, and specific business problem in bullet form and check for alignment among the four bullets. When you can ensure that the problem statement aligns throughout, write in scholarly narrative form (no bullets).

Strategy for Mapping to the Rubric

· Read the rubric requirements for a heading.

· Read what you wrote in the heading.

· Read the rubric requirements for a heading again.

· Read what you wrote in the section and highlight (in the proposal and the rubric) the rubric elements that you addressed in the heading.

· Revise the heading as needed to include the rubric elements that you missed and eliminate superfluous narrative.

· Start the process at the top again until you have mastered the rubric elements in the heading.

Specific Business Problem

The specific business problem is the genesis of one’s study. It is vital that one has a clear and precise specific business problem. One will align the contents of the Research Question and Purpose Statement with the specific business problem.

The qualitative specific business problem. The qualitative specific business problem must be well defined and not contain multiple issues (variables in quantitative studies). The

following graphic depicts how to include the elements needed in a qualitative specific business problem.

The quantitative specific business problem. The quantitative specific business problem must be well defined and contain the key variables. The following graphic depicts how to include the elements needed in a qualitative specific business problem.

Aligning the Specific Business Problem With the Purpose Statement and RQ

Make certain that the specific business problem, Purpose Statement, and Research Question (RQ) align. A good technique to use to enhance the alignment is to put the specific business problem, RQ, and first sentence of the Purpose Statement together on a blank document to ensure that you are using the same words. Notice the suggested order differs from the order the headings appear in the study.

Qualitative alignment example. The graphic below provides an example of alignment among the Specific Business ProblemResearch Question, and first sentence of the Purpose Statement using the same key words. Pay attention to the words one uses in identifying the issue that the leader lacks or has in limited supply. The word determines how one can collect data.

· Some business leaders lack understanding… To ascertain what one understands will require a quantitative design.

· Some business leaders lack knowledge… To ascertain a business leader’s knowledge will require a quantitative design.

· Some business leaders lack strategies (or have limited plans, processes, procedures)… To ascertain a business leader’s strategies may involve interviews, focus groups, company archival records and documents, company policies and procedures, company intranet/Internet site, and direct/participant observation (in some cases) to collect data. Usually interviews or focus groups are the primary data collection method.

· Some business leaders lack skills… To ascertain a business leader’s skills will involve direct/participant observation as the primary data collection method.

Quantitative alignment example. Notice how the Specific Business ProblemResearch Question, and first sentence of the Purpose Statement use the same key words with the exception that the research question and subsequent first sentence in the purpose statement do not address the business leader—this is a difference between qualitative and quantitative studies. The following is an example of alignment for a quantitative correlational study.

1.4 – Purpose Statement

There is a difference in the rubric requirements for a quantitative versus a qualitative study. The Purpose Statement must include the following components: (a) methodology, (b) design, (c) independent and dependent variables (for quantitative studies only), (d) specific population and justification for using the chosen population, (e) geographical location, and (f) the study’s potential for effecting social change. The Purpose Statement is not to exceed 200 words. One should utilize the Tool/Word Count feature in Microsoft Word to ensure the word count does not exceed 200 words. The Purpose Statement is to be a concise statement and must not include detailed design information (sample size, data collection, etc.). Please be sure to map to the rubric. Please review the purpose statement video at: http://youtu.be/pLP4r0mfT9A. This video tutorial will be helpful to you in preparing your Purpose Statement.

Six Elements of the Purpose Statement

As mentioned above, the Purpose Statement consists of six elements. These six elements, and their contents, are:

Methodology. The first element to be presented in the Purpose Statement is the research methodology. The methodology is the overall philosophical assumption the researcher uses for designing and developing the study. In other words, the methodology is a worldview of how knowledge is acquired. The qualitative method is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a business problem. The qualitative method involves researchers using open-ended questions to learn what a business leader is doing or has done to solve a business problem. The quantitative method involves researchers using closed-ended questions to test hypotheses. Mixed-method studies contain a qualitative study methodology and a quantitative study methodology and must meet the requirements of both methodologies.

Mixed-method studies are rarely conducted in the DBA program. You simply need to identify the methodology for or your study in a single sentence. There is no other information required other than this single statement.

Design. The second element to be presented in the Purpose Statement is the research design. While there are numerous designs, the most common qualitative designs seen in DBA doctoral studies are the case study design, miniethnography, focus group, and the phenomenological design. The correlational design is the most common design for quantitative studies. You simply need to identify the design of your study. There is no other information required other than this single statement.

Variables (quantitative study only)46. A variable is any entity that can take on different values. Another definition of a variable is that it is a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals or units of analyses (i.e. sample units). More so, variables are the corner stone of quantitative research, where the researcher seeks to explain the relationships among variables or to compare group differences regarding a variable or variables

46 See section 1.6 “Research Questions” for more information on variable requirements.

of interest. Another important distinction for term variable is the distinction between an

independent and dependent variable.

An independent variable is the variable you have control over (experimental designs), what you can choose and manipulate. A dependent variable is also known as a response variable or explained variable. The independent variable is usually what you think will affect the dependent variable. In some cases, you may not be able to manipulate the independent variable. It may be something that is already there and is fixed (i.e. company size), something you would like to evaluate with respect to how it predicts, influences, impacts, or causes a change in the dependent variable (i.e. employee satisfaction).

As it applies to your research, the dependent variable is normally the problematic variable in DBA studies where the researcher it trying to explain what influences, affects, causes or can predict the problem. For example, if the specific business problem is low employee satisfaction then employee satisfaction is the dependent variable. The researcher then selects independent variables that are thought to predict, influence, impact, or cause the dependent variable, in this case, employee satisfaction.

Thus, it is extremely important to identify clearly the independent and dependent variables in the Purpose Statement component of the proposal. Identification of the variables informs other research components such as sample size and type of statistical analysis that is to be conducted. See more on variables at: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/variable.php

Targeted population. A population is the larger group that you are studying. The population is not to be misconstrued as the sample, or your study’s participants. You will select your sample, or study participants from the larger population. For example, your population might be all small business leaders in New York. You will however, select a subset of small business leaders in New York to serve as your sample or participants. Remember, you are to address the broader population in this component of the Purpose Statement.

In a qualitative ethnographic or case study, you will need to define the population with the scope of the study. For example, if you are conducting a single case study, the population will be people that meet the participant criteria within that organization/company. Likewise, in a multiple case study the population will be the people that meet the participant criteria within the organizations/companies in the study.

Examples for a case study with the following research question: What strategies do department store managers use to motivate their sales associates?

Single case study example. The population will be department store managers in one New England department store who have a strategy to motivate their sales associates.

Multiple case study example. The population will be department store managers in four New England department stores who have a strategy to motivate their sales associates.

Geographical location. The geographical location simply identifies the geographical location of your study’s participants. The participants might be in a particular country, region,

state, or city. Of course, this may vary based upon the purpose of your study. In the decision to identify the geographic location, one must ensure that the confidentiality of the company(ies) and participants. If one is conducting a study in an automotive manufacturing facility and there are only one or two companies in the city or state (i.e. Alabama), one should define the geographic location to avoid the specific sample units being easily identifiable (i.e., southern United States).

Social change. The final element of your Purpose Statement requires you to provide a positive social change statement. Positive social change involves improvement of human or social conditions by promoting the worth, dignity, and development of individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies. Focus on explaining “WHO” may benefit, and “HOW” the “WHO” may benefit from your study’s findings and recommendations.

Quantitative hypothetical example. The purpose of this quantitative correlation study is to examine the relationship between leadership styles, size of business, and business revenue.

The independent variables are leadership style and size of business size. The dependent variable is business revenue. The targeted population will consist of business leaders of microelectronic companies in the southeast United States. The implications for positive social change include the potential to (provide social change statement).

Note: DBA doctoral studies require the highest level or rigor and scholarship. One focus of rigor and scholarship is that of the number of predictor or independent variables examined in quantitative doctoral studies. Nonexperimental research (i.e. correlation, quasi- experimental, etc.) requires the use of at least two independent or predictor variables.

Qualitative hypothetical example (case study). The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study is to explore the strategies that department store managers use to motivate their sales associates. The targeted population will comprise of department store managers form one of the three department stores in the southeast region of the United States who have implemented strategies to motivate their sales associates. The implication for positive social change includes the potential to (provide social change statement).

Note: In a case study, and often in ethnographic studies, the population is limited to those people meeting the participant criteria in the company or companies being studies. In a phenomenological or narrative study, the population includes all people who meet the participant criteria.

1.5 – Nature of the Study

The Nature of the Study component serves two purposes (a) describing and justifying the methodology (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method) and (b) describing and justifying the design (i.e. case study, phenomenological, correlation, sequential explanatory, etc.). Therefore, a well-crafted Nature of the Study can be presented in two paragraphs and not exceed one page.

The first paragraph describes and justifies the methodology and the second paragraph describes and justifies the design. These two components should not be intermingled. A common error in this heading is to restate the purpose, identify variables, analyses, etc. and include other superfluous information. Again, map to the rubric and only include the required content!

Remember that the Nature of the Study succinctly represents your defense of your choice of method and design; therefore, it must have depth. You must demonstrate to the reviewers that you have done the reading and research needed to support your research method and design. That evidence also includes discussing why you did not choose other methods and designs.

Keep this heading deep yet brief. You will have time to expand upon the Nature of the Study

later in the Research Method and Design heading.

Hypothetical Quantitative Example47

I chose a quantitative methodology for this study. Using a quantitative study enables one to identify results that can be used to describe or note numerical changes in numerical characteristics of a population of interest; generalize to other, similar situations; provide explanations of predictions, and explain casual relationships (cite). Thus, the quantitative method is appropriate for this study because the purpose of the study is to analyze numerical data and infer the results to a larger population. A mixed methods study contains the attributes of both quantitative and qualitative methods (cite). The qualitative method is appropriate when the research intent is to explore business processes, how people make sense and meaning, and what their experiences are like (cite). Therefore, the qualitative and qualitative portions of a mixed- method approach are not appropriate for this study.

Specifically, the correlation design is chosen for this study. A correlation researcher examines the relationship between or among two or more variables (cite). The correlation design is appropriate for this study because a key objective for this study is to predict the relationship between a set of predictor variables (leadership style and size of business) and a dependent variable (company revenue). Other designs, such as experimental and quasi-experimental designs are appropriate when the researcher seeks to assess a degree of cause and effect (cite). This principal objective for this study is to identify a predictive model; thus the experimental and quasi-experimental designs are not appropriate.

Hypothetical Qualitative Example

The three research methods include qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods (cite). I selected the qualitative method to use open-ended questions. Qualitative researchers use open- ended questions to discover what is occurring or has occurred (cite). In contrast, quantitative researchers use closed ended questions to test hypotheses (cite). Mixed methods research includes both a qualitative element and quantitative element (cite). To explore (your topic), I will not be testing hypotheses which is part of a quantitative study or the quantitative portion of a mixed methods study.

47 Note: As you can see, the example clearly starts with topic sentences (red text) that foreshadow what is to be addressed in the paragraph. Notice the quantitative method paragraph does not address the design, as the topic sentence does not suggest the design is the focus of the paragraph. The design is not foreshadowed in the topic sentence. Remember, a topic sentence alerts the reader to the main topic of the paragraph.

I considered four research designs that one could use for a qualitative study on (2-3 words identifying your topic): (a) miniethnography, (b) focus group, (c) narrative, and (d) case study. (Note: Select the designs that you considered and are applicable to an applied qualitative study.) Miniethnography involves… (Briefly discuss miniethnography, 1-sentence defining with a citation, 1-sentence if needed why it is or is not the optimal choice). Business researchers use focus groups to… (Briefly discuss focus groups, 1-sentence defining with a citation, 1-sentence if needed why it is or is not the optimal choice). A narrative design entails… (Briefly discuss narrative designs, 1-sentence defining with a citation, 1-sentence if needed for why it is or is not the optimal choice). Case study researchers… (Briefly discuss case study, 1-sentence defining with a citation, 1-sentence is needed why it is or is not the optimal choice).

1.6 – Research Question (QuantitativeOnly)

DBA doctoral studies require the highest level or rigor and scholarship. One focus of rigor and scholarship is that of the number of predictor or independent variables examined in quantitative doc studies. Non-experimental research (i.e. correlationquasi-experimental, etc.) requires the use of at least two independent or predictor variables. This is due to the “third variable” problem. A third variable also known as a confounding or mediator variable can confound the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. This confounding can lead the researcher to incorrectly interpret the results, leading to an incorrect rejection of the null hypothesis.

As such, all DBA quantitative studies require the examination of at least two predictor, or independent variables. This affects the statistical analysis, as simple bivariate correlations (correlation designs) or one-way ANOVAs cannot be used as inferential statistical tests. Other statistical procedures, such as partial correlation, semipartial correlation, mediation and moderation, and multiple regression analyses, as a minimum must be used for correlation studies. Quasi-experimental, causal comparative, etc., designs must employ statistical analyses (i.e. factorial ANOVAs), as a minimum, which examines more than one independent variable.

Below are appropriate and inappropriate examples of correlation and quasi-experimental research questions. These examples depict predictor/independent variables, which are (a) employee job satisfaction and (b) leadership experience. The dependent variable is company gross revenue.

· Appropriate Correlation Example (two predictor variables): Does a linear combination of employee job satisfaction and leadership experience significantly predict employee productivity?

· Inappropriate Correlation Example (only one predictor variable): Does employee job satisfaction significantly predict employee productivity?

· Appropriate Quasi-experimental Example (two independent variables): Do employee job satisfaction and leadership experience significantly influence employee productivity?

· Inappropriate Quasi-experimental Example (only one independent variable):

Does employee job satisfaction significantly influence employee productivity?

1.7 – Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed-Method Only)

Hypotheses

Two major elements in the research design are the hypotheses and the variables used to test them. A hypothesis is a provisional idea whose merit deserves further evaluation. Two hypotheses, the null (H0) and alternative (H1), are to be stated for each research question. Below are appropriate examples of correlation and quasi-experimental/casual comparative null and alternative hypotheses; note how they mirror the research questions identified above in the Quantitative Research Questions heading. These examples depict predictor/independent variables, which are (a) employee job satisfaction and (b) leadership experience. The dependent variable is company gross revenue. The H0 and H1 reflect the appropriate statistical notation and are to be included. See more on hypotheses at: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/hypothes.php

Correlation

· Null Hypothesis (H0): The linear combination of employee job satisfaction and leadership experience will not significantly predict employee productivity.

· Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The linear combination of employee job satisfaction and leadership experience will significantly predict employee productivity.

Quasi-experimental

· Null Hypothesis (H0): Employee job satisfaction and leadership experience do not significantly influence employee productivity.

· Alternative Hypothesis (H1): Employee job satisfaction and leadership experience significantly influence employee productivity.

1.8 – Research Question (QualitativeOnly)

In a qualitative study, the Research Question uses the same words as in the Specific Business Problem to identify the specific business leader and identify what the leader has limited supply of or is lacking. The following examples demonstrate how to align the research question with the specific business problem.

1.9 – Interview Questions (Qualitative Only)

In qualitative studies, the researcher must first identify the population for the study (business leaders that have solved or are solving the specific business problem) and align the interview questions with the population and the research question. Interview questions must (a) provide answers to the research question, (b) not go beyond the research question (i.e., no demographics if not part of the research question), (c) be in the language (word choice) that the participant will understand, (d) be open-ended questions (no Yes or No answerable questions), and (e) be applied DBA rather than speculative PhD questions (see the example below).

Interview questions should be straightforward and ask what or how the business leader has addressed the research problem. Typically, case study and ethnographic interviews will be semistructured, semiformal, unstructured, or informal. Phenomenological studies use the phenomenological long interview with only one to three questions to have a longer discussion getting in depth data and reaching a state of epoché. Students should critically read about the different interviewing techniques and select the best technique for the study design.

Semistructured and semiformal interviews frequently include six to ten interview questions to allow time for probing questions. The final interview question in a semistructured or informal interview frequently asks the participant to share any additional information for addressing the research question(s): What additional information would you like to share about XYZ? One typically uses an unstructured or informal interview technique when having a more casual discussion often spreading the interview questions out over time during field visits (i.e., during a direct observation or participant observation phase in data collection).

In contrast, the phenomenological long interview typically has one or two interview questions. Although phenomenological interview questions are written as a question, the interview protocol involves creating an in depth discussion (typically 1-2 hours) and reaching a state of epoché. The phenomenological long interview requires more study and preparation as compared to more traditional interviewing techniques used in ethnography and case study designs.

Be cautious not to confuse the interviewing process with the interviewing questions. The concept of semistructured questions or semistructured interview questions does not exist.

Semistructured interviews (semiformal, unstructured, or informal interviews) are a specific interviewing technique/process. All qualitative interview questions are open-ended. However, the interview questions are not semistructured.

Example Research Question

What strategies do department store managers use to motivate their sales associates?

Example Applied DBA Interview Questions

1. What strategies are you using to motivate your sales associates?

2. What method did you find worked best to motivate your sales associates?

3. How did your sales associates respond to your different motivation techniques?

Example Speculative/Theoretical PhD Questions (do not use)

1. What strategies should managers use to motivate sales associates?

2. What method do you think will work best to motivate sales associates?

3. How do you feel your sales associates respond to other motivation techniques?

1.10 – Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

A theoretical (for quantitative studies) or conceptual framework (for qualitative studies) offers a systematic view of a phenomenon. In other words, the framework provides a lens through which to view a phenomenon.

Identifying the Best Theory or Conceptual Model

Make certain that the theory aligns with the research question. Consider the following when searching for a theory or conceptual model for the conceptual framework.

· Critically read peer- reviewed studies related to your topic and identify the theories that the sources found aligned with their studies. After one has read and synthesized numerous peer-reviewed studies related to the topic for the annotated bibliography, one will notice a few theories (or conceptual models) that aligned with several studies.

· Critically read the seminal work on the theories (or conceptual models) that you found in peer-reviewed studies related to your topic.

· Related studies may be about the concept and not the specific industry.

· For example, if one is studying how the family owned wrecking yard leaders succession plan, one could look at studies on leadership training and development in other types of organizations.

· Quantitative. Select the theory or conceptual model that best aligns with the research question and provides an interrelated set of constructs, variables, hypotheses, or propositions that offer an explanation for phenomenon.

· Qualitative. Select the theory or conceptual model that best aligns with the research question.

As you can see, it is important to immerse yourself in the literature pertaining to your conceptual framework to gain a good understanding of the framework. More important, your literature review must include an exhaustive review of the literature pertaining to the conceptual framework you are proposing for your study. This is extremely important, as you will be required to discuss your findings as they confirm, disconfirm, extend, etc., the extant literature on your conceptual framework. You must critically analyze and synthesize the studies where your conceptual framework has been the lens through which the phenomenon has been viewed.

As outlined in the DBA Rubric, you are required to present a brief overview of your theory or conceptual framework in Section one of the proposal. Please note this is not to be a detailed review of your theory or framework. The detailed review is required in the Review of the Literature heading. Here, a model for presenting the theory or framework heading is offered.

You will want to state the name of the theory or identify the conceptual framework, identify the theorist if applicable, list key concepts of the theory or framework, identify any propositions or hypotheses, and identify how the theory or framework applies to your study. Please note there are obvious variations to this model depending upon your particular study and topic. However, the intent is to briefly present the key aspects of your theory and or framework and show how it fits into your study.

Quantitative Example

Burns (1978) developed the transformational leadership theory. Burns used the theory to offer an explanation for leadership based upon the premise that leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work toward common goals. Burns identified the following key constructs underlying the theory (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, and (e) individualized consideration. As applied to this study, the transformational leadership theory holds that I would expect the independent variables (transformational leadership constructs), measured by the Multifaceted Leadership Questionnaire, to predict employee turnover intention because (provide a rationale based upon the logic of the theory and extant literature). The following figure48 is a graphical depiction of the transformational leadership theory as it applies to examining turnover intentions.

48 Graphical models are useful for depicting the theoretical framework in quantitative studies.

Inspirational Motivation

Turnover Intention

Intellectual Stimulation

Idealized Behavior

Idealized Attributes

Moral Integrity

Let’s examine the theoretical framework from the perspective of possible lenses through which to view phenomena. Assume the business problem or phenomenon is the failure rate of small businesses, an obvious business concern. There are plethora’s of explanations that can be offered for the failure of small businesses. As the researcher, you have the choice of lens for which to view the problem. For example, you might hypothesize or rationalize that transformational leadership characteristics offer a systematic view for the failure of small businesses. Specifically, you hypothesize or rationalize that a leaders transformational leadership characteristics are influential in the success of small businesses. As such, your study would be grounded in transformational leadership theory or transformational leadership conceptual framework.

Or perhaps, you hypothesize or rationalize that servant leadership characteristics offer a systematic view for the failure of small businesses. Specifically, you hypothesize or rationalize that a leaders servant leadership characteristics are influential in the success of small businesses. As such, your study would be grounded in transformational leadership theory or transformational leadership conceptual framework. Hence, the number of lenses through which a problem or phenomena can be viewed is limitless. Only your imagination stands between you and selecting the theory or conceptual framework that can be used to connect your study to existing knowledge.

Perhaps, one of the most misunderstood aspects of theory is how to apply it in the doctoral study. Researchers utilizing a quantitative study grounded in transformational leadership theory must measure or assess the constructs underlying the theory. The broad constructs of transformational leadership theory are idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, stimulation, and idealized consideration.

Therefore, an instrument such as the Multifaceted Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is appropriate to measure the underlying constructs of transformational leadership theory. Any instrument not proven to assess transformational leadership cannot be approved for use in a study grounded in transformational leadership theory. If you (inappropriately) used a nonvalidated instrument, you would not be testing the proposed transformational leadership theory, and your

study would not have construct validity. For example, the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) instrument could not be approved for use in a study grounded in transformational leadership theory, as the SLS was validated for use in measuring constructs underlying servant leadership theory.

Qualitative Example

Example research question. What strategies do department store managers use to motivate their sales associates?

Example conceptual framework. Vroom (1959) developed the expectancy-valence theory, which he later called the expectancy motivation theory (Vroom, 1964). The expectancy motivation theory suggests that employees will exhibit positive performance behaviors when they believe that their work will result in certain rewards (Vroom, 1964). Building upon Vroom’s expectancy motivation theory, Gilbert (1978, 2013) published his behavioral engineering model that provided a motivational foundation for the inputs that can lead to specific employee motives. Gilbert identified three categories covering information, instrumentation, and motivation. Within the manager’s scope of control are data, resources, and incentives. Within the employee’s scope of control are knowledge, capacity, and motives. Gilbert argued that if managers improved the availability of data access, provided the tools and equipment, or incentives to perform, employees would exhibit a change in willingness to participate. Likewise, if employees have a change in knowledge or capacity to perform, employees would exhibit a change in willingness to participate (Gilbert, 1978, 2013). Vroom’s (1964) expectancy motivation theory and Gilbert’s (1978) behavioral engineering model both align with this study exploring the strategies that department store managers use to motivate their sales associates.

1.11 – Operational Definitions

Do not include terms found in a basic academic dictionary (i.e. Webster’s). List only terms than might not be understood by the reader. All definitions should be sourced from professional/scholarly sources and in alphabetical order. Do not include more than 10 key operational definitions. Although one can use a maximum of 10 terms, there may only be a few terms pertinent to the study. Listing a specific term that only one or two sources in the literature review introduce is likely not pertinent to the study and should not be listed in the operational definitions.

1.12 – Assumptions, Limitations, andDelimitations49

Assumptions are facts considered to be true, but which cannot actually be verified by the researcher. Assumptions carry risk and should be treated as such. A mitigation discussion would be appropriate. Identify all assumptions associated with the study. Limitations refer to potential study weaknesses, which cannot be addressed by the researcher. Identify all limitations

49 Review the following resource for more detailed information: Ellis, T. J., & Levy, Y. (2009). Towards a guide for novice researchers on research methodology: Review and proposed methods. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 6, 323-337. Retrieved from http://www.informingscience.org/Journals/IISIT/Overview

associated with the study. Delimitations refer to the bounds or scope of the study. Describe the boundaries and what is in and out of your study’s scope.

1.13 – Significance of the Study

Contribution to Business Practice

Discuss how the findings, conclusions, and recommendations from your study could fill gaps in the understanding and effective practice of business.

Implications for Social Change

Provide a statement of the your study’s potential for effecting positive social change or the improvement of human or social conditions by promoting the worth, dignity, and development of individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies.

1.14 – Review of the Professional and Academic Literature

The literature review content needs to be a comprehensive and critical analysis and synthesis of the literature related to the theory and/or conceptual model from the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework as well as the existing body of knowledge regarding the research topic. What a literature review should not be is an amalgamation of essays on the topic. The approach to this heading may vary by authors’ specific purpose. For example, if your study is to be grounded in the transformational leadership theoretical or conceptual framework, you will be examining or exploring your phenomenon through a leadership lens. You want to report on extant research that was grounded in the transformational leadership theoretical/conceptual framework. You would want to report on the literature that is as close to your topic/phenomenon as possible. In addition, if you are conducting a quantitative study, you need to include the literature for any other key variables. A basic outline is presented at Appendix A.50

Critical analysis and synthesis of the relevant literature will be an important element of the literature review. The review of the literature is not to be a regurgitation of what you have read. It is also not to teach about a topic; rather, it is to show your mastery of the previous and recent research on your topic and provide a comprehensive up-to-date literature review on your topic. Start with an introductory heading and then report the literature. This should be an exhaustive review of the literature using the chosen theoretical/conceptual framework and consist of the key and recent writings in the field. Repeat this approach if there are any additional theories. In addition, in quantitative studies, there must be a critical analysis and synthesis for each variable.

There are three questions that students typically ask about the literature review: (a) length, (b) organizational structure, and (c) content. The length will depend upon the theoretical foundation related to the topic and scholarly studies related to the theory. Typically, for a doctoral study, a literature review will average 35-40 pages. However, demonstrating a rich and

50 Literature reviews will vary by topic, author, etc. However, Appendix A presents the minimum requirements for a quantitative study.

comprehensive review of the topic is more important than the number of pages in a literature review.

The most common ways that one may organize the literature review are to use a chronological, topical, or combination of chronological and topical structure. The literature review should be a succinct yet in-depth critical analysis of scholarly studies and authoritative seminal work. The literature review should not be a summary of one’s reading or an amalgamation of essays on the topic.

The literature review content needs to be a comprehensive and critical analysis and synthesis of the literature related to the theory and/or conceptual model that one identified in the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework as well as the existing body of knowledge regarding the research topic. Typically one half to two thirds of a good literature review will relate the theory or conceptual models to a critical analysis and synthesis about the topic and problem. One organizational strategy for the literature review is (a) one third discussing the theory or conceptual model (see figure below), (b) one third topical foundation, and (c) one third discussing the topic in relation to the theory.

1.15 – Transition

This heading summarizes the key contents of Section 1. Do not introduce any new material in the summary, but do provide an overview of the primary objectives and contents of Sections 2 and 3.

SECTION 2: THE PROJECT

Section 2 – The Project

2.1 – Purpose Statement

Simply cut-and-paste the Purpose Statement from Section 1.

2.2 – Role of the Researcher

The Role of the Researcher is an important part of your proposal and study. The content that you present in this subheading is important because it demonstrates that a) you have done the research that is required, b) that you understand what your role is in the study design, and 3) you understand the limitations and challenges in this type of role, and how any concerns may be mitigated to enhance the reliability and validity of your work.

One of the most challenging parts to write in this subheading is about the use of a personal lens primarily because novice researchers (like students) assume that they have no bias in their data collection. However, it is important to remember that a participant’s as well as the researcher’s bias/worldview is present in all social research, both intentionally and unintentionally which is why it is important to address strategies to mitigate bias.

To address the concept of a personal lens, remember that in qualitative research, the researcher is the data collection instrument and cannot separate themselves from the research, which brings up special concerns. Remember that the researcher operates among multiple worlds while engaging in research, which include the cultural world of the study participants as well as the world of one’s own perspective. A researcher’s cultural and experiential background will contain biases, values, and ideologies that can affect the interpretation of a study’s findings.

Therefore, researcher bias is a concern because the data can reflect the researcher’s personal bias and concerns. It becomes imperative that the interpretation of the phenomena represent that of participants and not of the researcher. Hearing and understanding the perspective of others may be one of the most difficult dilemmas the researcher must address. The better a researcher is able to recognize his/her personal view of the world and to discern the presence of a personal lens, the better one is able to hear and interpret the behavior and reflections of others.

How you address and mitigate a personal lens/worldview during your data collection and analysis is important and a key component in the Role of the Researcher subheading. It is important that a novice researcher recognizes their own personal role in the study and mitigates any concerns during data collection. Part of your discussion in this subheading should address how this is demonstrated through using an interview protocol, member checking, transcript validation and review, reaching data saturation, enabling sense making, facilitating epoché, careful construction of interview questions, and other strategies to mitigate the use of one’s personal lens during the data collection process of the study.

It would be impossible to remove all bias because you are a human being. Rather, one mitigates bias as best as one can. This is demonstrated via using an interview protocol, member checking, data saturation, and other strategies to mitigate the use of one personal lens during the data collection process of your study. Inadvertently driving participants to predetermined conclusions speaks to the same concepts.

2.3 – Participants

The requirements are straight forward but often missed in the Participants heading.

Consider the explanations in the following table.

Rubric RequirementExplanation
a. Describes the eligibility criteria for study participants.The participants must meet the eligibility requirement within the scope of the population. Consider the research question: What strategies do department store managers use to motivate their sales associates? If one identified the population as department store managers who have worked in the field for 8-years and have a minimum of 5-years supervising sales associates, one would not be necessarily addressing the requirement.The criteria for the example research question would be department store managers who have successful strategies that they are using to motivate sales associates. The department store manager may have been in the field for 20-years or 1-month—the time in position has nothing to do with the study. Likewise, working with the employees does not mean that the department store manager is using a strategy to motivate the sales associates.
b. Discusses strategies for gaining access to participants.Explain your plan for gaining access to participants. In a quantitative survey, one may use a professional association membership list or other types of list to access participants via email, phone, etc.For a qualitative study, one may also use professional associations, trade affiliations, etc. for gaining access. One may also be using rosters inside the company(ies) and emailing, calling, or visiting in person for a case study.It is vital that you develop a strategy to determine that participants meet the study criteria before inviting participation.

Draft Doctoral Study Prospectus

Walden University DBA Doctoral Study Prospectus Guide!

For internal use only.! Walden University! Academic Offices! 155 Fifth Avenue South, Suite 100! Minneapolis, MN 55401! 1-800-WALDENU (1-800-925-3368)! Walden University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and a member of the North Central! Association, www.ncahlc.org; 1-312-263-0456.! © 2013 Walden University, LLC!

Walden University

DBA Doctoral Study

Prospectus Guide

For internal use only.

Walden University

Academic Offices

155 Fifth Avenue South, Suite 100

Minneapolis, MN 55401

1-800-WALDENU (1-800-925-3368)

Walden University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and

a member of the North Central

Association, www.ncahlc.org; 1-312-263-0456.

© 2013 Walden University, LLC

January 2016

The Prospectus

Completing the Prospectus

The DBA Doctoral Study Prospectusconsists of several detailed small sections. A sample prospectus is in the appendix. The goal for the prospectus is to create a plan for developing your doctoral study proposal. Therefore, you need to have some detailed information for the prospectus, but you do not need to know all the specific details of the study that you will ultimately conduct. For example, you may identify employee satisfaction as a variable of the study, but at this point, you do not yet need to identify the instrument that you plan to use to measure the variable.

Each research project is different, and because this outline is general, reviewers often ask to include additional information in your prospectus. For example, feasibility is one criterion for evaluating your prospectus, and if you are considering a unique sample group, your committee may ask you to explore that aspect in more detail before moving forward.

The DBA Doctoral Study Prospectuswill follow APA 6th edition guidelines and formatted as .doc or. docx file. As you work on the document, also review the tools available on the CRQ website, the Doctoral Capstone Research GuideDDBA Doctoral Study Template, and Doctoral Study Rubric. Appendices A, B and C contain an annotated outline, sample “quantitative” prospectus, and Prospectus Rubric, respectively. Appendix D is a graphical depiction of a three-step formula for “qualitative” business problem alignment.

Submitting the Prospectus

Students will work with their chair in DDBA 8100, Doctoral Study Mentoring, to complete the prospectus. You will use the example Prospectus (Appendix A) as a guide and template; there is no other official Prospectus template. Students should aim to have an approved Prospectus by the end of their 3rd DDBA 8100 course. As is the case for the proposal and doctoral study, for which you will receive feedback on working drafts, prospectus development is an iterative process. Committee members will use the Prospectus Rubric (Appendix C) to evaluate the Prospectus. Follow the submission guidelines identified in the course submission instructions.

Appendix A – Annotated Outline

Title Page

The recommended title of the business study should not exceed 12 words to include the topic, the variables and relationship between them (quantitative studies), and the most critical keywords. Double-space the title if over one line of type and center it under the word Prospectus.

Include your name, your program of study (and specialization if applicable) and Banner ID Number, double-spaced and centered under the title.

Title

Include the title as it appears on the title page. Double-space if over one line of type and centered at the top of the page. The title follows the word Prospectus and a colon.

Problem Statement

Provide a one-paragraph statement (150 words max) that is the result of a review of research findings, appropriate peer-reviewed/government sources, and current practice and that contains the following information:

1. Hook: (a WOW statement supported with a peer reviewed citation no older than five years from anticipated date CAO will sign.)

2. Anchor (includes a number supported with a peer reviewed/government citation no older than 5 years from your anticipated CAO signature)

3. The general business problem is XXXX

4. The specific business problem is some (identify who has the specific business problem) has limited information on XXX

Review the Problem Statement Video tutorial to aid you in completing the Problem Statement. The video tutorial is located at: http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo

Purpose Statement

Provide a one-paragraph Purpose Statement (200 words max) and that contains the following information:

Quantitative Study: (a) methodology, (b) design, (c) research variables (independent and dependent), (d) specific population, (e) geographical location, and (f) social change statement.

Note: A correlation study must examine the relationship between “more than” two variables. In other words, a simple bivariate correlation analysis is not substantive for a doctoral study. As a minimum, a multiple linear regression, using at least two predictor (independent) variables, is required.

Qualitative Study: (a) methodology, (b) design, (c) specific population, (d) geographical location, and (e) social change statement.

Please review the Purpose Statement Video tutorial to aid you in completing the Purpose Statement. Located the video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/pLP4r0mfT9A.

Nature of the Study

The Nature of the Study component serves two purposes. The first purpose is describing and justifying the methodology (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method). The second purpose is describing and justifying the design (i.e. case study, phenomenological, correlation). Therefore, a well-crafted Nature of the Study can be presented in two paragraphs but not exceed one page.

The first paragraph is to describe and justify the methodology. State why you selected a specific method and why other methods were not appropriate. The second paragraph is to describe and justify the design. State why you selected a specific design and why other designs were not appropriate. Map to the rubric and only include the required content!

Research Question(s)/Hypotheses

List the research question that will lead to the development of the requirementsin the study and steps for accomplishing the requirements. A research question informs the research design by providing a foundation for:

• Generation of hypotheses in quantitative studies,

• Questions necessary to build the design structure for qualitative studies (i.e. interview questions),

• Process by which different methods will work together in mixed studies.

Interview Questions (Qualitative)

The interview questions are to be informed by the conceptual framework. Please see the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

In one paragraph, describe the theoretical base or conceptual framework from the scholarly literature that will ground the study (providing citations). Base this description on the problem, purpose, and background of your study. Specifically, identify and describe:

(a) theory: theoretical base or conceptual framework,

(b) author of the theoretical base or conceptual framework (if applicable),

(c) date of the theoretical base or conceptual framework (if applicable),

(d) key tenets, propositions, constructs, variables, hypotheses, etc., and

(e) how the theoretical base or conceptual framework is applicable and fits to the study.

Review the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8 to aid in completing Theoretical/Conceptual Framework section.

Significance of the Study

Provide one to two paragraphs, informed by the topic in the problem statement, which describe(s):

1. The value to the business/social impact.

2. Contribution to effective practice of business

3. Potential contribution to positive social change and improvement of business practice.

References

Include references formatted in the correct style (APA 6th edition, modeled at the end of this guide) for all citations within the Doctoral Study Prospectus.

Student and Committee Information

Date of Review:
Student’s Name (Last, First):
Student ID (for office use only):
Chairperson:
Second Committee Member:
University Research Reviewer:
Person Conducting this Review:

Note: Type in the applicable information.

Appendix B

Prospectus

Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Turnover Intentions

by

Alpha B. Gamma

Doctor of Business Administration Prospectus – Name of DBA Specialization

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

of

Doctor of Business Administration

Walden University

Student ID: A00000000

Month Year

Prospectus: Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Turnover Intentions

Problem Statement

Losing highly skilled technical employees disrupts organizational functioning, service delivery, and administration (Bothma & Roodt, 2012). From a financial perspective, employee turnover can cost employers between 90 and 200 % of annual pay (Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2102). The general business problem is that employee intent to leave is a major antecedent of actual employee turnover (Siddiqi, 2013). The specific business problem is that some information technology (IT) small business owners do not know the relationship between IT employee perceptions of their leaders’ transformation leadership characteristicsand employee turnover intention.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this quantitative correlation study is to examine the relationship between IT employee perceptions of their leaders’ transformation leadership characteristicsand employee turnover intention. The targeted population consists of IT business leaders located in Orlando, Florida. The independent variables are employee perceptions of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, and (e) individualized consideration. The dependent variable is employee turnover intention. The implications for social change include the potential to (include social change implications).

Nature of the Study

Quantitative methodology is the foundation of the postpositivist worldview. The researcher uses descriptive and inferential statistics, by-products of the quantitative methodology, to describe the population and infer the sample results to the broader population (Orcher, 2014). The justification of the quantitative method results from the need to test the efficacy of transformational leaderships constructs in predicting employee turnover intentions. Conversely, researchers employing qualitative methodology seek to explore (seeking how or why answers), rather than explain a phenomenon or outcome (Yin, 2014). Therefore, the qualitative method is not appropriate for this study.

Researchers employing correlation designs do not seek cause and effect (Pallant, 2013). A key focus of correlation designs is tracing the distribution of the dependent variable or some characteristic of the distribution (such as its mean) as a function of one or more predictor variable (Pallant, 2013). Researchers employing experimental and quasi-experimental designs seek cause and effect relationships (Orcher, 2014). However, the purpose of this study is not to seek cause and effect; thus, the experimental and quasi-experimental designs are not appropriate for this study.

Quantitative Research Question

What is the relationship between employee perception of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, (e) individualized consideration, and employee turnover intention?

Hypotheses

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant relationship between employee perception of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, (e) individualized consideration, and employee turnover intention?

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant relationship between employee perception of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, (e) individualized consideration, and employee turnover intention?

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

image2

Burns (1978) developed the transformational leadership. Burns used the theory to offer an explanation for leadership based upon the premise that leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work toward common goals. Burns identified the following key constructs underlying the theory (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, and (e) individualized consideration. As applied to this study, the transformational leadership theory holds that I would expect the independent variables (transformational leadership constructs), measured by the Multifaceted Leadership Questionnaire, to predict employee turnover intention because (provide a rationale based upon the logic of the theory and extant literature). Figure 1 is a graphical depiction of the transformational leadership theory as it applies to examining turnover intentions. 

Figure 1. Graphical model of transformational leadership theory as it applies to examining turnover intentions.

Significance of the Study

Organizational leaders are faced with maximizing profitability. Therefore organizational leaders seek to minimize employee turnover to maximize profitability and maintain critical knowledge capital within their organizations. This study is significant to business practice in that it may provide a practical model for understanding better the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and employee turnover intentions. A significant predictive model can aid and support leaders in predicting turnover intentions, and more important, employing interventions to mitigate employee turnover intentions. The implications for positive social change include to potential provide significant knowledge to organizational leaders conducive to minimizing turnover and maximizing profitability.

References

Bothma, C. F., & Roodt, G. (2012). Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology38, 27-44. doi:10.4102/sajip.v38i1.893

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper

Hom, P. W., Mitchell, T. R., & Lee, T. W., & Griffeth, (2012). Reviewing employee turnover: Focusing on proximal withdrawal states and an expanded criterion. Psychological Bulletin138, 831-858. doi:10.1037/a0027983.

Orcher, L. T. (2014). Conducting research: social and behavioral methods (2nd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.

Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survivor manual: A step-by-step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (5th ed.). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Siddiqi, M. A. (2013). Examining work engagement as a precursor to turnover intentions of service employees. International Journal of Information, Business and Management5(4), 118-132. Retrieved from http://ijibm.elitehall.com

Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). London: SAGE Publications.

Appendix C – DBA Prospectus Rubric

Section 1Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.3) Problem Statement
a. Provides a “current” hook supported by peer reviewed or government citation less than 5-years old from anticipated graduation date.
b. Provides a “current” data drivenanchor supported by peer reviewed or government citation less than 5-years old from anticipated completion date
c. States the general business problem Note: This element should start as follows: The general business problem is…
d. States the specific business problem. Be sure to state who has the specific problem (i.e. small business leaders, project managers, supply chain managers, etc.) Note: This element should start as follows: The specific business problem is that some (identify who has the problem)…
e. Ensures the specific business problem aligns with the research question and purpose statement.
f. Problem Statement does not exceed 150 words.
· Check with Ulrich’s Periodical Directory http://library.waldenu.edu/728.htm to ensure citations are peer reviewed.· See Problem Statement Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo.
(1.4) Purpose Statement: Describes the intent of the research. The Purpose Statement is a mini story and must not exceed 200 words. The Purpose Statement must address the following six elements:
a. Identifies the research method as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods.
b. Identifies research design (i.e. case study, phenomenological, quasi-experimental, correlational, etc.).
c. If quantitative or mixed method: Identifies a minimum of two independent (experimental/quasi-experimental designs) or predictor (correlational designs) and dependent variable(s). Note: The quantitative study must include at least two independent/predictor variables.
d. Identifies specific populationgroup for proposed study.
e. Identifies geographic location of the study.
f. Identifies contribution to social change.
g. Ensures the first sentence links/aligns directly with the specific business problem.
· See Purpose Statement Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/pLP4r0mfT9A.
(1.5) Nature of the Study: Provides a brief discussion on the research method (i.e. quantitative or qualitative) and design (i.e. correlation for quantitative study; phenomenological, case study, etc., for a qualitative design); cite a minimum of one source (The method and design will be discussed in greater detail in Section 2).· Note: A single paragraph can be used for each component: one for the method and one for the design.
a. Identifies the selection of one method (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) and why other methods would not work (cite a minimum of one source).
b. Identifies the selection of the design (within the method) and why it was selected over other designs (cite a minimum of one source).
(1.6) Research Questions (Quantitative Only)
a. Lists research question(s) in about 10-15 words (20 words max).
b. Ensures research question(s)aligns with the specific business problem and first line of the Purpose Statement.
c. Includes the independent/predictor, covariates (control variables), mediator/moderator, etc., and dependent variables as identified in the Purpose Statement.
d. Lists research sub-questions that align with each hypotheses set.
(1.7) Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed-Method Only) : States, in accurate format, the null and alternative hypotheses for each research question.
(1.8) Research Question – Qualitative Only
a. Lists overarching research question in about 10-15 words (20 words max).
b. Ensures research question aligns with the specific Business Problem and Purpose Statement.
Section 1Foundation of the Study(FOR PROPOSAL & DBA DOCTORAL STUDY DOCUMENTS)Quality IndicatorsType Met, Not Met, or N/A in Each Cell
(1.9) Interview Questions – Qualitative Only
a. Lists each interview or focus group question. Questions must contribute knowledge to the research question and be informed by the theoretical/conceptual framework.
b. Ensures interview/focus group questions align with the research question and theoretical/conceptual framework.
(1.10) Theoretical/Conceptual Framework : Clearly and concisely identify the theory/conceptual framework. In quantitative studies, the theoretical framework is the appropriate term and in qualitative studies the conceptual framework is the appropriate term. The student will articulate the theoretical/conceptual framework with concepts from the literature to ground and complement the applied business study.· This component should not exceed one page. It will be expanded upon in the literature review. See Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Video Tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8
a. Identifies and describes the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework.
b. Identifies theorist(s) of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework (if applicable).
c. Identifies date of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework (if applicable).
d. Identifies key concepts/propositions/tenets of the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework.
e. Identifies how/why the theory or conceptual model for theoretical/conceptual framework is applicable and fits/applies to the study.
(1.13) Significance of the Study
a. States why the study is of value to business.
b. States how this study may contribute to effective practice of business (improvement of business practice).
c. Identifies how the results might contribute to positive social change.
General CommentsComments on the following indicators of quality apply to the manuscript as a whole.Type Met, Not met, or N/A in Each Cell
Writing Style and CompositionThe DBA Doctoral Prospectus is written in scholarly language (accurate, balanced, objective, tentative). The writing is clear, precise, and avoids redundancy/errors. Statements are specific and topical sentences are established for paragraphs. The flow of words is smooth and comprehensible. Bridges are established between ideas. Few direct quotes exist.
Organization and FormThe Prospectus addresses the following organization and form requirements:a. Is logically and comprehensively organized, using subheadings where appropriate,b. Has a professional, scholarly appearance,c. Is written with correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling; does not contain anthropomorphismsd. Includes citations for the following: quotations, paraphrasing, facts, and references to research studiese. In-text citations are in the reference list; references have corresponding in-text citations, andf. Tables and Figures are appropriately in APA, 6th edition format.

Appendix D

(Qualitative Example)

image3.jpg

Idealized Attributes

Turnover Intention

Idealized Behavior

Intellectual Stimulation

Inspirational Motivation

Moral Integrity

� Anticipated CAO Signature Date

� Note the alignment (bold underlined text) between the last sentence of the Problem Statement, first sentence of the Purpose Statement, and Research Question.

� The independent and dependent variables are the same variables identified in the research question.

� The first paragraph addresses the methodology only. The second paragraph addresses the design only.

� The “specific” variables identified in the research question and are the same variables identified in the Purpose Statement.

� Note: At least 85% of the references are to be within five years of the anticipated CAO signature date. Therefore, it is imperative to identify a “realistic” CAO signature date.

� The hook should be a succinct wow statement to catch the reader’s attention.

� An anchor comprises a number, percentage, dollar value, ratio, index, etc.

� Ulrich’s is not 100% correct; it is still up to the student to verify via the journal home page.

� The first sentence of the purpose statement must align with the research question and specific business problem in the problem statement.

� Visit the Center for Research Quality qualitative methodology tutorial at: http://researchcenter.waldenu.edu/Research-Resources.htm

� A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the main focus of a scientific query. Do not identify sample/participants.

� A single paragraph can be used for each component: one for the method and one for the design.

� The research question(s) must contain the independent variables, covariates, and mediator/moderator variables, etc. The research question must contain the dependent variable(s) identified in the Purpose Statement.

� Hypotheses must include the same variables identified in the research question.

� The theory/conceptual framework informs the research (quantitative) and interview (qualitative) questions. Be sure to review the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Video Tutorial at: � HYPERLINK “http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8” �http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8�.

� Some literature identifies the specific date the theorist introduced the theory; provide this date if this is the case. If not, then it’s not applicable.

� This area is important in determining Doc Study of the Year Award-justify well.

Draft Doctoral Study Prospectus

PAGE

Abstract

[Doctoral Study Title]

by

[your official name]

MS, [university], 20XX

BS, [university], 20XX

Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Business Administration

Walden University

[last month of term you graduate] 20XX

Abstract

Use the following guidelines when writing the abstract. Begin with a wow statement illuminating the problem under study. Identify the design (case study, phenomenological, quasi-experimental, correlation) Note: Do not mention the method (qualitative/quantitative) in the abstract. Identify the study population and geographical location. Identify the theoretical (quantitative) or conceptual framework (qualitative) that grounded the study; in APA style, theory/conceptual framework names are lower case. Describe the data collection process (e.g., interviews, surveys, questionnaires). Describe the data analysis process (e.g., modified van Kaam method to identify themes in qualitative studies or t test, ANOVA, or multiple regression in quantitative studies). Do not mention software used. Identify two or three themes that morphed from the study (qualitative). Present the statistical results for each research question (quantitative studies). Describe how these data may contribute to social change (use the word social change and identify who specifically may benefit). Ensure the first line in the abstract is not indented. Ensure abstract does not exceed one page. Use plural verbs with data (e.g., the data were). Write all numbers as digits (i.e., 1, 2, 10, 20) and not spelled out unless at the beginning of a sentence. Add an abbreviation in parentheses after spelling out a term in full only if the abbreviation is used again in the abstract.

[Doctoral Study Title]

by

[your official name]

MS, [university], 20XX

BS, [university], 20XX

Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Business Administration

Walden University

[last month of term you graduate] 20XX

Dedication

This is an optional page for a dedication. If you include a dedication, use regular paragraph spacing as shown here (not centered, italicized, or otherwise formatted). The dedication should not exceed one page. If you are not including a dedication, delete the heading and text on this page.

Acknowledgments

This is an optional page for acknowledgments. It is a nice place to thank the faculty, family members, and friends who have helped you reach this point in your academic career. The acknowledgments should not exceed one page.

No page number appears on any of the pages up to this point. If you do not wish to include this page, delete the heading and the body text, taking care to not delete the section break under this text.

Table of Contents

ivList of Tables

vList of Figures

1Section 1: Foundation of the Study

1Background of the Problem

2Problem Statement

3Purpose Statement

4Nature of the Study

5Research Question (Quantitative Only)

5Research Question (Qualitative Only)

6Interview Questions (Qualitative Only)

6Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed Method Only)

6Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

7Operational Definitions

7Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations

7Assumptions

7Limitations

7Delimitations

8Significance of the Study

8Contribution to Business Practice (Heading Optional)

8Implications for Social Change (Heading Optional)

8A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature

9Transition

10Section 2: The Project

10Purpose Statement

10Role of the Researcher

10Participants

10Research Method and Design

10Research Method

11Research Design

11Population and Sampling (Quantitative Only)

11Population and Sampling (Qualitative Only)

11Ethical Research

12Data Collection Instruments (Quantitative Only)

13Data Collection Instruments (Qualitative Only)

13Data Collection Technique

13Data Organization Technique (Qualitative Only)

13Data Analysis (Quantitative Only)

13Data Analysis (Qualitative Only)

14Study Validity (Quantitative Only)

14Reliability and Validity (Qualitative Only)

14Reliability

14Validity

14Transition and Summary

15Section 3: Application to Professional Practice and Implications for Change

15Introduction

15Presentation of the Findings (Quantitative Only)

16Presentation of the Findings (Qualitative Only)

17Applications to Professional Practice

17Implications for Social Change

17Recommendations for Action

17Recommendations for Further Research

17Reflections

18Conclusion

19References

21Appendix A: Title of Appendix

This Table of Contents (TOC) has all the headings from the template included. To update your TOC, right click anywhere in the Table of Contents, select Update Field, then select Update entire table or Update page numbers only, and click OK.

List of Tables

16Table 1. A Sample Table Showing Correct Formatting

When you update the List of Tables, the table number and title will come in without a period between them; you will need to manually add that period after all table numbers, as shown for Table 1. In addition, the title will retain the italics from the narrative when the List of Tables is updated. Once your list is finalized, select the entire list, and change it to plain type.

Note that tables are numbered in sequence beginning with 1. Do not number tables according to the section in which they appear (Table 4-1, 5-2, etc.) In the List of Tables, table numbers are followed by a period, not a colon or a dash. This applies to figure numbers in the List of Figures as well.

List of Figures

Figure 1. Figure caption, sentence case xx

The List of Figures is not set up to automatically update. If you have figures in your document, type them in manually here, following the example above.

Alternately, follow the instructions in the Instructions for Using the Walden DBA Template, which will allow automatic updating of the List of Figures.

Section 1: Foundation of the Study

Provide an introductory paragraph.

Background of the Problem

The purpose of the background is to introduce the topic and problem you will address. You want to briefly indicate why the problem deserves new research. More important, the doc study must address applied research, so you will want to identify the need to solve an applied business problem. The goal of this section is to encourage readers to continue reading, to generate interest in the study, and provide an initial frame of reference for understanding the entire research framework.

The background can be effectively accomplished in no more than one page; brevity and clarity is essential. The Review of the Literature section will provide a more detailed discussion on the literature pertaining to the topic/problem. Immersing yourself in the literature on your topic/problem is crucial to uncovering a viable business problem. Do not underestimate the importance of the literature in aiding identifying a viable business problem.

The research topic is broad in nature; do not narrow the focus too quickly. You want to give the reader, especially those not familiar with the topic, time to become familiar with the topic. Transition the reader to a more a concise presentation of the specific business topic/problem under study. This component focuses on identifying why the study is important,how the study relates to previous research on the topic/problem,and gives the reader a firm sense of what your study is going to address and why. Include a transition statement that leads to problem statement that will provide more specificity regarding the problem.

A well-written transition signals a change in content. It tells your readers that they have finished one main unit and are moving to the next, or it tells them that they are moving from a general explanation to a specific example or application. A transition from the background to the Problem Statement is often as brief as one sentence, as follows: The background to the problem has been provided, and the focus will now shift to the problem statement. Tip: Many potential business topics/problems can be found in the Area for Future Research section of most peer-reviewed journal articles.

Problem Statement

The problem statement must include four specific components to include the (a) hook, (b) anchor, (c) general business problem, and (d) specific business problem. The Problem Statement is not to exceed 150 words. Use the Word Count feature in Microsoft Word (on the Review tab) to ensure your word count does not exceed the 150 maximum word requirement. More important, ensure the problem statement reflects a business problem; avoid rubric creep (i.e., when the problem statement does not reflect an applied business problem ). You must ensure you map to the rubric requirements. This is the most critical component of the doctoral study and will be highly scrutinized in the review process. Again, the problem statement is not to identify causes for the problem, solutions to the problem, or any other superfluous information. A well-written problem statement can be presented in four or five sentences. Please review the training video (see link below) developed by the DBA methodology team to aid in writing your problem statement. It will help add clarity and save you time. The Problem Statement Video Tutorial can be found at http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo.

DBA students are seeking a degree in business and must ensure the problem statement is business focused. It must not represent a problem that has a social, psychological, educational, or other discipline specific emphasis. A business problem is something that is a problem for a business from the perspective of the business managers or the industry’s leaders. Therefore, it is important to adopt a management perspective, and not that of social advocates. The perspective must be from the position of the managers and leaders of business who can address the problem.

To ascertain whether a problem addresses a business issue or has rubric creep/rubric drift, please consider the following:

· A key component for a business-related problem is that the specific business problem relates to a business process that organizational leaders need to address to effectively meet the organization’s mission.

· A business problem fits within a business critical success factor (CSF). Business leaders use business processes to function effectively to complete one or more CSF’s needed to carry out their business mission.

· A business problem is one that a business leader can solve.

Purpose Statement

The purpose statement must include the following components: (a) methodology, (b) design, (c) independent and dependent variables (for quantitative studies only), (d) specific population and justification for using the chosen population, (e) geographical location, and (f) the study’s potential for effecting social change. The purpose statement is not to exceed 200 words. Use the Word Count feature in Microsoft Word to ensure your word count does not exceed 200 words. The purpose statement is to be a concise statement and must not include detailed design information (e.g., sample size, data collection). Please be sure to map to the rubric. Review the purpose statement video at http://youtu.be/pLP4r0mfT9A to help prepare your Purpose Statement section.

The purpose statement consists of six elements:

1. Research methodology.

2. Research design.

3. Variables (quantitative study only).

4. Target population.

5. Geographical location.

6. Social change.

For more detail on these six elements and examples of qualitative and quantitative purpose statements, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Nature of the Study

The Nature of the Study section serves two purposes: (a) describing and justifying the methodology (i.e., quantitative, qualitative, mixed-method) and (b) describing and justifying the design (i.e., case study, phenomenological, correlation). Therefore, a well-crafted Nature of the Study section can be presented in two paragraphs and not exceed one page. The first paragraph describes and justifies the methodology and the second paragraph describes and justifies the design. These two purposes should not be intermingled. A common error in this section is to restate the purpose, identify variables and analyses, and include other superfluous information. Again, map to the rubric and only include the required content. For more detail on the content of this section, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Research Question (Quantitative Only)

DBA doctoral studies require the highest level of rigor and scholarship. One focus of rigor and scholarship is the number of predictor or independent variables examined in quantitative studies. Nonexperimental research (i.e., correlationquasi-experimental) requires the use of at least two independent or predictor variables. This is due to the third variable problem. A third variable also known as a confounding or mediator variable and can adversely affect the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. This adverse effect can lead the researcher to incorrectly interpret the results, leading to an incorrect rejection of the null hypothesis.

For more detail on the content of this section and examples, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

For information on the Research Question and Interview Question sections for qualitative studies, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Research Question (Qualitative Only)

For information on the Research Question section for qualitative studies, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Interview Questions (Qualitative Only)

For information on the Interview Question section for qualitative studies, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Hypotheses (Quantitative/Mixed Method Only)

Two major elements in the research design are the hypotheses and the variables used to test them. A hypothesis is a provisional idea whose merit deserves further evaluation. Two hypotheses, the null (H0) and alternative (H1), are to be stated for the research question or research subquestions. For examples of correlation and quasi-experimental null and alternative hypotheses, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework

Present a brief overview of your theory or conceptual framework. Please note this is not to be a detailed review of your theory or framework. The detailed review is required in the Review of the Literature section. Here, a model for presenting the theory or framework section is offered. You will want to state the name of the theory or identify the conceptual framework, identify the theorist if applicable, list key concepts of the theory or framework, identify any propositions or hypotheses, and identify how the theory or framework applies to your study. Please note there are obvious variations to this model depending upon your particular study and topic. However, the intent is to briefly present the key aspects of your theory and or framework and show how it fits into your study. For more information and examples of theory and conceptual frameworks for both qualitative and quantitative studies, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Operational Definitions

Do not include terms found in a basic academic dictionary (e.g., Merriam Webster’s). List only terms than might not be understood by the reader. All definitions should be sourced from professional/scholarly sources and alphabetized. Do not include more than 10 key operational definitions. List each term and definition as a new paragraph, indented ½ inch and double-spaced. Italicize the term being defined and follow it with a colon.

Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations

Provide a two- to three-sentence introduction to the section (optional).

Assumptions

Assumptions are facts considered to be true but are not actually verified. Assumptions carry risk and should be treated as such. A mitigation discussion would be appropriate.

Limitations

Limitations refer to potential weaknesses of the study. Identify all limitations associated with the study.

Delimitations

Delimitations refer to the bounds or scope of the study. Describe the boundary and what is in and out of the scope.

Significance of the Study

Provide a two- to three-sentence introduction to the section (optional).

Contribution to Business Practice (Heading Optional)

Discuss how this study will fill gaps in the understanding and effective practice of business. The Significance section may be written as a succinct two paragraphs without subheadings.

Implications for Social Change (Heading Optional)

Provide a statement of positive social change or the improvement of human or social conditions by promoting the worth, dignity, and development of individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies. The Significance section may be written as a succinct two paragraphs without subheadings.

A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature

This is the section where you will report the literature regarding your theoretical/conceptual framework. The approach to this section may vary by the specific purpose. For example, if your study will be grounded in transformational leadership theory, you are examining or exploring your phenomenon through a leadership lens. You want to report on extant research that was grounded in transformational leadership theory. You would want to report on the literature that is as close to your topic/phenomenon as possible. In addition, you will want to include the literature for any key variables, if you are conducting a quantitative study. Consult Appendix A in the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook for an outline with minimum requirements for a quantitative study. In addition, follow the guidance in the Literature Review section of the DBA rubric in the handbook.

Critical analysis and synthesis of the literature will be an important piece of the review. The review of the literature is not to be a regurgitation of what you have read. It is also not to teach about a topic; rather, it is to show your mastery of the research on your topic and provide a comprehensive up-to-date literature review of your topic. Start with an introductory section and then report the literature. This should be an exhaustive review of the literature using the chosen theoretical/conceptual framework and consist of the key and recent writings in the field. Repeat this approach if you are using more than one theory or conceptual framework. In addition, there must be a critical analysis and synthesis for each variable in quantitative studies.

Transition

This section summarizes Section 1 and the gives an overview of the next two sections. Do not introduce any new material in the summary.

Section 2: The Project

Provide a one or two paragraph introduction to Section 2. This introduction should provide a clear outline of the Project section.

Purpose Statement

Simply cut and paste the Purpose Statement from Section 1.

Role of the Researcher

Describe the role of the researcher in the data collection process in this subsection. Follow the guidance on requirements for this section in the DBA rubric.

Participants

Describe the sample adequately. Remember, the sample is the subset selected from the broader population. Thus, it may differ from the targeted population discussed in Section 1. Detail the major demographic characteristics, for example the type of business, leader, manager, or title of the participants within the business. As a rule, describe the groups as specifically as possible, with emphasis on characteristics that may have bearing on the interpretation of results/findings. Follow the guidance on requirements for this section provided in the DBA rubric.

Research Method and Design

Provide a two- to three-sentence introduction to the section (optional).

Research Method

This section is an extension of the Nature of the Study in Section 1. The first paragraph of the Nature of the Study section required a description and justification of the methodology. Here you will extend that conversation by providing more information and additional resources. Be sure to include at least three sources for each decision you make.

Research Design

This section is an extension of the Nature of the Study in Section 1. The second paragraph of the Nature of the Study section required a description and justification of the design. Here you will extend that conversation by providing more information and additional resources. Be sure to include at least three sources for each decision you make.

Population and Sampling (Quantitative Only)

For content guidance on this section for a quantitative study, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Population and Sampling (Qualitative Only)

For content guidance on this section for a qualitative study, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Ethical Research

Each research inquiry comes with its own set of specific ethical requirements. Thus, a standard rubric cannot address all possible scenarios. Therefore, it will be helpful to review the IRB application before you complete this component to ensure you address any requirements not identified in the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook. However, as a minimum, discuss the informed consent process. Include a copy of the informed consent form used in the study, not the actual filled-in form provided by the consenting party, in an appendix and list it in the Table of Contents. Discuss participant procedures for withdrawing from the study. Describe incentives to be used, if any. Clarify measures to be taken to assure the ethical protection of participants. Agreement documents are to be listed in the (a) text of the study, (b) appendices, and (c) Table of Contents. Include a statement that data will be maintained in a safe place for 5 years to protect rights of participants. Ensure you indicate that the final doctoral manuscript will include the Walden IRB approval number. Ensure the document does not include names or any other identifiable information of individuals or organizations.

Data Collection Instruments (Quantitative Only)

You will describe each instrument’s purpose, intended populations, scales, scoring process, time needed to complete, and so on. This section will also address the psychometric issues surrounding the instrument, reliability and validity—this is very important. You will need to report the reliability and validity coefficients. Where possible, include the details of the reliability measures employed (e.g., test-retest, equivalent or alternate form, split-half, and internal consistency).

Validity should address content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. State briefly what these measures are report their coefficients.

You will need to address any special requirements of the purchaser. You will need to gain permission from the test publisher to use some instruments. Permission may be requested by sending a formal letter or e-mail to the publisher. You may also need to complete a training course or obtain your chair’s signature to acquire the instrument—be sure to include this information.

For additional content guidance on this section, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Data Collection Instruments (Qualitative Only)

For content guidance, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Data Collection Technique

For content guidance, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Data Organization Technique (Qualitative Only)

For content guidance, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Data Analysis (Quantitative Only)

Data analysis involves discussing the statistical test(s) you will use to answer each research question and justifying its/their selection. Indicate the nature of the scale for each variable (e.g., nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio). Why is the selected statistical test more appropriate than another? (Hint: The statistical test is usually selected due to the nature of the question and scale of measurement of the variables you defined.) Describe how you will deal with discrepant cases (e.g., missing data, data that cannot be interpreted). Identify the software that will be used to analyze the data.

For additional content guidance on this section, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Data Analysis (Qualitative Only)

For content guidance, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Study Validity (Quantitative Only)

For information on the content of this subsection, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Reliability and Validity (Qualitative Only)

Reliability

For information on the content of this subsection, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Validity

For more information on the content of this subsection, consult the DBA Doctoral Study Rubric and Research Handbook.

Transition and Summary

End with a transition that contains a summary of key points and provides an overview of Section 3. Do not include any new information in the summary

This is the end of the proposal.

Section 3: Application to Professional Practice and Implications for Change

Introduction

Begin with the purpose of the study. Do not repeat the entire purpose statement; typically the first sentence of the purpose statement will suffice. Provide a brief summary of the findings, not to exceed one page.

Presentation of the Findings (Quantitative Only)

Describe the statistical test(s), the variables, and the purpose of the test(s) and how they relate to the hypotheses. Present relevant descriptive statistics (i.e., mean, standard deviation for scale variables; frequencies, and percentages for nominal variables). Provide evaluation of statistical assumptions. Report inferential statistical analyses results, organized by research question, in APA statistical notation/format. Include alpha level chosen for the test, test value, p (significance) values, effect size, degrees of freedom, confidence intervals (when appropriate), and so on. Include appropriate tables and figures to illustrate results, as per the current edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Consult the Instructions for the DBA Template document for correct APA style for formatting and labeling tables and figures. Summarize answers to research questions. Describe in what ways findings confirm, disconfirm, or extend knowledge of the theoretical framework and relationship(s) among variables by comparing the findings with other peer-reviewed studies from the literature review. Includes studies addressed during the proposal stage and studies added since writing the proposal. Tie findings or dispute findings to the existing literature on effective business practice. Analyze and interpret the findings in the context of the theoretical framework, as appropriate. Ensure interpretations do not exceed the data, findings, and scope.

Presentation of the Findings (Qualitative Only)

List the overarching research question. Identifies each theme, and analyzes and discuss findings in relation to the themes. Describe in what ways findings confirm, disconfirm, or extend knowledge in the discipline by comparing the findings with other peer-reviewed studies from the literature review; includes literature added since writing the proposal. Tie findings to the conceptual framework, and tie findings or dispute findings to the existing literature on effective business practice.

A sample APA-compliant table is included below (see Table 1). Instructions for creating tables and adding table numbers and titles are included in the accompanying Instructions document available on the Templates page of the Doctoral Capstone Form and Style site.

Table 1 A Sample Table Showing Correct Formatting

Column AColumn BColumn CColumn D
Row 1
Row 2
Row 3
Row 4

Note. From “Attitudes Toward Dissertation Editors,” by W. Student, 2008, Journal of Academic Optimism, 98, p. 11Reprinted with permission.

Applications to Professional Practice

Provide a detailed discussion on the applicability of the findings with respect to the professional practice of business. This major subsection provides a rich academic argument why and how the findings are relevant to improved business practice.

Implications for Social Change

The implications are expressed in terms of tangible improvements to individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, or societies, as the finding could affect social change/behavior.

Recommendations for Action

Recommendations (a) should flow logically from the conclusions and contain steps to useful action, (b) state who needs to pay attention to the results, and (c) indicate how the results might be disseminated via literature conferences, training, and so on.

Recommendations for Further Research

List recommendations for further study related to improved practice in business. Identify how limitations identified in Section 1, Limitations, can be addressed in future research.

Reflections

Include a reflection on your experience within the DBA Doctoral Study process, in which you discuss possible personal biases or preconceived ideas and values, the possible effects of those on the participants or the situation, and changes in your thinking after completing the study.

Conclusion

The work closes with a strong concluding statement making the take-home message clear to the reader.

References

Insert References here. Examples of some common types of references follow; see APA 6.22 and Chapter 7 for more details.

These sample entries are tagged with the “APA Reference” style tag, which means the line spacing and hanging indent are automatic. Apply the “APA Reference” style tag to your entries.

Pay special attention to italics, capitalization, and punctuation. The style tag does not govern those aspects of the entry.

Print periodical (journal)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodicalxx(x), xxx–xxx.

Online periodical (journal)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodicalxx(x), xxx–xxx. doi:xxxxx

Nonperiodical (book)

Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. City of Publication, ST: Publisher.

Chapter in a book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). City, ST: Publisher.

Chapter 7 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, sixth edition, includes numerous examples of reference list entries. For more information on references or APA style, consult the APA website or the Walden Writing Center website .

Appendix A: Title of Appendix

Insert appendix here. Appendices are ordered with letters rather than numbers. If there is but one appendix, it has no letter designation.

The appendices must adhere to the same margin specifications as the body of the dissertation. Photocopied or previously printed material may have to be shifted on the page or reduced in size to fit within the area bounded by the margins.

If the only thing in an appendix is a table, the table title serves as the title of the appendix; no label is needed for the table itself. If you have text in addition to a table or tables in an appendix, label the table with the letter of the appendix (e.g., Table A1, Table A2, Table B1, and so on). These tables would be listed in the List of Tables at the end of the Table of Contents.

If you include in an appendix any prepublished materials that are not in the public domain, you must also include permission to do so.

Template updated March 2017.

PAGE

Topic Selection (Individual) – Research on an existing or emerging technology and its related ethical issues.

This is the start of a three part assignment, consisting of Papers C1, C2, and C3. For the first part or C1:

· Select Topic – Select a digital ethical issue for your research that is caused by the existing or emerging technology. You will utilize this research topic for Paper C2 (Individual Research Paper) and C3 (Study Group PowerPoint presentation). Following is a link to some suggested topical ideas you may want to consider as a candidate for this assignment. Be sure to keep in mind that the technology aspects of this assignment are different from those of Paper A (Application of decision making frameworks to IT-related ethical issues) or Paper B1 and B2, which dealt with aspects of organizational policy.                   

Recommended Source:

https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethics-articles/

The above link will enable you to find articles on ethics in many fields and disciplinesplease remember that the emphasis on this paper is on digital technology and the ethical issue(s) with its use

· Topic Title – Begin with a topic title that describes what you will research in Paper C2.

· Explain the reason for your topic selection briefly in a paragraph of at least 150 words.

· In addition, please determine three critically important questions you would like to address regarding your topic, in your C2 individual research paper. Include a written description (100 words) for each question that includes why that question is critically important. 

· The objective in developing and posing these questions is to stage your research and guide your preparation of the final C–2 Research Paper, so that one or more ethical principles are applied and explained as a result of your research. This process helps you establish a thesis for your research.

· Lastly, provide at least three proposed reference sources, at least two of which must be from the UMUC library database (or an equivalent academic database), which you plan to use to address (i.e., research) the three questions. These proposed reference sources must have clickable and persistent URLs.

Remember: the emphasis on this paper is on digital technology and the ethical issue(s) with its use! Remember to follow all APA formatting requirements. You must secure prior approval of your topic C1) from the instructor (use the Pager utility in LEO or regular e-mail) before proceeding with your research!

……………………………………………………C2……………………………………………………………………

Paper C2 (Individual) – Individual research paper on existing or emerging technology and its related ethical issues.

This is the second part of a three-part assignment, an individual assignment to research an existing or emerging technology and its ethical impact using the Web for the topic and questions that you selected for Paper C1. Please ensure that your research for this assignment addresses the ethical issues of an existing or emerging technology!

Prepare a minimum 3- 5 page, double-spaced paper and submit it to the Assignments Module as an attached Microsoft Word file. Indicate appropriate APA compliant reference citations for all sources you use.  In addition to critical thinking and analysis skills, your paper should reflect appropriate grammar and spelling, good organization, and proper business-writing style.

Preparation for Paper C3 (see Table below):

· The instructor has assigned Study Groups for the third part or Paper C3.

· To assist in collaboration for Paper C3, please prepare and post an approximate one page synopsis (i.e., a brief summary) of Paper C1 concerning your topic selection to your assigned Group topic under the Group Collaboration on Paper C3 forum in the LEO Discussions section. This will permit further interaction of the group in preparation for the group presentation of Paper C3.   The synopsis should state why you feel this topic is important and describe any supporting resources you found supporting your choice.

· To assist in the further collaboration for Paper C3 please post your research paper (i.e., Paper C2), when it is completed in the assigned Group topic under the Group Collaboration on Paper C3 forum in the LEO Discussions section. This will enable others in your Group to read additional details on the topic that you wrote about.

In order to clarify a potentially confusing situation for the C series of papers, due to overlapping dates, the following table has been constructed:

Itemx/xx – x/xxx/xx – x/xxx/xx – x/xxx/xx – x/xx
Paper C1Start paperComplete and Post to Assignments  
Paper C1 – Synopsis Prepare and Post to assigned Group topic under the Group Collaboration on Paper C3 forum in the Discussions section, when completed  
Paper C2 Start paperComplete and Post to Assignments 
Paper C2  Post to assigned Group topic under the Group Collaboration on Paper C3 forum in the Discussions section, when completed 
Paper C3 Groups review the Paper C1 synopsis and Paper C2 when they are posted and start to build consensus for the group topic to be featured in Paper C3Designate Group Leaderand start paper by completing consensus building on the topic and commence group preparation of presentation. The designated Group Leader must identify him or herself to the InstructorGroup completes presentation and only Group Leaders post to Assignments and to the respective DT-8 Group topic.

………………………………………………….C3…………………………………………………………..

Presentation (PowerPoint) C3: Power Point presentation of research on an existing or emerging technology and its related ethical issues 

As this assignment is a continuation of the previous individual assignments (Paper C1/C2) on researching an existing or emerging technology and its related ethical issues, use the Paper C1 synopsis, and the Paper C2 attachment that resulted from individual research.

This is an individual presentation assignment.

The presentation will be developed using MS PowerPoint and will include:

· 1 Title slide including school, course, date of presentation, and names of all team members

· 1-2 Introductory slides providing an overview of the topic selected and rationale for selection

· 5-8 slides providing research results on emerging technologies and its related ethical issues

· 2 slides on summary/conclusion

· 1 – Reference slide

The Notes portion of MS PowerPoint should be utilized to elaborate, provide speaker notes, or explain key points as needed. If used properly, the Notes portion should reduce the amount of text on the slide. Make sure that your slides are not text-heavy and use a font size that may be readily seen by an audience. Remember to cite sources using proper APA formatting and provide clickable URL links. Ensure that your sources are reputable and credible. Do NOT submit research taken from Wikipedia sources, blogs, or sources with no date and/or author.

Submission of the completed presentation should be submitted to your Assignments folder

Once all presentations are posted in the appropriate Assignment slots, there will be a follow-on conference for Week 8 where the Professor will post presentations for students to comment on.

Discussion for week 8 regarding these presentations posted will be done in a respectful manner and is meant to provide students with positive and constructive feedback, as well as have the class benefit from other students different research topics and conclusions.

…………………………………………………………D……………………………………………………………….

Paper D: Reflective paper on class learning.

Consider this assignment as a reflective piece on class learning as it applies to Ethics in Information Technology. It describes your  Ah-ha  or Eureka moments. It is hoped that this course made you think about the ethical issues that occur in your personal and work lives and how to go about making ethical choices. Please use the ideas you learned from this course; how you will synthesize what you learned from your research about your topic including – over-arching issues, readings, discussion from class, and conclusions from other assignments that apply to your research.

Please address the following elements:

· From a class learning perspective, what were some of your “take-aways?”

· How has this impacted your understanding of the ethical issues?

· What will you do differently?

· How has what you have learned in this course influenced your career?

· As we continue to move toward a global community, what new challenges might we see relating to ethics in IT? 

You are to prepare a reflective piece of not more than 2-3 pages, double-spaced and submit it to your Assignment Folder as an attached Microsoft Word file. This paper may be subjective in nature!

EDSP 726 EXCEPTIONALITIES CHART GRADING RUBRIC

Criteria Levels of Achievement Content 70% Advanced Proficient Developing Not present The Disability Definition and

eligibility criteria from the federal definition

IDEA and the Disability

Characteristics

22 to 24 points Each chart has an accurate federal definition from IDEA and a thorough list of characteristics of the disability

20 to 21 points Each chart has an accurate federal definition from IDEA and a list of characteristics of the disability; some information may be missing and/or incomplete.

1 to 19 points One or more charts are missing; information is incomplete and/or information on the chart(s) is incorrect

0 points Not present

The Disability Characteristics as

noted in your textbook or another source (make sure to cite

source)

21 to 23 points Each chart has a thorough list of characteristics of the disability

19 to 20 points Each chart has an adequate list of characteristics of the disability

1 to 18 points Each chart has a list of characteristics of the disability, but some may be incomplete

0 points Not present

General Teaching Methods and

Strategies

21 to 23 points Five or more teaching methods and strategies are listed for each exceptionality, and each strategy /intervention fits the disability

19 to 20 points Less than 5 teaching methods and strategies are listed for each exceptionality, and each strategy /intervention fits the disability

1 to 18 points Few teaching methods and strategies are listed for each exceptionality, and some strategies /interventions fit the disability

0 points Not present

Structure 30% Advanced Proficient Developing Not present Professional Writing 14 to 15 points

Correct spelling, grammar, capitalization throughout assignment

13 points Only few spelling and grammatical errors throughout assignment

1 to 12 points Many spelling /grammar/capitalization errors throughout assignments

0 points Not present

Formatting of Chart 14 to 15 points Format is organized and complete and easy to follow

13 points Format is organized and complete but difficult to follow or lacks organization and is difficult to follow

1 to 12 points Poorly formatted, sloppy, difficult to follow, messy

0 points Not present

Exceptionalities Chart Instructions

Complete the following table in which you outline the 13 disability categories as outlined by IDEA and address the definition, characteristics, and learning strategies. The Exceptionality Chart must include the following:

1. The Disability Definition and eligibility criteria for the federal definition from IDEA

2. The Disability Characteristics

3. General Teaching Methods/Effective Strategies/Technology Interventions (at least 5 for each disability).

4. Professional Writing – Correct spelling, grammar, capitalization.

5. Format is organized, complete and thorough.

DisabilityDefinition and Eligibility CriteriaDisability CharacteristicsSupports and Services
Deaf-blindness
Deafness
Emotional disturbance
Hearing impairment
Intellectual disability
Multiple disabilities
Orthopedic impairment
Other health impairment
Specific learning disability
Speech or language impairment
Traumatic brain injury
Visual impairment

Instructions

Candidates must complete a plan to introduce a specific classroom management strategy to their students beginning on the first day of class. Incorporate information from the text into your plan. 

View the PowerPoint below which introduces material from Harry Wong. Create a “First Day of School Plan” that includes the following components:

What do I expect from my students to reflect that I am implementing effective classroom management strategies?

What will my classroom look like on the first day of class? What best practices will I put in place to begin my management plan immediately?

How will I introduce myself to my students and their families? (Include a copy of a letter, postcard, presentation, etc.)

How will I introduce my classroom procedures and expectations to my students? How will these be explained, rehearsed and reinforced? (Include a copy of a song, strategy, poster template, etc.)

Research Guidelines

Student`s name

Institution

Assignment 1: Research Guidelines

(A) My Purpose (research question) ( /5 pts)

My research question is: Is there a correlation between stress and job satisfaction?

I chose this topic because it represents one of the most important factors that influence a person’s beliefs and attitudes. Both variables have cognitive and behavioral aspects.

(B) All About GSS 2016 data ( /5 pts)

1. Who are the participants? They are a population of people who are 18 years and above living in a household in the United States. They are English and Spanish speakers and they have not moved out of the United States.

2. What population does the sample represent? It represents 50,000 households.

3. Who is funding the research? National science foundation

4. When was the data collected? It was collected in 2016

5. How was the data collected? It was obtained in face to face interviews and through computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)

(C) Variables (You are expected to have only one dependent variable (DV) and one or two independent variables (IV). ( /10 pts)

IV Variable name in SPSS: Stress

IV Question (as asked to the respondent verbatim): how often do you find work stressful?

IV Answer categories: “Always =1 “,” Often =2 “,Sometimes =-3”, “ Hardly ever = 4 “, and “Never = 5”.

IV Level of Measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio): Ordinal

DV variable name in SPSS: jobs the

DV Question (as asked to the respondent verbatim) Is there a correlation between stress and job satisfaction?”

DV Answer categories: “Very satisfied = 1”, “Moderately satisfied = 2” , “ A little dissatisfied= “, and “very dissatisfied = 5“.

DV Level of Measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio): Ordinal

(D) Frequency Tables ( /10 pts)

Stress

FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
ValidALWAYS9610.310.310.3
OFTEN20722.222.232.5
SOMETIMES46750.150.182.6
HARDLY EVER13013.913.996.6
NEVER323.43.4100.0
Total932100.0100.0

According to the analysis from the frequency table above, it is clear that 50.1% of the respondents express the idea that they sometimes find work stressful. However, those who never find work stressful constitute the smallest percentage with only 3.4 %, while those who express the idea that they always find work stressful hold 10.3 %. This implies that there are many people who find work stressful than those who are always happy at work.

Job description

Job satisfaction
FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
ValidVery satisfied11840.140.140.1
Moderately satisfied13445.645.685.7
A little dissatisfied3210.910.996.6
Very dissatisfied103.43.4100.0
Total294100.0100.0

Out of 294 respondents, 134 (45%) are moderately satisfied with their job. Those who express high job satisfaction constitute 40.1% of the total respondents, while those who indicated high jog dissatisfaction constitute only 3.4%. This suggests that majority of the respondents are relatively satisfied with their work

(E) Graphs and Charts ( /6 pts)

Stress ( Independent variable)

The above bar chart illustrates that 50.1% of the respondents express the idea that they sometimes find work stressful. It is also clear from the chart that a small percentage of the respondents convey the idea that they never find work stressful.

Job description

The bar chart clearly illustrates that the majority of the respondents are moderately satisfied with their job. However, 3.4% of the respondents express high job dissatisfaction. Furthermore, the chart demonstrates that many respondents convey relative satisfaction than those who generally feel dissatisfied.

(F) Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion ( /10 pts)

The appropriate measure for nominal is mode (McKelvey, & Zavoina,1975). The mode is the most frequent score in a dataset, and it is normally used to identify the most common category in a particular dataset. While The appropriate measures scale for ordinal is mode and median. For interval /ratio, the appropriate measures scale are mean, standard deviation, and variance.

Stress

How often Does R find work stressful
NValid932
Missing0
Mean2.78
Median3.00
Mode3
Std. Deviation.929
Variance.863

Since the measuring scale for stress variable is ordinal, both variance and standard deviation are out of scope(Daniel, & Cross, 2018). The median value of 3 means that 50% or half of the respondents sometimes find their work stressful. Whereas the mode value of 3 implies that the most common category is “sometimes”, in other words, it means that majority of the respondents express their idea that they sometimes feel stressful at work.

Job description

Job satisfaction
NValid294
Missing0
Mean1.78
Median2.00
Mode2
Std. Deviation.773
Variance.598

The measuring scale for job satisfaction is ordinal; therefore both variance and standard deviation are out of scope. The median value of 2 means that more than 50% of the respondents indicate that they are satisfied. Whereas the mode value of 2 implies that many people are moderately satisfied.

(G) Recoding ( /10 pts)

Choose one of your variables to recode. If you have an interval/ratio variable, you may recode it into an ordinal variable. If you have two nominal/ordinal variables, recode the one with the most categories into fewer categories.

Stress variable

SPSS Syntax

GET

FILE=’D:\JobStress1.SAV’.

DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT.

USE ALL.

FILTER BY STRESS.

EXECUTE.

RECODE STRESS (Lowest thru 2=1) (4 thru Highest=3) (2.1 thru 3.9=2) INTO Rstree.

VARIABLE LABELS Rstree ‘rstress’.

EXECUTE.

FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=STRESS

/STATISTICS=MEAN MEDIAN MODE

/ORDER=ANALYSIS.

Frequency table for original variable

How often do you find work stressful
FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
ValidALWAYS9610.310.310.3
OFTEN20722.222.232.5
SOMETIMES46750.150.182.6
HARDLY EVER13013.913.996.6
NEVER323.43.4100.0
Total932100.0100.0

Frequency table for the recoded variable

recorded stress
FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
ValidAlways30332.532.532.5
Sometimes46750.150.182.6
Never16217.417.4100.0
Total932100.0100.0

References

McKelvey, R. D., & Zavoina, W. 2015). A statistical model for the analysis of ordinal level dependent variables. Journal of mathematical sociology4(1), 103-120.

Daniel, W. W., & Cross, C. L. (2018). Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences. Wiley.

EARLY CHILDHOOD DISABILITIES GRADING RUBRIC

EDSP 726

EARLY CHILDHOOD DISABILITIES GRADING RUBRIC Criteria Levels of Achievement

Content 70% Advanced Proficient Developing Not present Chapter 14 Concepts

32 to 35 points Each prompt was clearly answered, fully developed, and explained in detail. Evidence from the textbook reading and a scholarly journal article are evident.

29 to 31 points Each prompt was mostly answered, fully developed, and explained in detail. Some evidence from the textbook reading and a scholarly journal article are evident.

1 to 28 points Few prompts were clearly answered, fully developed, or explained in detail. Evidence from the textbook reading and a scholarly journal article are vague.

0 points Largely incomplete.

Structure 30% Advanced Proficient Developing Not present Grammar and Spelling

8 points Correct spelling and grammar are used throughout the assignment. There are 0–1 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

7 points There are occasional errors in grammar or spelling. There are 1–2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

1 to 6 points There are 3–4 errors per page in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

0 points There are more than 5 errors per page in the

grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the

content. Current APA Format Compliance

7 points There are 0–1 minor errors in current APA format in the required items. 6 or more citations are included.

6 points There are 2–3 minor errors in current APA format in the required items. 5 citations are included.

1 to 5 points There are more than 3 errors in current APA format in the required items. Less that 5 citations are included.

0 points There are more than 4

errors in APA format in the required items.