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Ailsa McBride wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The author does not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The author may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality.

This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized, or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 0N1; (t) 519.661.3208; (e);

Copyright © 2017, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation Version: 2017-11-27

In January 2017, 60-year-old Kevin Ceretti, owner of the Kookie Kutter Bakery in Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, had to make some challenging decisions about his bakery to ensure it would succeed in the long run. His financials were precarious, as a result of rising costs for labour, equipment, marketing, and distribution. Ceretti had decided to enlist a small marketing firm to assist him with marketing decisions based on his situation at the time; for instance, should he pursue in-store sampling, and consider using new product labelling, despite the related expenses? The marketing firm would also help him to consider the options available to him for growing his business, which included introducing new flavours and products, reaching out to new markets, and offering in-store samplings. Given the potential opportunities and challenges—both marketing and financial—Ceretti wondered what he should do to keep Kookie Kutter Bakery alive.


Ceretti had graduated from New Brunswick Community College Cooking School in 1979. In March 1992, he gave up a career in food service and decided to buy a locally owned bakery in Sackville (see Exhibit 1). Since then, Ceretti had moved into the wholesale distribution channel, invented four new lines of cookies, and made the Kookie Kutter Bakery brand known in Atlantic Canada for its best-selling item—the ginger snap cookie. The bakery was approaching its 25th year of operation, and had gross sales of approximately CA$800,000,1 an increase from its initial sales of $150,000 in 1992.

The bakery was located in the small rural town of Sackville. The town was home to Mount Allison University, and had a population of approximately 5,500 residents (with an additional 2,000 students during the school year), most of whom spoke English as their mother tongue. Sackville was a quaint and rural town nestled between two of the biggest cities in the Maritimes—Moncton was only a half-hour drive and Halifax, a two-hour drive away.

Kookie Kutter Bakery was 2,300 square feet, and it prided itself on being a local manufacturer. The bakery adhered to the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) quality control guidelines (a rigorous

1 All currency amounts are in Canadian dollars unless otherwise specified.

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food safety program) as required by its customer, Costco Wholesale Corporation (Costco). Ceretti received advice from a nutritional panel in Fredericton, which provided him with information on product labelling, nutritional value, and “best before” dates. He regularly sent his cookies to be analyzed for quality control by Canada’s Smartest Kitchen (a globally recognized food development centre) in nearby Prince Edward Island. He had never received reports of incidents of illness from his cookies.

Over the years, Kookie Kutter Bakery’s products had been moving up the shelves in supermarkets, but had been recently bumped back down to the bottom shelves at certain retail locations. Ceretti hoped that in the future he would be able to introduce the four cookie lines to all of the locations that stocked his products and once again move up the shelves, so that his products would be at customers’ eye level—where purchase decisions were made more easily and spontaneously. He dreamed of being able to open a new production location, introduce some new flavours in the future, and improve the marketing of his products. Ceretti wondered what he needed to do to make these much-needed changes happen, given his challenging financial situation.


Distribution Channels

As of 2016, Kookie Kutter Bakery distributed and sold its products to Sobeys Inc. (Sobeys), owned by Empire Company Ltd.;2 Atlantic Superstore;3 Costco;4 and some Your Independent Grocer5 stores throughout the Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) and Newfoundland. Sobeys was the main distributor in Atlantic Canada for all four of Kookie Kutter Bakery’s cookie lines (ginger snap, vanilla flax, honey & cinnamon, and chocolate chip), while Costco and Atlantic Superstore carried only the ginger snaps. Sales were best at the Your Independent Grocer in Sackville.

Outside of the Maritimes, Ceretti had reached Ontario through some Costco and Sobeys stores, but only with the ginger snap cookie. However, Sobeys had recently agreed to carry all four flavours, which would be implemented soon. Similarly, Farm Boy 2012 Inc. (Farm Boy), a supermarket chain in the Ottawa region, had expressed interest in selling the Kookie Kutter Bakery brand.6 Lastly, Kookie Kutter Bakery had also reached the U.S. New England area (comprising the six states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut) through several Your Independent Grocer stores, but again only with the ginger snap cookie, its best-selling stock-keeping unit.


Unfortunately, Ceretti was restricted in terms of the amount of in-store marketing that could be done for his products. He was not allowed to have point-of-sale displays in the stores he was distributing to, but was looking to have that changed as soon as possible. The only marketing used was the packaging of the product

2 Empire Company Ltd.’s sales as of 2016 were $25 billion. Source: Empire Company Ltd., Annual Report 2016, 2, June 28, 2016, accessed January 17, 2017, 3 Owned by Loblaw Company, which had revenue of $46 billion as of 2016. Source: Loblaw Companies Limited, 2016 Annual Report – Financial Review, 1, February 22, 2017, accessed March 12, 2017, 4 Costco Wholesale Corporation’s sales as of 2016 were $116 billion. Source: Costco Wholesale Corporation, Annual Report 2016, 1, December 15, 2016, accessed February 12, 2017, file:///C:/Users/Ailsa/Downloads/2016 per cent20Annual per cent20Report per cent20PDF per cent20- per cent20FINAL.pdf. 5 Your Independent Grocer (also owned by Loblaw Company, had revenue of $46 billion as of 2015. Source: Loblaw Companies Limited, 2016 Annual Report – Financial Review, 1, February 22, 2017, accessed March 12, 2017, 6 Farm Boy was a private company so sales information was not available. Source: Farm Boy, “About Us,” accessed January 26, 2017,

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itself, and occasional in-store sampling. The Your Independent Grocer in Sackville had a stand that promoted Kookie Kutter Bakery’s products, but the information was barely noticeable to customers (see Exhibit 2). The location of the production facility (Sackville) was written only on the bottom of the package; therefore, the products were not explicitly labelled as “locally produced.”


There was plenty of competition within the cookie market. Among the big brands were companies such as Nabisco Foods Group, Stauffer Biscuit Company, Great Value Company (Wal-Mart Stores Inc.’s brand), Anna’s Swedish Thins by Lotus Bakeries, Archway Cookies, Murray Cookies, MI-DEL, and Trader Joe’s. However, these brands were store-bought cookies and “did not necessarily offer the same healthy and school-friendly benefits that Kookie Kutter ginger snaps did,” explained Ceretti. The chocolate chip cookie market had even more major brand competitors, including Dare Foods Limited, Pepperidge Farm, Archway Cookies, Nabisco Foods Group, and more. Again, although it could be argued that Kookie Kutter Bakery cookies were a healthier choice, this quality might not have been a concern for those who were buying chocolate chip cookies in the first place.

Other competition included Mrs. Dunster’s Inc.7 and Purity Factories Ltd.8 Mrs. Dunster’s Inc. was located in Sussex, New Brunswick, and it too offered ginger snap and chocolate chip cookies, but its cookies were not vegan, and the company focused on doughnuts as its main product. Purity Factories Ltd. was located in St. John’s, Newfoundland, and offered a wide variety of products, including cookies (ginger snap, coconut, and chocolate chip), crackers, jams, and confectionary. Mrs. Dunster’s Inc. distributed within a similar geographic range as that of Kookie Kutter Bakery (Atlantic Canada and New England), whereas Purity Factories Ltd. distributed its products across Canada. Both brands had a presence in a more supermarket chains than Kookie Kutter Bakery did.



As of 2016, Kookie Kutter Bakery’s product line consisted of four flavours; however, Ceretti was also looking to add some new products. Two new flavours of cookies he considered adding were pumpkin and coconut snaps, which he would develop from scratch, and two new product options he considered were oatcakes and shortbread cookies, recipes for which were being passed down to him from nearby Nova Scotian companies.

Unique Selling Features

Ceretti prided himself on having unique cookies, and for good reason. None of the cookies contained egg, dairy, or nuts (therefore were school-friendly), nor did they contain any trans fats or preservatives. The cookies also had a long shelf life, and the ginger snap, vanilla flax, and chocolate chip cookies were vegan products. With this wide range of features, Kookie Kutter Bakery products appealed to consumers of all ages, and were a healthy alternative to the many other cookies available.

7 Mrs. Dunster’s, “Mrs. Dunster’s Kitchen,” accessed January 17, 2017, 8 Purity Factories, “Purity,” 2016, accessed January 17, 2017,

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The retail price of Kookie Kutter Bakery cookies varied depending on the retailer. At Costco, the cookies were priced at $3.99, with an estimated 13 per cent markup to the retailer. In Sackville at the Your Independent Grocer, the cookies retailed at $3.79. However, a recent problem for Ceretti was that other grocery stores, specifically in Ontario, had been raising the prices of his cookies to $4.99 and keeping the additional dollar of profit for themselves.

The breakdown of Ceretti’s costs was estimated to be 20 per cent food costs and 30 per cent labour costs, but labour costs would increase to 50 or 60 per cent depending on the day and the number of batches required in his labour-intensive plant. To be cost-effective, the bakery needed to make nine batches of cookies a day. Ceretti paid his employees an hourly minimum wage, which had steadily increased over the years, from $7.50 in 1992 to $10.65 in 2016, with the selling price to his customers having barely changed over that period, except for adjustments to inflation. In short, this situation was problematic, as Ceretti’s selling prices had not increased to cover the rising labour costs.


Despite these hurdles, there were several opportunities for Ceretti to consider. The first was that new markets were available. Ceretti considered extending his four products into Ontario and potentially also into Quebec (which was geographically much closer), but he would need to examine the current competition in these markets before pursuing this. Within the past year, he had also hired both a sales manager and a marketing manager to assist him in reaching out to consumers and in advertising the products. The only problem with this assistance was the burdensome extra charges, owing to both commissions and base rate fees.

Ceretti had also created a template for point-of-sales displays (see Exhibit 3). Very few stores had allowed him to put up these signs, and when they did, it was for only a limited time. The signs were costly to produce and, because they were made of cardboard, required frequent replacement in the winter seasons. He had also developed a bulk box design to sell three packs of cookies as a snack option.

Another opportunity was in-store sampling, which had been a great promotional tool in the past. At Costco in Ontario, for example, Ceretti had paid for an in-store sample at the 10 stores he distributed to, and his sales rose from 100 packages to 600 packages on the day of the sampling. Although in-store samplings were a great option, they were also costly—at approximately $3,500 per demonstration.

Ceretti was also looking into developing new flavours of cookies, including pumpkin and coconut, both of which were being tested by the small marketing firm he had hired to help him. He also had the option to introduce shortbread cookies and oatcakes, which were established recipes being passed down from other companies. The last option for Ceretti to consider was creating a product designed specifically for children, which would involve colourful packaging, dyeing the cookies (yellow, red, and blue), or using sprinkles to attract the attention of young children. This option would appeal to vegan parents who wanted a school- friendly and healthy snack for their children.


Since there were several new flavours to consider, Ceretti decided to do a taste test of the two new flavours he was looking to develop, pumpkin and coconut. He was also interested to see whether having a more prominent local label would attract consumers’ attention, given the current lack of in-store promotion for

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Kookie Kutter Bakery products. The marketing firm found the following initial information when preparing for the exploratory research.

Local Products

Unfortunately, many studies on local products had reported disagreement about what the term “local” meant for consumers.9 However, it had been found that consumers were more likely to purchase local produce because they believed it was fresher, tastier, and more environmentally friendly due to the reduction in the carbon footprint of transportation.10 A 2015 study using strawberries to examine whether a local label influenced perceptions of taste found that people who knew the strawberries were local rated them higher in terms of freshness, flavour, colour, size, and uniformity, indicating the impact that a local label could have on perception.11 A study of processed food products (blackberry jam) found that having the label indicate the broad geographical area in which the product was made (e.g., Canada) was more beneficial than indicating where, specifically, within the country it was made; however, a label that showed a specific geographic location (e.g., Sackville) was more attractive than a label naming just a province (e.g., New Brunswick).12 As a last source of information, the marketing company found a study recommending that companies clearly mark place names, provide images, and emphasize the quality of the food because many consumers (in the United Kingdom, where the study was conducted) found that local foods were more expensive and difficult to find in supermarkets.13

Two Experiments

With this knowledge in hand, Ceretti had the small marketing firm conduct exploratory research at the local university. The marketing firm decided to examine the effect of a local label on consumer preferences for Kookie Kutter Bakery’s ginger snap cookies, and to perform a taste test of the coconut and pumpkin cookies. To do so, a table was set up in the student centre of the local university, and two separate experiments were carried out.

The first experiment tested the effects of a local label on flavour perception. It was believed that having a local label on a cookie would invoke a more positive perception of the flavour than a cookie without the local label. To test this hypothesis, two identical ginger snap cookies were placed on the table, one with a “Local” label on the front of it, and one with a “Non-Local” label on the front of it. Passing students (23 in total)14 were then asked to try each cookie and rate it on several seven-point scales including “Unsavoury ↔ Delicious”

9 Damian C. Adams and Alison E. Adams, “De-Placing Local at the Farmers’ Market: Consumer Conceptions of Local Foods,” Journal of Rural Social Sciences 26, no. 2 (2011): 74–100, accessed February 16, 2017, 10 John L. Stanton, John B. Wiley, and Ferdinand F. Wirth, “Who Are the Locavores?,” Journal of Consumer Marketing 29, no. 4 (2012): 248–261, accessed February 16, 2017, 11 Chenyi He, Zhifeng Gao, Charles A. Sims, and Xin Zhao, “Does Local Label Bias Consumer Taste Bud and Preference: Strawberry Sensory Experiment,” IDEAS Working Paper Series from RePEc (2015), accessed February 16, 2017, 12 Wuyang Hu, Marvin T. Batte, Timothy Woods, and Stan Ernst, “Consumer Preferences for Local Production and Other Value-added Label Claims for a Processed Food Product,” European Review of Agricultural Economics 39, no. 3 (July 2012): 489–510, accessed February 16, 2017, abstract/39/3/489/452655/Consumer-preferences-for-local-production-and?redirectedFrom=fulltext. 13 Ursula Penney and Caroline Prior, “Exploring the Urban Consumer’s Perception of Local Food,” International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 42, no. 7 (2014): 580–594, accessed February 16, 2017, 14 This number was by no means significant, but represented the first step in ongoing research.

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and “Flavourless ↔ Strong Flavour.” At the end of the two rating sheets, the students were asked to pick which cookie they preferred: the Local or the Non-Local.

The second experiment set up two ginger snap cookies, a coconut cookie, and a pumpkin cookie in a line on a table. Students (47 in total) were asked to complete the same rating scales as the first study, and then rank the four cookies in order of preference (1 for their favourite and 4 for their least favourite).


Participants in the studies consisted of mostly undergraduate students between the ages of 17 and 22; in the first experiment 43 per cent were female and 57 per cent were male, and in the second experiment 55 per cent were female and 45 per cent were male. The results from the exploratory experiments indicated that most participants preferred the “Local” cookie (78 per cent) to the “Non-Local” cookie (22 per cent), despite them being the same cookie (see Exhibit 4). The most preferred cookie was the ginger snap (ranked number 1 by 42 per cent of participants), while the least preferred cookie was the pumpkin (ranked number 4 by 59 per cent of participants). Coconut was well-liked by most people, as 27 per cent of participants ranked it as their favourite, and it was ranked as the least favourite by only 20 per cent of participants, most of whom (five individuals) commented they did not like coconut to begin with.

The students were more perceptive than expected, and several participants from both experiments asked whether the two ginger snap cookies were the same, particularly in the first experiment (five students wrote that they believed they were the same cookie while others speculated so verbally). This outcome indicated the labels might not have tricked the participants. Furthermore, compared with the first experiment, participants in the second experiment perceived more differences between the ginger snap cookies, which could have indicated that participants in the second experiment were distracted by the additional two flavours and did not focus on the similarity in taste. Alternatively, the taste of the coconut and the pumpkin cookies may have interfered with the taste of the second ginger snap, leading to greater differences in perception in the second experiment (see Exhibit 7). From the results of these experiments, it was concluded that the participants may have held a positive bias toward the local label, and that the pumpkin cookie was not a success in the test run.


Ceretti weighed his options. He was eager to develop new flavours and examine new ways of marketing his cookies. He was considering emphasizing the “made locally” appeal. After the preliminary market research undertaken locally in 2017, he needed to decide whether to invest in a full-scale marketing research study at a cost of approximately $20,000, despite the financial challenges he was facing. Could he afford it? Could it potentially reap benefits?

Ceretti consulted with various companies that had experienced difficulties similar to his own, including a cash crunch. One of these companies was Golden Grown, located in Western Manitoba. Following some failed attempts at opening stores of his own across the province, instead of pursuing a less risky franchise or using an exclusive distribution system, the owner and founder of Golden Grown was forced to declare bankruptcy—a mountain of debt had taken over what had been a beloved business whose products were greatly appreciated by its customers.

In 2012, Golden Grown’s new owner decided to turn the business into an agro-tourism venture. During the summer months, visitors were permitted to visit the sunflower fields, watch a video on the history of the

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plant and farm, acquire some knowledge about sunflowers, and witness the actual production of the plant. Customers were enthusiastic about the opportunity to walk into the field during the summer months with their families, enjoy the fresh air, and understand how sunflower oil was produced—all for a minimal entry fee of $12.00, which easily covered an afternoon of relaxation and enjoyment. Lines formed at the entrance every day of the week; flocks of school students arrived by bus. Soon enough, this effort at agro-tourism constituted a large portion of the company’s income and raised the brand awareness, first throughout the region and then throughout the province.

Ceretti thought he could emulate the same level of success by remodelling his small plant. What would be the result, for instance, if he were to paint the exterior building in attractive colours and decorate it with images reminiscent of local (and internationally renowned) painter Alex Colville? Would it help to achieve success if he were to reorganize the inside of his plant to accommodate exclusive tours for tourists—along with cookie tasting—especially in summertime? The plant would be thoroughly cleaned, and idle spots could be left to accommodate tourists. The “front office” could become a viewing area for them. Ceretti could play a small video relating the history of the plant and its role in the local community. He also entertained the idea of creating a special “Colville” cookie, for which he could replicate a simplified version of simplify) some of Colville’s emblematic images, such as the train and the horse, on top of a cookie. Some of Colville’s images could even be reproduced on the packaging Ceretti used. Ceretti was not short of ideas. However, the current layout of his plant was not conducive to a tour environment (see Exhibit 1), therefore extensive remodelling would be required if this opportunity was pursued. Moreover, any of these options would need to be considered with Ceretti’s tight budget in mind. What should the marketing firm recommend to Ceretti to continue growing his business and to achieve success in the future?

The author wishes to thank Olivier Mesly for his assistance, guidance, and research in the development of the case.

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1. IN 8. OUT



The plant was approximately 2,300 square feet.

1. Receiving Area (In) This was the area for receiving and unloading incoming ingredients. It also contained boxes ready to be filled with cookies, as well as large tanks of molasses.

2. Mixing Area This was the area where ingredients were mixed together, and it consisted of two mixing apparatuses, both of which held large metal bowls containing the ingredients to be mixed.

3. 1st Cooling Area This was the first fridge where cookie dough was stored. The dough was moved from the mixing bowls into yellow buckets, and was then placed in the refrigerator until it reached the right consistency to be cut.

4. Cutting Area Once the cookie dough had reached the right consistency, it was moved from the yellow buckets into the dome-like pipe in this machine, and was then shaped, cut, and put onto cookie sheets.

5. Oven After the cookies had been cut and placed directly onto cookie sheets, they were moved to the oven, which was right next to the cutting machine.

6. 2nd Cooling Area The ovens were very close to the second cooling area, where the cookies were stored to cool before being packaged. They were then taken out of the cooling area from a door on the other end, near the front office, and then left to cool there until weighing and packaging.

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7. Packaging and Labelling This station was a counter where cookies were packaged and weighed. Once the appropriate weight for each package had been determined, the cookies passed along the conveyor belt and under a metal detector to another counter, close to the labelling counter.

8. Shipping Area (Out) The last stage of the process was to prepare the packages of cookies for shipment, for which they would exit the same doors that the raw ingredients had come in.

9. Kitchen/Inventory This was the storage area for the inventory, including sugar, canola oil, corn syrup, and prepared cookie dough.

President/Owner Kevin Ceretti

Street View of Kookie Kutter

B k

Indoor View of Kookie Kutter

Source: Company documents.

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Source: Company documents.


Source: Company documents.

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Cookie (Said to be Non-Local) n = 23. H0: The local and non-local products are deemed identical in taste. H1: The local and non-local products are not deemed identical in taste.

“Non-Local” Cookie, in %

1 2 3

(neutral) 4 5

Tasteless 0 22 30 35 13 Strong flavour Unsavoury 0 22 57 17 4 Delicious Not fatty (taste) 17 30 39 13 0 Fatty (taste) Dry (touch) 39 35 13 13 0 Oily (touch) Not bitter 22 48 26 0 4 Very bitter Not sweet 4 26 48 13 9 Very sweet Not salty 23 32 41 5 0 Very salty Not sour 61 22 17 0 0 Very sour

Did you find that there was an aftertaste for this cookie? Yes (87 per cent), No (13 per cent). Cookie (Said to be Local) n = 23. Question that was asked verbally: How do you find the taste of the local cookie?

“Local” Cookie, in % 1 2 3

(neutral) 4 5

Tasteless 0 22 39 26 13 Strong flavour Unsavoury 0 4 39 52 4 Delicious

Not fatty (taste) 22 39 30 9 0 Fatty (taste) Dry (touch) 35 22 26 13 4 Oily (touch) Not bitter 39 35 26 0 0 Very bitter Not sweet 0 17 48 22 13 Very sweet Not salty 30 39 26 4 0 Very salty Not sour 57 26 17 0 0 Very sour

Did you find that there was an aftertaste for this cookie? Yes (70 per cent), No (30 per cent). After trying both the local and non-local ginger snap cookies, which is your favourite? Please circle your preference. Local (78 per cent), Non-local (22 per cent).

Note: Underlined values indicate the most frequently chosen cookie for that ranking. Source: Company documents.

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Although the purpose of this experiment was to determine whether there was a difference between the two identical ginger cookies, the sample size was too small to conduct any statistical tests. However, percentage differences could be analyzed and compared between the two ginger snap cookies.

Tabulated results:

Itemized Flavour Description

Non-local (n = 23)

Local (n = 23) Difference

In % (rounded numbers) and rank

Tasteless ↔ Strong flavour 35/4 39/3 Significant difference in strength of taste but not in ranking

Unsavoury ↔ Delicious 57/3 52/4 About the same± Taste: Not fatty ↔ Fatty 39/3 39/2 About the same

Touch: Dry ↔ Oily 39/1 26/3 Significant difference in touch and ranking

Not bitter ↔ Very bitter 48/2 39/1 Significant difference in bitterness but not in ranking Not sweet ↔ Very sweet 48/3 48/3 0/0 (no difference at all) Not salty ↔ Very salty 41/3 39/2 About the same Not sour ↔ Very sour 61/1 57/1 About the same


1. Surprisingly, when evaluating the same cookie, some participants (less than 50 per cent) perceived a significant difference in touch, bitterness, and strength of taste, even though the cookies were actually from the same production batch.

2. Out of eight measures of assessment, significant differences were found in three. 3. The perceived difference in touch, bitterness, and strength of flavour played in favour of the perceived

local product. 4. Both cookies have a significant aftertaste, but it appeared that an aftertaste was more noticeable for

the perceived non-local cookie than the perceived local cookie. 5. Finally, it was noted that sweetness displayed exactly the same values for non-local and local cookies.


Based on this exploratory analysis, it appears that the perception of locally made products fuelled a positivity bias versus non-local products, which corresponded to past research showing that people were more likely to purchase local products, and that having a local label could positively influence the perception of a product.

Note: ± Because the test is highly judgmental, we consider that only a difference of more than one in ranking is significant, i.e., conjoint rankings are deemed not significantly different. For the actual percentage of participants commenting on product characteristic, we consider that anything above a 10 per cent difference is significant. Again, this is only exploratory research. Source: Company documents.

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H0: The two ginger snap cookies are deemed identical in taste. H1: The two ginger snap cookies are not deemed identical in taste.

Cookie #1: _______________ (Ginger A) n = 46 1 2 3

(neutral) 4 5

In % Tasteless 2 13 23 49 13 Strong flavour Unsavoury 2 15 38 43 2 Delicious Not fatty (taste) 11 34 51 2 2 Fatty (taste) Dry (touch) 21 60 9 9 2 Oily (touch) Not bitter 21 36 23 19 0 Very bitter Not sweet 9 13 51 28 0 Very sweet Not salty 34 19 32 15 0 Very salty Not sour 68 13 13 4 2 Very sour

Did you find that there was an aftertaste for this cookie? Yes (87), No (13 per cent).

Cookie #2: _______________ (Coconut) n = 44 1 2 3

(neutral) 4 5

In %

Tasteless 2 11 31 44 11 Strong flavour Unsavoury 11 26 28 24 11 Delicious Not fatty (taste) 7 24 28 37 4 Fatty (taste) Dry (touch) 20 35 20 24 2 Oily (touch) Not bitter 35 37 22 4 2 Very bitter Not sweet 9 20 37 33 2 Very sweet Not salty 26 26 22 22 4 Very salty Not sour 68 20 9 4 0 Very sour

Did you find that there was an aftertaste for this cookie? Yes (61 per cent), No (39 per cent).

Cookie #3: _______________ (Pumpkin) n = 43 1 2 3

(neutral) 4 5

In % Tasteless 9 30 22 26 13 Strong flavour Unsavoury 15 36 30 13 6 Delicious Not fatty (taste) 34 32 26 9 0 Fatty (taste) Dry (touch) 43 34 13 11 0 Oily (touch) Not bitter 30 23 17 30 0 Very bitter Not sweet 17 32 38 13 0 Very sweet Not salty 36 32 23 6 2 Very salty Not sour 57 19 11 11 2 Very sour

Did you find that there was an aftertaste for this cookie? Yes (47 per cent), No (53 per cent).

For the exclusive use of R. BENDU, 2018.

This document is authorized for use only by RAMU BENDU in Marketing Management Summer IIG 18 taught by Stephanie Thacker, University of the Cumberlands from Jun 2018 to Dec 2018.

Page 14 9B17A063


Cookie #4: _______________ (Ginger B) n = 45

1 2 3 (neutral) 4 5

In % Tasteless 2 19 21 36 21 Strong flavour Unsavoury 4 9 38 40 9 Delicious Not fatty (taste) 13 32 38 17 0 Fatty (taste) Dry (touch) 19 40 23 17 0 Oily (touch) Not bitter 21 26 28 23 2 Very bitter Not sweet 9 28 26 38 0 Very sweet Not salty 43 26 21 11 0 Very salty Not sour 60 21 11 9 0 Very sour

Did you find that there was an aftertaste for this cookie? Yes (76 per cent), No (24 per cent).

Percentage of Respondents Who Placed Each Cookie at Each Ranking

Rank Ginger A (%)

Coconut (%)

Pumpkin (%)

Ginger B (%)

#1 (n=45) 42 27 11 20 #2 (n=45) 30 22 11 37 #3 (n=46) 15 30 22 33 #4 (n=44) 11 20 59 9

Note: Due to non-responses by participants, the n values for each cookie are not equivalent and have been amended to exhibit the true number of responses per cookie. Source: Company documents.

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This document is authorized for use only by RAMU BENDU in Marketing Management Summer IIG 18 taught by Stephanie Thacker, University of the Cumberlands from Jun 2018 to Dec 2018.

Page 15 9B17A063


Itemized Flavour Description

Ginger A (n = 46)

Ginger B (n = 45) Difference

In % (rounded numbers) and rank

Tasteless ↔ Strong flavour 49/4 36/4 Significant difference in strength of taste but not in ranking

Unsavoury ↔ Delicious 43/4 38/3 Significant difference in deliciousness but not in ranking

Taste: Not fatty ↔ Fatty 51/3 38/3 Significant difference in taste but not in ranking

Touch: Dry ↔ Oily 60/2 40/2 Significant difference in touch but not in ranking

Not bitter ↔ Very bitter 36/2 28/3 Significant difference in bitterness but not in ranking

Not sweet ↔ Very sweet 51/3 38/4 Significant difference in sweetness but not in ranking

Not salty ↔ Very salty 34/1 43/1 Significant difference in saltiness but not in ranking

Not sour ↔ Very sour 68/1 60/1 Significant difference in sourness but not in ranking

In exploratory analyses, the difference between the two ginger cookies (in rankings) was examined using a one-sample t-test between percentages. The percentage of participants who ranked Ginger A as #1 was compared with the percentage of participants who ranked Ginger B as #1. A significance level of p = 0.05 was used. Results indicated no statistically significant difference between the number of participants who ranked Ginger A as #1 and Ginger B as #1, t(44) = 1.952, p = 0.057, so we fail to reject the null hypothesis, which states that the two cookies will be deemed identical in taste.


1. Surprisingly, when evaluating the same cookie, some participants (less than 50 per cent) perceived a significant difference in strength of taste, deliciousness, fattiness, touch, bitterness, sweetness, saltiness, and sourness, even though the cookies were actually from the same production batch.

2. Of eight measures of assessment, all (i.e., 100 per cent) showed significant differences. 3. Interestingly, in compared with the results of experiment #1 (i.e., non-local versus local), a greater difference

was perceived between the two ginger cookies when the coconut and the pumpkin cookies were also tasted. 4. More than 50 per cent of respondents indicated that pumpkin was their least favourite cookie, and it

was the only cookie that more people indicated had no aftertaste. 5. Coconut was popular as a flavour, and its lower rankings were due to those participants who do not

like coconut (i.e., 5 individuals). 6. Despite the perceived differences in the qualities of the two cookies, statistical analyses indicate there

was no significant difference between the two identical ginger cookies. 7. Conclusion: Offering a greater array of flavours increased the perceived differences between the two

ginger cookies. Furthermore, the pumpkin cookie was found to be unpopular, whereas the coconut cookie was ranked highly by approximately 50 per cent of participants.

Source: Company documents.

For the exclusive use of R. BENDU, 2018.

This document is authorized for use only by RAMU BENDU in Marketing Management Summer IIG 18 taught by Stephanie Thacker, University of the Cumberlands from Jun 2018 to Dec 2018.

BUOL 533 – Marketing Management

BUOL 533 1

BUOL 533 – Marketing Management

Your Name Here

University of Cumberlands

Week Seven Case – Kookie Kutter Bakery Paper


Start your paper here. An introduction paragraph is a good idea. It should state the TOPIC of your paper and provide a roadmap for the reader. Indent five spaces the first sentence in each paragraph.

Cost of Developing New Cookies

Indent first sentence in each paragraph five spaces. Cite your sources and recap in APA format in the reference page. Can Ceretti afford to develop new cookies? 

Investment Reaps Benefits

Indent first sentence in each paragraph five spaces. Cite your sources and recap in APA format in the reference page. Would developing new cookies and investing in more marketing potentially reap sufficient benefits for Kookie Kutter Bakery? 

Recommendations Around Growing Business

Indent first sentence in each paragraph five spaces. Cite your sources and recap in APA format in the reference page. What should be recommended to Ceretti to continue growing his business and to succeed in the future? 

Data Percolation

Indent first sentence in each paragraph five spaces. Cite your sources and recap in APA format in the reference page. What is data percolation?  How did the marketing agency hired by Ceretti use data percolation?

Changes to Experiment Suggestions

Indent first sentence in each paragraph five spaces. Cite your sources and recap in APA format in the reference page. If Ceretti were to re-conduct the marketing agency’s experiments, what changes or improvements to the experiment would you suggest?  


Your final paragraph should provide a summary of your paper. This reminds the reader of where you took them on your road trip. It is similar to reviewing your photographs after a vacation. There should be no new information included in the conclusion. Make sure you have FIVE pages minimum. The page count is only from the Introduction to Conclusion. Do not add any extra blank lines in your paper – deliver a tight double-spaced paper using the spacing provided in this template. No visuals allowed.


Case Study 2

Citation: Mary C. Szto, Lawyers as Hired Doves: Lessons from the Sermon on the Mount, 31 Cumb. L. Rev. 27 (2000)

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You have heard that it was said, “Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.” But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if someone wants to sue you and take your tunic, let him have

your cloak as well. If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not

turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.


The Sermon on the Mount is one of the most popular texts in world literature. Delivered by Jesus Christ and recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke,2 its lessons of love and wis- dom have been admired by people of many faiths and nation- alities. These include Gandhi,3 the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., 4 and Confucianists.5 Its appeal to the universal hu- man condition is striking. Gandhi explained that the sermon went straight to his heart.6 Interestingly, while much of Christ’s

Associate Professor, Regent University School of Law. B.A., Wellesley College, 1981; M.A.R., Westminster Theological Seminary, 1983; J.D., Columbia University, 1986. This article is dedicated to my beloved husband.

1 Matthew 5:38-42. All Scripture quotations are taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION (7th ed., Zondervan Publishing House 1991). Used by per- mission of Zondervan Publishing House. All rights reserved.

2 Considered the greatest exposition of the Christian faith and life, it is found in Matthew 5-7 and Luke 6:1749. It contains the Beatitudes, the Lord’s Prayer, and other teachings.

3 See MAHATMA GANDHI: HIS OWN STORY 93 (C. F. Andrews ed., MacMillan Co. 1930).

See MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., STRENGTH TO LOVE 10 (Harper & Row 1963). 5 See Daniel T.W. Chow, A Study of the Sermon on the Mount: With Special Refer-

ence to Matthew 5:21-48, 2 E. ASIA J. THEOLOGY 312, 314 (1984) (finding that among Chinese, it is favorably compared to Confucian tenets).

6 See GANDHI, supra note 3, at 93.


sermon is an exposition on law, more specifically Jewish law, few lawyers or legal theorists have applied its principles to the practice of law.

This article will discuss why the application of the Sermon on the Mount (“SM” in the theological literature and hereafter) to the practice of law has been sparse. 7 After giving a short summary of the SM, I will examine, in particular, the struggle of the Christian church and other exegetes to interpret the seemingly radical demands of the SM. Theologians have held often opposite views of the SM, ranging from its literal applica- tion to its non-application, and from the elimination of law to its irrelevance to law. These theological views have had a pro- found influence on how lawyers view their profession.

I will then turn to an examination of four particular verses of the SM as a legal text, verses which Gandhi took particular delight in.8 My thesis is that the SM requires a radical spiritual model of lawyering, which includes active engagement with clients’ motives, a refusal to be a tool of vengeance, and a reso- lute desire to be a peacemaker and healer. I call this model “lawyers as hired doves,” 9 in sharp contrast with the predomi- nant “hired gun” motif in American lawyering.10 This is be- cause in the SM the meaning and end of positive law are love, selflessness, and charity.” Because law is love, followers of Christ, also known as the redeemed community, assert their legal rights sparingly, overwhelm legal adversaries and gov-

7 See generally, Craig A. Stern, Crime, Moral Luck, and the Sermon on the Mount, 48 CATH. U. L. REV. 801 (1999) (for a notable exception).

8 GANDHI, supra note 3. 9 The dove, of course, is a symbol for peace. It is also a symbol for the Holy

Spirit. Another appropriate biblical metaphor might be “hired plowshares.” In Micah 4:3, the prophet states that “He will judge between many peoples and will settle dis- putes for strong nations far and wide. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks.” Micah 4:3.

10 Much literature has been devoted to debating the merits of the “hired gun” model. See, e.g., Joseph Allegretti, Have Briefcase Will Travel: An Essay on the Lawyer as Hired Gun, 24 CREIGHTON L. REV. 747 (1991); Ted Schneyer, Some Sympathy for the Hired Gun, 41 J. LEGAL EDUC. 11 (1991); Susan P. Sturm, From Gladiators to Problem- Solvers: Connecting Conversations about Women, the Academy, and the Legal Profession, 4 DUKE J. GENDER L. & POL’Y 119 (1997); see ROBERT F. COCHRAN, JR. & THOMAS SHAFFER, LAWYERS, CLIENTS, AND MORAL RESPONSIBILITY (West Publishing Co. 1994) (lists the following options: lawyer as hired gun, godfather, guru or friend in their categorization of attorney counseling models).

11 See generally ANTHONY COOK, The Death of God in American Pragmatism and Re- alism: Resurrecting the Value of Love in Contemporary Jurisprudence, 82 GEO. L.J. 1431 (1994) (advocates the Christian value of love in contemporary jurisprudence). See also JAMES CHAMBERLAIN ET AL., LAWYERS IN GOD’S WORLD: THE LOVE COMMAND AS

MODERN LAW (Radix 1990). This attempt at “law and love” will be more specifically exegetical.

[Vol. 31:27


ernment officials with twice what they have asked for, and provide generously for the poor. Such paradoxical justice liber- ates lawyers to become hired doves.


The SM may be the most quoted and studied passage from the Christian scriptures.12 Many of its phrases have become everyday colloquialisms, such as “turn the other cheek.” Even those who have never read the SM will recognize its teachings from other contexts. For numerous readers, the SM contains beautiful truths and principles that are contrary to worldly wisdom, aggression, and patterns of success. Ironically, be- cause the SM embodies ethical principles that at face value are “upside-down,” the SM may be the most ignored passage of Scripture. Many persons read the SM, acknowledge its beauty, power, and purity, and then quickly move on to other passages in the Bible that are more palatable. 13 Before I discuss the her-. meneutical history of the SM, here is a brief summary of its teachings.14

Jesus Christ delivered the SM on a mountainside to his dis- ciples and to a large crowd of people. 15 Related in the book of Matthew, it was delivered early in Jesus’ public ministry of preaching and healing. The SM begins with the Beatitudes, which are a series of blessings for his followers. Among these are “[b]lessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth.”


The next section of the SM is an explicit exposition of the Mosaic Law in which Jesus claims that he has come to fulfill the Mosaic Law.17 This section contains startling teachings. For example, Jesus states that the Mosaic prohibition against mur- der includes a prohibition against hate18 and a prohibition against adultery that prohibits lust.19 The verses that I will ex-


13 See generally George I. Mavrodes, The Hardest Verses in the Bible, 36 REFORMED J. 12 (1986) (for an honest confession).

14 For purposes of this summary I will draw only from the Matthew text. Is See Matthew 5:1. 16 Matthew 5:5. 17 Matthew 5:17. 18 Matthew 5:21-22. ‘9 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ But I tell you that

anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.” Matthew 5:27-28. Many readers may recall the stir/bewilderment that arose when President Jimmy Carter admitted that he had committed adultery in his heart.



plicate in further detail in this article are in the middle of the SM. They are an explication of the lex talionis verses, the stan- dard for Jewish civil law, “an eye for an eye.” These verses ad- vise nonresistance, turning the other cheek,20 and walking the extra mile.21 In addition to the Beatitudes, Mosaic, and lex tali- onis verses, the SM also contains Jesus’ command to love your enemies;22 the teaching of the Lord’s Prayer;23 and Jesus’ ad- monitions about not loving money, 24 not worrying,25 not judg- ing,26 and “do[ing] to others what you would have them do to you … *”27 This last statement is Christ’s summary of the meaning of law. The SM ends with a parable of foolish and wise people. 28


A. Historical Overview of the General Application of the SM

The history of the SM’s application to lawyers must be seen within the greater context of its hermeneutical history. Theolo- gians, philosophers, and ethicists have wrestled with its radical principles for centuries.29 In fact, the SM has been called the “most controversial biblical text.”30 The interplay of law and theology is poignant. The SM has been sparingly applied to lawyers for three main reasons. First, it has been sparingly ap- plied to anyone. 31 Many theologians have held that the SM is an unattainable ideal. Secondly, law has been singled out as particularly beyond the application of the SM. This line of rea- soning is not unlike that of the so-called separation of law and

2D Matthew 5:39. 2 Matthew 5:41. 2 Matthew 5:44. 2 See Matthew 6:9-13. 24 Matthew 6:19-24. 2 Matthew 6:25. 2 Matthew 7:1-6. 2 Matthew 7:12. 2 See Matthew 7:24-27. 2 There are several histories of its interpretation. See, e.g., WARREN S. KISSINGER,

THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT: A HISTORY OF INTERPRETATION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY (Scarecrow Press 1975); see HANS DIETER BETz, ESSAYS ON THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT 1-17 (L.L. Wellbom trans., Fortress Press 1985) (for an essay on its literary genre).


31 Notable exceptions to inapplicability of the SM are Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Christian pacifist movements. See GHANDI, supra note 3; KING, supra note 4.

[Vol. 31:27


morality. 32 This is influenced in part by interpreting it in isola- tion from other biblical texts. 33 Thirdly, others have held that the SM should be literally applied, even to the point of elimi- nating the state.34

Historically, the first major issue facing the Church fathers 35

was whether the SM applied to all believers. For example, the Didache,36 Justin Martyr,37 Irenaeus,38 Tertullian,39 Origen, 40

Chrysostom, and Augustine wrote that the SM applied to all believers. 41 However, Augustine held that the SM did not pre- clude military service for the defense of right, of others, of the state, and of God’s purposes. 42

In contrast to the early Church fathers, Saint Thomas Aqui- nas taught in the medieval age that parts of the SM were re- served for an elite or super class of adherents. These believers took vows of “poverty, chastity, and obedience.” 43 According to Aquinas, the SM contains both evangelical “precepts” and “counsels of perfection.” 44 While the precepts pertained to sal-

32 See, e.g., Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., The Path of the Law, 10 HARV. L. REV. 457 (1897); H.L.A. Hart, Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals, 71 HARV. L. REV. 593 (1958).

33 W.D. Davies & Dale C. Allison, Jr., Reflections on the Sermon on the Mount, 44 SCOT. J. THEOLOGY 283, 283 (1991) (provides a thumbnail sketch of various interpreta- tions of the SM and claims that the SM has not been interpreted properly within the context of other Matthean references).

3 The range of interpretations of the SM reflects the various theological and hermeneutical stances of their authors. Two related critical hermeneutical questions are whether the SM is integrally related not only to the rest of the gospel of Matthew, but also to the Christian canon of both the Old and New Testaments, and if the Chris- tian canon is divinely authored. My interpretation rests on affirmative answers to these two questions. Therefore, my conclusions as to the SM’s meaning and applica- bility necessarily include a discussion of related canonical texts.

3 Apparently there were no Church mothers writing at this time. 36 See generally EARLY CHRISTIAN FATHERS 171 (Cyril C. Richardson et al. trans.

and eds., Collier Books 1970). The teaching of the Twelve Apostles is known as the Didache. Id.

37 See generally THE FATHERS OF THE CHURCH: A NEW TRANSLATION, WRITINGS OF SAINT JUSTIN MARTYR 50 (Thomas B. Falls trans., Christian Heritage, Inc. 1948).

38 See generally THE EARLY CHURCH FATHERS 122 (Henry Bettenson ed. and trans., Oxford Univ. Press 1963).

39 See generally THE FATHERS OF THE CHURCH: A NEW TRANSLATION, TERTULLIAN: DISCIPLINARY, MORAL & ASCETICAL WORKS 207 (Rudolph Arbesmann et al. trans., Fathers of the Church, Inc. 1959).

40 See generally 2 ALEXANDRIAN CHRISTIANITY 167-459 (John Ernest Leonard Oul- ton et al. eds., Westminster Press 1954).

41 See KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 7-13 (for a discussion of Didache, Justin Mar- tyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origen, Chrysostom and Augustine).


43 KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 18. 44 Id.


vation, the counsels pertained to “perfection and the imitation of Christ himself.” 45 Thus, within this scheme, strict adherence to the SM involved monasticism and asceticism and was not required of all believers. 46 It was not applicable to the popula- tion at large.

B. Historical Overview of the Application of the SM to the State and the Law

At the time of the Reformation the question of the SM’s ap- plication was complicated by the debate surrounding church and state. Did the SM apply to the state and the law? There were four main views: Aquinas’s, the Anabaptist literalist view, Martin Luther’s non-applicability or “two kingdom” view, and the Calvinist view.47

In the sixteenth century, the Anabaptists were actually vari- ous groups on the Continent that “refused to allow their chil- dren to be baptized and reinstituted the baptism of believ- ers.”48 These groups included Thomas Monzer and the Zwickau prophets, the Swiss Brethren, Hutterites, and Men- nonites.49 The Anabaptists held to a literal view of the SM, to the point of delegitimizing the state and civil law.5° In contrast to Aquinas’s limited view of the SM, the Anabaptists held that the SM forbade taking oaths, filing lawsuits, or going to war in all circumstances.51 Therefore, they held that believers must withdraw from the state and political life, and that church and state are necessarily separate. 52 “Their views on baptism, their insistence that the church and the state be separate, their rejec- tion of oaths and violence, caused them to become the object of derision, persecution, and martyrdom.”5 3 In fact, these Anabap- tist views have had a profound influence on American views of church and state to this day.54

4 Id 4 See id. 17 The Christian church today still bears the influence of each of these interpreta-

tions. The Lutheran view provides a convenient separation of individual and public morality.

48 KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 30. “Anabaptist” literally means to “baptize over again.” Id.

49 Id. 5 See id. at 31-32. 51 See id. at 31-33. 52 Id. at 30-31. 5 Id. at 30. 5 For example, the Anabaptist view of non-involvement with government and

politics has been the traditional stance of American evangelicalism and fundamental-

[Vol. 31:27


In contrast to the Anabaptists, Martin Luther adhered to a “two kingdom” approach. Luther taught that the SM preached two kingdoms, the kingdom of Christ and the kingdom of the world. Accordingly, God rules the secular kingdom through secular authority and the spiritual kingdom through His Word. Luther distinguished between the role of the Christian as a pri- vate individual and the role of the Christian as a secular, public figure, such as that of a lawyer, judge, or soldier. 55 He wrote:

Thus when a Christian goes to war or when he sits on a judge’s bench, punishing his neighbor, or when he registers an official complaint, he is not doing this as a Christian, but as a soldier or a judge or a lawyer. At the same time he keeps a Christian heart. He does not intend anyone any harm, and it grieves him that his neighbor must suffer grief. So he lives simultaneously as a Christian toward everyone, personally suffering all sorts of things in the world, and as a secular person, maintaining, using, and performing all the functions required by the law of his territory or city, by civil law, and by domestic law.


Luther thus legitimated civil authority but taught that non- resistance referred to Christian individuals, not the state.57 Lu- ther may have opened the way for many believers to live bifur- cated lives, divorcing their personal and professional selves, which is a common theme among legal reformers today.58

John Calvin’s interpretation of the SM was more akin to the early Church fathers, including Augustine. Calvin taught that the SM allowed Christians to bring lawsuits but without ran- cor,59 because the civil authorities exercised God’s vengeance. 60

Key to Calvin’s interpretation was his use of other biblical texts, in particular Romans 12, a Pauline text that taught that God ordained all civil authority. Calvin pleaded with believers to examine their motives when bringing lawsuits. In accor- dance with his interpretation of the SM he wrote,

ism. Politics is “dirty.” The relatively recent entry of many Christians into politics is perceived as moralistic and disingenuous to others.

5 21 LUTHER’S WORKS: THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT AND THE MAGNIFICAT 113 (Jaroslav Pelikan ed., Concordia Publishing House 1956).

56 Id. 57 KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 21-22. 59 See generally Russell G. Pearce, The Jewish Lawyer’s Question, 27 TEX. TECH L.

REV. 1259 (1996) (for a discussion of this question among Jewish lawyers). S See I JOHN CALVIN, COMMENTARY ON A HARMONY OF THE EVANGELISTS,

MATTHEW, MARK, AND LUKE 299-300 (William Pringle trans., Win. B. Eerdmans Pub- lishing Co. 1949).

60 2 JOHN CALVIN, INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION 667 (Henry Beveridge trans., Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1972).



[J]udicial proceedings are lawful to him who makes a right use of them; and the right use, both for the pursuer and for the de- fender, is for the latter to sist himself on the day appointed, and, without bitterness, urge what he can in his defence, but only with the desire of justly maintaining his right; and for the pursuer, when undeservedly attacked in his life or fortunes, to throw himself upon the protection of the magistrate, state his complaint, and demand what is just and good; while, far from any wish to hurt or take vengeance – far from bitterness or ha- tred – far from the ardour of strife, he is rather disposed to yield and suffer somewhat than to cherish hostile feelings to- wards his opponent. On the contrary, when minds are filled with malevolence, corrupted by envy, burning with anger, breathing revenge, or, in fine, so inflamed by the heat of the contest, that they, in some measure, lay aside charity, the whole pleading, even of the justest cause, cannot but be impi- ous.

6 1

Like Calvin, Luther also allowed for the bringing of lawsuits by Christians if this was done “out of a genuine love for right- eousness,” 62 but he characterized this as secular business.

With notable exceptions, modern views of the SM have greatly limited the SM’s general and legal relevance. Johannes Weiss wrote that Jesus’ intentions had no application to earthly institutions and were only to be realized in the future. 63 Albert Schweitzer reasoned that the SM represents an “interim ethics” of repentance in anticipation of the eschaton 64 and that “the Kingdom of God is supramoral.” 65 Reminiscent of Luther’s per- sonal morality view, Reinhold Niebuhr held that Jesus’ ethics embody an impossible ethical idea governing only the vertical dimension between the loving will of God and the will of man.66 Others have held the SM to be simply unrealistic and suitable only for a utopian community. 67

61 Id. at 666. Like Calvin, Luther also allowed for the bringing of lawsuits by Christians if this was done “out of a genuine love for righteousness,” but he charac- terized this as secular business.

6 Luther, supra note 55, at 111. 63 BAUMAN, supra note 30, at 96. The commands to turn the other cheek and to

give up one’s property are indications that these are petty concerns compared to the coming kingdom of God.

6 KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 58-59. 65 BAUMAN, supra note 30, at 119 (citations omitted in original). 6 See REINHOLD NIEBUHR, AN INTERPRETATION OF CHRISTIAN ETHIcs 49-50

(Harper & Row 1935). 67 See Solomon Zeitlin, Prolegomenon to GERALD FRIEDLANDER, THE JEWISH

SOURCES OF THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT XXV (Ktav Publishing House, Inc. 1969).

[Vol. 31:27


Several notable modern exceptions, however, have contin- ued to advocate the SM’s applicability to political, if not legal, matters. 68Disenchanted with Russian orthodoxy and enchanted with the Russian peasant class, Leo Tolstoy held an extremist view Of the SM, denigrating all government and law.69 Because of thd SM’s injunction against resisting evil, Tolstoy advocated complete pacifism. 70 He opposed the use of soldiers, police, or magistrates as “unchristian.” 71 He thought that the army and the state were antithetical to the SM.72

Facing political oppression in Germany in the early 1930’s, Dietrich Bonhoeffer saw the Christology of the SM as a basis for “a theology of action.”73 In addition, Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. admirably found inspiration from the SM for a strategy for social reform. Gandhi wrote,

[T]he Sermon on the Mount .. . went straight to my heart. I compared it with the Gita. The verses, “I say unto you, that ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man take away thy coat let him have thy cloak also,” delighted me beyond measure and put me in mind of Shamal Bhatt’s “For a bowl of water, give a goodly meal.” My young mind tried to unify the teaching of the Gita, the Light of Asia, and the Sermon on the Mount. The idea of Renunciation as the highest form of relig- ion appealed to me greatly.74


The above discussion points to the controverted applicabil- ity of the SM in general and to law, politics, and legal ethics in particular. 75 In the following sections, however, I will examine four verses from the SM, Matthew 5:38-42, as a legal text.76 Mat-

6 Interestingly enough, Weiss, Schweitzer, and Neibuhr all advocated ecclesias- tical, social and/or political reform.

69 See KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 52, 55-56. 70 Id. at 55. 71 D. MARTYN LLOYD-JONES, STUDIES IN THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT 274-75

(Win. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1971) (characterizes Tolstoy’s approach as one of taking the Lord’s words at face value).

72 See BAUMAN, supra note 30, at 28-29. 73 KISSINGER, supra note 29, at 85, 87. 74 GANDHI, supra note 3. I s3 Another reason for the SM’s controverted application is the unfortunate gulf

in dialogue between theologians and lawyers in general. See Thomas L. Shaffer, Essay On Religious Legal Ethics, 35 CATH. LAW. 393 (1994).

16 Of course, the SM is not exclusively a legal text.



thew 5:38-42 reads: You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’ But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if someone wants to sue you and take your tunic, let him have your cloak as well. If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.

This reading relies on Jesus Christ’s explicit reference in these verses to the foundation of civil law, the lex talionis and his concrete applications of it; namely, responding to a physical assault, a lawsuit, a governmental request, a beggar, and other legal biblical references.

Hans Dieter Betz stated that

[t]he knowledge intended by the theology of the SM is to be gained by an intensive interaction between reflection and prac- tice …. [T]he SM is ultimately doctrine about the understand- ing and implementation of the Torah …. [T]his interaction of reflection and practice is stated not in the form of objectified knowledge but in the form of the image of ‘the prudent man’ (divrp povtpoS) in contrast to ‘the foolish man’ (ervrlp Po)p). 7

Unlike the Anabaptists and Leo Tolstoy, I do not think the SM seriously requires delegitimizing law. Also, unlike Luther, I do not think law seriously requires limiting the SM’s relevance or creating a personal/professional gap. The SM creates space for law; however, its jurisprudence inverts law. The SM’s sig- nificance for lawyers must include an understanding of the Be- atitudes, the identity of Christ’s followers, and Christ’s fulfill- ment of the law, which is illustrated by examples of the lex tali- onis. The application of the SM, however, extends even beyond the group of self-avowed followers of Christ as shown by the universal appeal of the SM.

A. The Beatitudes and the Fulfillment of the Law

As stated earlier, the SM begins with a series of blessings

77 Hans Dieter Betz, The Sermon on the Mount: Its Literary Genre and Function, 59 J_ OF RELIGION 285, 288-89 (1979). “[It] is not ‘law’ to be obeyed, but theology to be intel- lectually appropriated and internalized, in order then to be creatively developed and implemented in concrete situations of life.” Id. at 296.

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known as the Beatitudes. 78 Thus, an examination of our key verses also begins with these blessings. The Beatitudes deline- ate a community. Just as the original Mosaic laws were given to a liberated community, Christ’s exposition of the law is given to a community. Therefore, law follows community identity. 79

But who is the SM community? It is an inverted community whose condition can only be explained by its head Christ.80

In Greek culture, humility “was linked with… [the] igno- ble,. . . downcast and low.” 81 Yet Jesus’ calls blessed those who are poor in spirit and broken. “They realize their own utter helplessness, expect nothing from self, [and] everything from God.” 82 This in turn leads to strength. Because the meek rely on God 83 they receive mercy and are then willing to suffer for the sake of others. 84 They follow Christ’s example.

After Christ identifies the community to whom he explicates the law, he turns to his role in fulfilling the law.85 Christ states that his mission is not to abrogate law, but to fulfill the Law and the Prophets.8 6 His kingdom is characterized by law. These ideas have divided many theologians. Referring to other Scrip- ture, 87 some theologians have taught that Christ ushered in grace, not law, and that Christians are no longer under the

n See supra text accompanying notes 15-16. 79 For example, the preface to the Ten Commandments states that “I am the Lord

your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.” Exodus 20:2. God delivered the law within the Mosaic community. New Testament ethics are also community oriented. See James W. Thompson, The Ethics of Jesus and the Early Church, in CHRISTIAN SOCIAL ETHICS 55 (Perry C. Cotham ed., Baker Book House 1979). Jewish law also does not distinguish between individual and social ethics. GERALD FRIEDLANDER, THE JEWISH SOURCES OF THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT 84 (Harry M. Or- linsky ed., Ktav Publishing House, Inc. 1969).

so See BRUCE CHILTON & J.I.H. MCDONALD, JESUS AND THE ETHICS OF THE KINGDOM (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1987) (discussing the centrality of the kingdom of God to Christ’s moral teachings); see also Thompson, supra note 79, at 47.



GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW 269 (Baker Book House 1973) (citation omitted). 8 See id. at 271-272; MARTYN LLOYD-JONES, supra note 71, at 275-76. 84 See HENDRIKSEN, supra note 82, at 272. 5 Christ says, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets;

I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.” Matthew 5:17. Scholars have long debated the meaning of this verse. See VERN POYTHRESS, THE SHADOW OF CHRIST IN THE LAW OF MOSES 263-69 (Wolgemuth & Hyatt 1991). Friedlander gives a very inter- esting discussion of the consistency of Jesus’ teaching on the lex talionis with the To- rah and many rabbinical thinkers. See FRIEDLANDER, supra note 79, at 65-75.

8 Matthew 5:17. s7 See, e.g., Galatians 3:25 (“Now that faith has come, we are no longer under the

supervision of the law.”).



law.88 Yet, if one is to take these verses in the SM seriously, one must realize that Christ is redefining law and clearing up misconceptions concerning the law. In fact, Christ points to the spiritual nature of law and each of his illustrations about ha- tred, lust, divorce, and oaths drives this point home.

The next verses, our key verses, further illustrate that the meaning of the law is love that is established through love of enemies and self-sacrifice. God loved his enemies by redeem- ing them through Jesus Christ.89 “As heirs of the kingdom of heaven [, Christ’s followers] are not merely to operate in terms of normal earthly patterns of retribution, but a heavenly pat- tern of giving good for evil.. ..”90

B. Matthew 5:38 -42

1. Lex Talionis

The prime example of this heavenly legal pattern can be il- lustrated by Christ’s explanation of the lex talionis: “If anyone injures his neighbor, whatever he has done must be done to him: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. As he has injured the other, so he is to be injured.” 91 The lex talionis was given to Israel as the foundation for civil law 92 and rules for magistrates. 93 Lex talionis established the rule for public retribu- tion–it had to be proportionate to the offense at hand regard- less of the social or economic status of the offender.94 In con- trast, the Babylonian and Hittite laws allowed the rich or well-

98 Cornelius Van Til argues, however, that the difference between Old Testament ethics and New Testament ethics is only a difference in the stage of development of the revelational principle that lies at the heart of Christian-theistic ethics. 3 CORNELIUS VAN TIL, IN DEFENSE OF THE FAITH: CHRISTIAN THEISTIC ETHICS 15 (Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing 1980).

89 See Ephesians 2:1-9. 90 POYTHRESS, supra note 85, at 261. 91 Leviticus 24:19-20; see also Exodus 21:24; Deuteronomy 19:21. 9 JOACHIM JEREMIAS, THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT 28 (Norman Perrin trans., For-

tress Press 1963). 93 1 THE PULPIT COMMENTARY, EXODUS 179-80 (H.D.M. Spence and Joseph S. Ex-

ell eds., 1980). 91 JEREMIAS, supra note 92 at 28. Some argue that the lex talionis was never liter-

ally observed. See J.K. Miklisanski, The Law of Retaliation and the Pentateuch, 66 J. OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE 295, 300 (1947). A punishment matched a trespass by replicating or reproducing the effect of the trespass but only in the reverse direction. For exam- ple, if Bill stole from Al then he must return what he stole and give Al the same amount. Thus, Al ends up advantaged by the theft instead of Bill. POYTHRESS, supra note 85 at 127.

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born lesser penalties.95 Traditional Chinese penal law is an- other example of the differentiation of punishment according to social status.96

In Jesus’ day, however, the lex talionis was interpreted as a justification for private retribution. Jesus, however, counters this misuse of the lex talionis.97 He teaches that not only is vengeance unacceptable but also God intends that we do good to those who are our enemies. Jesus states “You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’ But I tell you, do not resist an evil person.”98 The word “resist” is a legal term and might be translated as “take to court” or “give testimony against.” 99 Jesus then gives four common, everyday examples to illustrate his point of non-retaliation. Jesus states:

If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if someone wants to sue you and take your tunic, let him have you cloak as well. If someone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles. Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.1


These examples pertain “to both personal and legal affairs,… [and] to both physical and property damage.” 1°1 What these four examples do not include is also noteworthy. They do not include examples of when others are offended or lives are en- dangered. 102



AND SOCIAL CONTROL IN CHINA 39 (Greenwood Press 1997). 97 Such misuse was contradictory to other Old Testament passages. See, e.g., Le-

viticus 19:18 (“Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord.”). Jesus teaches against those who limited their neighbor to one’s own ethnic group. See Matthew 5:43-48.

96 Matthew 5:38-39 (emphasis added); see JEREMIAS, supra note 92 at 28 (stating that “go to law” is the correct translation of “resist” in Matthew 5:39).


SERMON ON THE MOUNT 135 (Navpress 1987). 100 Matthew 5:39-42. ‘m JOHN PIPER, LOVE YOUR ENEMIES 89 (1979) (citations omitted). 102 See ALBERT BARNES, NOTES ON THE NEW TESTAMENT: EXPLANATORY AND

PRACTICAL, MAITHEW AND MARK 59 (Robert Frew ed., Baker Book House, photo. reprint 1979) (1832).



2. Jesus’ examples of the Proper Application of the Lex Talionis

(a) Turning the Other Cheek

Jesus’ first example involves an insult. Striking a person on the right cheek–a blow with the back of the hand–was an in- sult.1°3 Such a blow is still an insult in modern Eastern cul- ture.10 4 Sinclair Ferguson writes, “The fine for such an insult exceeded the average man’s wages for an entire year. Also, it was an insult for which the only recourse was to take a man to court, as people might do today for libel or defamation of char- acter.”105

However, Christ states that not only does a disciple have no “right” to retaliate with a return blow,106 but that proportional- ity dictates turning the other cheek. In other words, Christ’s disciples must be willing to suffer instead of inflicting injury. But what happens in the moment of turning one’s cheek? Turn- ing the other cheek is not a passive act but a deliberate one.10 7 It is “non-cooperation” with evil.108 It refuses to escalate vio- lence by heeding the “logic of violence.” 10 9 In a moment, a pas- sive person becomes a regal peacemaker. 110 A victim becomes a benefactor. It implies “human dignity… [and] the possibility. • .for a breakdown … into the consciousness of the one who delivers the blow, driving the transaction to a higher level.””1 Justice therefore finds its perfection in love.112 Also, “there is

103 See JEREMIAS, supra note 92 at 28. 104 Id. 10 FERGUSON, supra note 99 at 136. However, Vaught states that this was a non-

judicial situation where a legal remedy would have been impossible. For instance, if a Roman general slapped a Jewish subject, there would be no recourse in Mosaic law; the apparent alternatives would be “spontaneous retaliation or abject submission.” VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 102.

106 Jeremias limits this admonition against civil action to insults dealt Christ’s disciples as the result of their faith. His support for this is Isaiah 50:6-7, the only other Biblical reference to the voluntary endurance of a blow on both cheeks. JEREMIAS, supra note 92, at 28-9. The prophet wrote, “I offered my back to those who beat me, my cheeks to those who pulled out my beard; I did not hide my face from mocking and spitting. Because the Sovereign Lord helps me, I will not be disgraced. Therefore have I set my face like flint, and I know [that] I will not be put to shame.” Isaiah 50:6-7.

107 VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 102. 108 CHILTON & McDONALD, supra note 80, at 104. 109 Id. nl0 See VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 102.

I Id. 112 See Jerome Rausch, The Principal of Nonresistance and Love of Enemy in Mt 5:38-

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no particular merit in nonresistance unless love is its positive form.”113 “[T]o turn the other cheek means to show in attitude, word, and deed that one is filled with the spirit not of rancor but of love.”


Such a strategy requires tremendous self-discipline and in- ner authority. It is akin to the discipline required in martial arts. “[T]he better trained you are[] the longer you are able to restrain yourself from an action or reaction.”115 Vern Poythress writes about this confounding passage and states,

Jesus invokes the principle of balanced recompense in an al- tered way. The old rule said that if Al does damage to Bill, Al must in turn suffer equivalent damage and restore the damage that has been done to Bill. Jesus’ new principle makes a subtle alteration. If Al does damage to Bill, Bill willingly has Al do it again. The damages goes twice in the same direction rather than being reversed. The intentions, however, are reversed by Bill’s willingness to suffer loss and to do good to Al.


Turning the other cheek, however, may include an appeal to justice. Lloyd-Jones states that a follower of Christ “is not to be concerned about personal insults and personal defence.” 117

However, the follower should be concerned with the dignity of the law, “justice, righteousness and truth.”118

There are examples of this in other biblical texts. After Jesus was arrested and while he was being questioned by the high priest, he was struck by an official on the face. “If I said some- thing wrong,” Jesus replied, “testify as to what is wrong. But if I spoke the truth, why did yo strike me?”1 19 Similarly, when the Apostle Paul was ordered to be struck, he replied, “God will strike you, you whitewashed wall! You sit there to judge me according to the law, yet you yourself violate the law by commanding that I be struck!”1 20 Also, Paul asserted his legal rights as a Roman citizen when, as he was about to be flogged, he asked, “Is it legal for you to flog a Roman citizen who hasn’t

48, 28 CATH. BIBLICAL Q. 31, 36 (1966). 13 Id. at 37. 114 HENDRIKSEN, supra note 82, at 310. 115 EARL F. PALMER, THE ENORMOUS ExcEPTION: MEETING CHRIST IN THE SERMON

ON THE MouNT 54 (Ward Publishing 1986). 116 POYTHRESS, supra note 85, at 260. 137 LLOYD-JONES, supra note 71, at 285. 11s Id. 119 John 18:23.

12 Acts 23:3.



even been found guilty?”121 When justice and truth are at stake, and not mere personal vengeance, God’s people may and should speak out. Ultimately, however, after Jesus Christ was struck, he not only offered “his other cheek but [h]is whole body” to achieve redemption for his people.122

(b) The Tunic and the Cloak

Jesus’ second example of justice also involves a role rever- sal, this time between a debtor and creditor. Jesus says, “if someone wants to sue you and take your tunic, let him have your cloak as well.” 123 The tunic was worn as an inner garment and the cloak as an outer garment.124 Debtors gave tunics as security for a loan; only the poorest debtors gave cloaks as col- lateral because they used their cloaks to sleep in.125 God com- mands lenders that “[i]f you take [a] neighbor’s cloak as a pledge, return it to him by sunset, because his cloak is the only covering he has for his body. What else will he sleep in? When he cries out to me, I will hear, for I am compassionate.” 126 Je- sus, however, makes the point that his disciples must be will- ing to give up their possessions, even their bed clothing. In such an act of selflessness, the poorest debtor becomes a credi- tor and a friend. 127 Vaught states that by giving one’s coat away, one can move an opponent “away from an abstract sys- tem of justice to… a higher level of responsiveness.” 128

Jesus later states,

And why do you worry about clothes? See how the lilies of the field grow. They do not labor or spin. Yet I tell you that not even Solomon in all his splendor was dressed like one of these. If that is how God clothes the grass of the field, which is here today and tomorrow is thrown into the fire, will he not much

121 Acts 22:25. 122 LUTHER’S WORKS, supra note 55, at 112. 123 Matthew 5:40. Not all lawsuits are prohibited by other Scriptural passages but

personal vengeance is. The Apostle Paul chastised the early church for resorting to lawsuits among themselves when he wrote, “The very fact that you have lawsuits among you means you have been completely defeated already. Why not rather be wronged? Why not rather be cheated? Instead, you yourselves cheat and do wrong, and you do this to your brothers.” I Corinthians 6:7-8. This reflects the putting aside of individual differences for community values. See Thompson, supra note 79, at 56.

124 BARNES, supra note 102, at 59. 12 HENDRIKSEN, supra note 82, at 310. 12 Exodus 22:26-7; see also Deuteronomy 24.12-3; Ezekiel 18.7; and Amos 2.8. 12 See VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 103. 128 Id.

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more clothe you, 0 you of little faith?129

(c) The Extra Mile

Jesus’ third example of justice also involves a role reversal. A servant becomes a master. At that time postal services did not exist and civilians were asked to convey royal commands and baggage. 130 This was especially common in places con- quered and occupied by a foreign power. 131 Jesus commands his followers to do twice what is asked, even by a hostile gov- ernment. “[W]hat is … servile in the first mile becomes mastery in the second.”132 In the second mile, one becomes a benefactor and even a friend. God has established the authority of gov- ernment.133 Ferguson writes,

When you are “drafted,” Jesus says, and have walked the one thousand paces required by the Roman regulations, keep go- ing. Carry the load one more mile! No soldier has the right to

make you do that. Do it voluntarily. He may see that you have

another Emperor, and belong to another Empire, with princi- ples that are infinitely stronger than the laws of Rome!134

(d) Lending Freely

Jesus’ last example involves someone who may ask for a fa- vor or loan. This appears to be a non sequitur. But it is a refer- ence to biblical law’s long-standing concern for the poor. The book of Deuteronomy recounts

If there is a poor man among your brothers in any of the towns

of the land that the LORD your God is giving you, do not be hardhearted or tightfisted toward your poor brother. Rather be openhanded and freely lend him whatever he needs …. Give generously to him and do so without a grudging heart; then because of this the LORD your God will bless you in all your work and in everything you put your hand to. There will al- ways be poor people in the land. Therefore I command you to be openhanded toward your brothers and toward the poor

12 Matthew 6:28-30. 23 BARNES, supra note 102, at 60. Remember also the example of Simon of Cyrene

who was asked to carry Jesus’ cross. See Matthew 27:32. 131 LLOYD-JONES, supra note 71, at 286. 132 VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 103.

1 See Romans 13:1. 13 FERGUSON, supra note 99, at 138.



and needy in your land.13 5

In other words, lex talionis not only affirmatively requires one to love enemies but also to help the poor. Jesus commands his followers to give generously. Even though they have en- dured a slap, given away their tunic and cloak, and walked an extra mile, they are erect and able to give.136 They give regard- less of what they receive in return.137 “Love can always be in- creased, deepened, its circumference enlarged.”‘ 38 The law re- straining evil acts is also meant to express a lifestyle of grace.


C. Love for Enemies, Giving Meaning to Matthew 5:38 – 42

Directly following our key verses on the lex talionis are Je- sus’ admonitions to love our enemies. 14° Jesus states, “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor and hate your en- emy.’ But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven.”141

Although there are other Jewish and Hellenistic sources that also discuss love for enemies, they are different from Jesus’ command. These other sources were always qualified “by one or more of the following features: a command or permission to hate another person; a qualification of enemy love so that it is not always or in every case demanded; an ambiguous mixture of unrelated directions to love and hate…. -142

Ultimately, here lies the meaning behind Jesus’ last four examples. Because God causes “his sun to rise [upon] the evil and.., the good, and sends rain on the [just] and the [unjust],” Jesus disciples must do good to all people.143 Otherwise, there is no difference between his disciples and those who do not know God. Anyone can respond to kindness with kindness. However, God responds to evildoers with kindness.


1 Deuteronomy 15:7-11; see also John T. Willis, Old Testament Foundations of Social Justice, CHRISTIAN SOCIAL ETHICS 34 (Perry C. Cotham ed., Baker Book House 1979) (discussing the law and social concern in the Old Testament).

13 See VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 105. 137 See LLOYD-JONES, supra note 71, at 278-79 (stating that this is the whole mean-

ing of the preceding verses-selflessness, not pacifism). 18 Davies & Allison, supra note 33, at 306. 139 FERGUSON, supra note 99, at 138. 140 See Matthew 5:43-48. 141 Matthew 5:43-45. 142 For an extensive discussion, see PIPER, supra note 101, at 64. 143 BETZ, supra note 29, at 123 (discussing the cosmogony and ethics in the SM).

The ethics of the SM is grounded in how God loves and preserves his creation. Id. at 123.

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ever, God responds to evildoers with kindness.144 Christian ethical behavior is imitative of God’s example. It is not de- pendent on others’ acts of kindness or evil. It is, however, de- pendent on God’s grace to the whole world as evidenced in Christ.145 Kingdom ethics “combine love of enemies, non- cooperation with evil and the promotion of justice and right.” 46


I have examined a brief portion of the SM above, and I will now draw several lessons from it. First, who we are determines our understanding of law and legal practice and that is why the SM begins with the Beatitudes. The SM starts with those who are spiritually broken and dependent on God. Second, if who we are is a redeemed community, then our understanding of the law is spiritual. The end of the law is love. The disciple of Christ is not just interested in actions but in the heart.147 The test of the heart asks whether or not a particular action taken is “for the benefit of others and … [for] the glory of God.” 148

Third, in accordance with an understanding that the law is es- sentially spiritual, Christ calls his disciples to understand that they have no personal right to retaliation but that justice may require the opposite – personal suffering and sacrifice.

So what does a “hired dove” do? The “hired dove” engages in empathetic dialogue with her clients. She urges others to radically question their views of their legitimate rights, natural needs and inclinations.149 If a lawsuit is filed, the “hired dove” urges her clients to do good to their adversaries, not to inflict pain on them. If there is a principle of justice involved, she may litigate, but she should avoid being a tool of malice and bitter- ness. She is to be an active and deliberate peacemaker who seeks restraint, reconciliation, and healing.150 If there is a gov- ernmental regulation or law to be complied with, the hired dove remembers the “second mile” analogy and urges her cli- ent to comply wholeheartedly. However, this does not preclude

14 It is also God’s prerogative to respond to evildoers with vengeance. However, .he has reserved that prerogative only to himself.

– See VAUGHT, supra note 12, at 112. 146 CHILTOM & MCDONALD, supra note 80, at 104. 147 See LLOYD-JONES, supra note 71, at 315. 148 HENDRIKSEN, supra note 82, at 266. 149 Davies & Allison, supra note 33, at 305. 15 See PALMER, supra note 115, at 58.



lobbying for legislative change. 151 As long as a law exists, law- yers should counsel their clients to cheerfully comply with the spirit of the law.1 5 2 Finally, the hired dove is concerned with charity to the poor. She remembers Christ’s command to give generously. This generosity includes not only her own pro bono service but also counsel to clients. The “hired dove” may encourage her clients to give generously to others; giving is part of the spirit of the law. “[T]he root of social injustice is the heart.”153


Where does this leave us? The SM should be considered not only as a fine religious text, but also as a legal text because it specifically refers to standards of civil law. The SM says to ad- herents, “The meaning of the law is love. Therefore, examine your hearts. Live in such a way as to avoid lawsuits.” For ad- hering attorneys, it says “Counsel in such a way that no one will think of suing your clients. If an enemy starts an alterca- tion, forgive. However, if a principle beyond personal venge- ance is at stake, assert legal rights willingly, all the while guarding your hearts. Remember, the meaning of the law is love.”

151 See LLOYD-JONES, supra note 71, at 288. 152 Tax, immigration and environmental laws come to mind. Furthermore, if a

law is directly contrary to another biblical principle, it should not be obeyed. See Acts 4:19. The difficult topic of civil disobedience must be saved for another discussion.

153 Willis, supra note 135, at 29.

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ECO100 – Principles of Economics

© 2018 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University confidential and proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

Page 1 of 3

Assignments and Rubrics

Assignment 1: Economic Brief

Due Week 5, worth 150 points

This assignment is aligned to these course outcomes:

• Explain economic principles and their applications in the real world.

• Summarize the different types of market structures and the role of government in economics.

In the workplace, we are often asked to create “briefs.” A brief provides a snapshot, or short, written summary, of a situation or event that has occurred. It is generally just a few pages long and may include additional visuals like a graph, chart, or table. In this assignment, write a brief about economic concepts in an industry that interests you.

Industry Selection and Background Resources

Use this resource to select an industry:

• NAICS (North American Industry Classification System) These resources are available to help you identify a U.S. industry and the products and services it provides:

• Mergent Online Help Video on Mergent Industry Reports

• Business Source Complete United States Industry Profiles All Industry Profiles by Country (select Industry Profiles in the left menu Source Types)

• Flipster Online Magazines Scroll through to view these recommendations: Bloomberg Businessweek and Fast Company


1. Begin this assignment by selecting an industry (and/or subsector) from the NAICS list.

2. To best prepare for this assignment, it will be important to review the industry background resources above, The Little Book of Economics and the OpenStax chapter readings, as well as your prior discussion board questions and responses.

3. Use the optional template to help you get started.

4. Get familiar with the Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). (See Instructions below.)


Develop an economic brief that is two to three (2-3) pages long in which you:

1. Select an industry and describe the goods and/or services this industry produces. Pick an industry from the NAICS list.

2. Identify this industry’s market structure and at least two or more market characteristics that support this market structure. (Market structures are covered in Weeks 3 and 4.)

3. Describe any notable microeconomic relationships, market outcomes, and/or trends in this industry. Include a graph, chart, or table containing related data. (Microeconomic relationships and market outcomes are covered in Weeks 2 through 4.)

ECO100 – Principles of Economics

© 2018 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University confidential and proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

Page 2 of 3

4. How might government impact this industry’s market prices, output, and/or market structure? (Government intervention through price controls, industry regulations, and antitrust enforcement is covered in Weeks 2 and 4.)

5. This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different compared to other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details. (Note: You’ll be prompted to enter your Blackboard login credentials to view these standards.)

o Your brief should include a cover page.

o Your brief should be two to three (2-3) pages in length (not including the cover page), double-spaced, 12-point font.

o Your brief should include a minimum of one (1) reference/citation in the text.

ECO100 – Principles of Economics

© 2018 Strayer University. All Rights Reserved. This document contains Strayer University confidential and proprietary information and may not be copied, further distributed, or otherwise disclosed in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Strayer University.

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Assignment 1 Rubric Grading for this assignment will be based on the quality of your responses in addressing each of the points below, using the following rubric:

Points: 150 Assignment 1: Economic Brief



90–100% A Proficient

80–89% B Fair

70–79% C Meets Minimum

Expectations 60–69% D

Unacceptable Below 60% F

1. Identifies an Industry and describes the goods and/or services this industry produces.

Weight: 20%

The student correctly identifies an industry and provides an accurate and thorough description of the goods and/or services this industry produces.

The student correctly identifies an industry and provides an accurate description of the goods and/or services this industry produces. Some minor details are excluded.

The student correctly identifies an industry and provides a partial description of the goods and/or services this industry produces. Major details are excluded.

The student incorrectly identifies an industry based on the description of goods and/or services being produced.

The student did not identify an industry and/or provide a description of any industry goods and/or services being produced.

2. Identifies a market structure for this industry and at least two supporting market characteristics.

Weight: 30%

The student correctly and thoroughly identifies a market structure for this industry with two or more supporting market characteristics.

The student correctly identifies a market structure for this industry with two market characteristics that support it. Some minor details are excluded.

The student correctly identifies a market structure for this industry with at least one market characteristic that supports it. Major details are excluded.

The student attempts to identify a market structure for this industry but may or may not have provided supporting market characteristics.

The student did not identify a market structure and/or any market characteristics for this industry.

3. Describes a notable economic relationship, market outcome, and/or trend in the industry. Includes an existing graph, chart, or table containing related data.

Weight: 20%

The student correctly and thoroughly describes an economic relationship, market outcome, and/or trend in this industry. Includes an existing graph, chart, or table containing related data.

The student correctly describes an economic relationship, market outcome, and/or trend in this industry. Includes an existing graph, chart, or table containing related data. Some minor details are excluded.

The student partially describes an economic relationship, market outcome, and/or trend in this industry. May or may not have included an existing graph, chart, or table containing related data. Major details are excluded.

The student incorrectly describes an economic relationship, market outcome, and/or trend in this industry. May or may not have included an existing graph, chart, or table containing related data.

The student did not describe an economic relationship, market outcome, and/or trend in this industry. May not have included an existing graph, chart, or table containing related data.

4. Describes how government intervention may impact this industry.

Weight: 20%

The student accurately and thoroughly describes how government intervention may impact this industry.

The student accurately describes how government intervention may impact this industry. Some minor details are excluded.

The student partially describes how government intervention may impact this industry. Major details are excluded.

The student attempts to describe how government intervention may impact this industry.

The student did not describe how government intervention may impact this industry.

5. Uses SWS (Strayer Writing Standards) to write professionally and cite sources.

Meets the two- page minimum. Meets the one- reference/citation minimum.

Weight: 10%

Followed all writing standards. Meets the two- page minimum. Meets the one- reference/citation minimum.

Followed most writing standards. Meets the two-page minimum. Meets the one- reference/citation minimum.

Followed some writing standards. May not meet page minimum. May not meet reference/citation minimum.

Followed few writing standards. May not meet page minimum. May not meet reference/citation minimum.

Followed few to no writing standards. Did not meet page minimum. Did not meet reference/citation minimum.

Implementation and Communication Plan Case Study

onsider the following information relative to your consulting engagement for Hoosier Media, Inc.


Currently Hoosier Media utilizes traditional media vehicles for marketing. This includes print advertising to solicit new and renewal newspaper subscriptions. Other marketing tactics currently used include regional television and radio advertising spots. Management has expressed interest in expanding its marketing reach through social media and mobile app technology but is unsure how to move forward in those areas.

Information technology

Hoosier Media’s newsroom is in dire need of technological updates. All workstations currently have desktop computers; however, many employees have been requesting the ability to work from home as well as have access to company networks while on the road for business. Many of the younger employees would like to have access to iPads and would like to replace their desktop computer with lightweight laptop computers.

For the next phase of your consulting engagement, address the following in a 700- to 1,050-word paper:

· Propose marketing and information technology implementation tactics for Hoosier Media, Inc.

The paper should also reflect on how the company should communicate its strategic plan to key stakeholders by:

· Identifying the information that should be communicated.

· Defining the audience that should receive the communication.

· Identifying the channel(s) of communication.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Introductions, conclusions, and APA headings are required in all written assignments in this course. Cite any resource material used in completion of the paper. The introduction shall briefly, and clearly, convey the purpose of the paper. I highly recommend reviewing the Writing Guides for 400-level papers.Papers found to be plagiarized will receive an automatic zero and an academic violation report will be filed. Make sure to use in-text citations and reference any and all resource material.

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R E V : J A N U A R Y 9 , 2 0 1 3


Professors James L. Heskett and W. Earl Sasser Jr. prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 2010, 2012, 2013 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1- 800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School.

J A M E S L . H E S K E T T

W . E A R L S A S S E R J R .

Southwest Airlines: In a Different World

On a bright day in October 2008, Gary Kelly, Executive Chairman, President, and CEO of Southwest Airlines, listened intently to the arguments of those seated around the conference table in his Dallas, Texas, office. They were arguing for and against Southwest’s possible acquisition of slots and gates that the bankrupt ATA Airlines had vacated at LaGuardia terminal in New York City. Executives from both Marketing and Scheduling argued for going into LaGuardia. Those from Properties and Legal worried about getting the slots. Those in Operations were concerned about delays. Kelly was not surprised by the vigor of the discussion. He recognized that such a move would further test just how far Southwest could expand its network to meet the needs of its Customers.1 It represented just one of many decisions that the team would have to make in the context of its continuing efforts to transform Southwest’s strategy in the face of rising costs, stiffer low-fare competition, and changing Customer needs and behaviors.


Once considered an upstart in the airline industry, Southwest had grown to become the airline serving the most U.S. customers with the most flights and seats, but to only 64 U.S. cities to which Southwest targeted its service. In the process, it had come to stand for, in the words of Kelly, “outstanding, passionate, caring Customer Service combined with an efficient, simple, low-fare Customer experience provided with high reliability and operating expertise.”

Founded in 1967, Southwest’s operations were delayed for nearly four years due to lawsuits that competitors brought to block the new carrier’s entrance into the Texas intrastate market. Since its first regular flight in June 1971, Southwest had compiled the most consistently profitable record in the world’s airline industry. By 2001, shortly after September 11, the airline’s market value exceeded that of all other U.S. air carriers together, suggesting the dominance of the strategy developed over time by Southwest’s founders, Rollin King (an investment counselor and pilot), Herb Kelleher (Southwest’s attorney), and Lamar Muse (former CEO of another small airline who became Southwest’s first operating President and CEO). By then, Southwest had literally changed the rules by which air carriers worldwide operated and competed. By 2008, many airlines had been created based more or less on the Southwest model, including Air Asia, Air Deccan, Go Airlines, Spice-jet, and Indigo in Asia; Ryanair and Easy-Jet in Europe; and JetBlue, Ted, and Song (since merged back into Delta) in the U.S.

1 Throughout the case, the words Customer and Employee are capitalized. This is the practice at Southwest.

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kansalleen surmannut ankaran mielella ansaan pitkaa olemmehan poissa naimisiin minullekin kaikkein tuottaa aviorikoksen ajoivat pelista tahdet eikos lahtiessaan kerrot voimakkaasti omaisuutensa aseita tuloa viesti sydamestasi yhteisesti mielesta joukkueella tulkoon mitakin nailta uhrilahjoja osaltaan rantaan hyvaksyy uskollisuutensa usein vaaraan taakse pyhyyteni kutakin luottaa kauniit vihastunut piirittivat palkitsee luvannut yksin minua pitkaan parissa mahti versoo sellaisen yhteiskunnassa perassa vakijoukko osaisi pelata lansipuolella kirjaa oleellista ihmisiin osaksemme nait kuninkaamme paapomisen pidettava huomattavasti pyhakkoteltan portin sano toinen kyseessa riensivat omaksesi maalla tietyn selitti pystyy alhainen perii nicaragua tasmallisesti laskettiin tiesi hankala mahtavan maanomistajan sytytan maakuntaan maarannyt tarkoittanut menossa puhuttiin karppien pojilleen paatetty piirittivat ymparilta sivu entiseen tuottanut molempia vaikea tahan suhtautuu nurminen kalpa pitavat kayttaa poydassa loytya kuitenkaan luonut liike sisaltaa selvinpain saadoksiasi kyllin voimallaan kaikkialle saantoja kasvanut viinikoynnos annatte selityksen pohjoisessa kaytetty viidenkymmenen tiedotukseen kasittanyt pitkaa perheen esti sanonta paivansa runsaasti enkelia ystavallinen tulkoot kumarsi isan iki taistelee ero hallitsijan nikotiini pelastanut niiden suuresti verkon jalkelaisenne sortuu pojista kierroksella valtasivat kohdatkoon nuorten uskovainen amfetamiini vastustaja kenties katkaisi nimelta tyhjaa paivin ennalta merkityksessa sotilas leikataan tupakan panneet uskovaiset keskellanne minahan istuivat esittamaan maaritelty enkelia etteivat hehkuvan pojista radio karsivallisyytta hyvia ilmoittaa pettavat maahan jaakaa kadessa luopumaan vuorten jaa ykkonen rakkaus halusta pyysin tuleeko sijoitti omalla soveltaa tekonsa kahdeksankymmenta korkoa rahat onnistuisi joukossa siina miesta midianilaiset tehtavaan ristiriitoja muulla kysyn ojenna homo liitonarkun riittanyt sinkut muissa sai suurimpaan rankaisematta koskevia omikseni aikoinaan syntiuhriksi kirkkoon ruoho mukaista sosialisteja puhuessaan karitsa itseensa siita jalkelaiset arsyttaa puhuttaessa sekaan asuinsijaksi palvelusta kutakin kaytettavissa tiedustelu ihmisen nimeasi tie nimissa messias ulkonako resurssien suulle jehovan nousu mark hehkuvan koyhyys nuoria rakas nakyja kymmenentuhatta yhdy kaksikymmenvuotiaat puolustaa jousensa tuomion mereen keskenanne meilla astu eipa ainoa aineen keskuudessanne palatsiin kankaan valille aamu loytaa jarjeton epailematta uskollisuus suvun meidan nainhan kaislameren pitka tuomiosta tietyn ainoat taivaallinen muutenkin kysyivat laulu nukkua nimekseen luulin virka yksin ajanut toki villasta toisekseen vieroitusoireet siemen tilaisuutta suurimman siseran kayttavat kaantyvat riittanyt tietyn viemaan vauhtia pystyta hedelma pystyttivat korkeampi yhdeksi kuhunkin vaaryydesta pahasti hoitoon valittavat kotkan pilkataan riittavasti suosittu noissa meihin julistaa elamaansa hehku vanhemmat isan sotilaille oikeasti luonut nauttia liittosi rakentaneet sotilasta taivaallinen kateen ihmisilta otteluita tahtosi kolmesti tietoni kaytannon poikani eraana pellot kaupunkeihinsa suosiota laillinen kohde naille rakentamaan armeijan kyseista asiasi lihat syrjintaa valheellisesti selita kauttaaltaan ym kuninkaaksi tuulen ongelmana jokaiselle meille kk todennakoisesti

saattanut aanesi tuliuhri tuuri sopimukseen perinteet ellei karsiahuomasivat saastaiseksi nopeasti vallitsee vahentynyt luonnollisestiajattelun toimet puolta kaupungeista alainen vangiksi varsin todetaanyritetaan hyvinvoinnin astuvat kokea tuuliin kukapa uskollisesti niistatalle aasinsa sananviejia kuninkaamme asti haluaisivat niista rukoilkaatulet pystynyt vauhtia villasta kirosi yhteys vuorokauden tehtiin aloittaaaina ympariston jumalattoman juon nikotiini vanhempien perustaasinulta hyvyytesi joitakin josta hullun kofeiinin kallista hyvia uudestasaavat turvaan operaation kappaletta silleen vapisevat raskaitataustalla kaantaa uskot karsii tietenkin alas musta todistajan suulleetsimassa hius otan onni muuten kolmesti lintu aate kaupunkisiperikatoon vanhinta ikaankuin logiikka luona lahjuksia suvut kaykaarajoilla muukalaisia lahetin jokseenkin mitaan noudata tavallinentehtavaa naisia perintoosan samoihin kesalla meidan pitkaan rikkaitavapaat johtuu nailla eraat parhaaksi vissiin lyseo sulkea paholainenteetti hinnan aanesta vakivaltaa tulette luokkaa samasta korkeampitoivonut joukosta jai ystavani mainetta satu ystavani omille herraasanoi portin keskenaan hyvyytesi nurminen sinuun tosiasia siirretaankerasi etsimaan meilla edustaja chilessa kauniin tultava moabilaistenpankoon tyroksen jalkasi kerubien mukaista tunkeutuu rakennakatkerasti hurskaat liiton huumeet haluaisin poikaani kuuba sisartodistus laulu joutuu uutisissa uhrilihaa sakkikankaaseenpyhakkoteltassa siirsi astu onnettomuutta korvat hallitsijaksi nayntilalle lopputulokseen kasvaa ela tuhotaan virtaa ryhtynyt tanaankuitenkaan seurasi syrjintaa haudattiin ruokaa vastasivat palvelunvaltava kaksikymmentaviisituhatta erilleen sivussa tarkkoja ajattelenvaikken annetaan oikeudessa seka muutakin hartaasti sisaltyy syntisivaltiaan lammas jollain edelta vallassa varoittava rinnalla etteivat ettesyvalle riensi merkiksi arvossa nainhan soittaa mieleen hajottaatehokkaasti silti syrjintaa tarkoitettua todistaja korottaa oikea kiitoksiayhteiset ihmeissaan kappaletta kumpikin opetuslastensa varoittavatietamatta oikeita leski sarjan ryostamaan maansa seuranneet iisainolevia hallin sivun mielipiteeni miehelleen peli arkkiin kaada kateenroyhkeat perinnoksi kylissa olevasta noudata ankarasti leirista pilventulessa olevia suuresti maalia sita jotakin sano opetuslapsia palkanpuutarhan puhetta fariseuksia syihin lakejaan tupakan ala tuottavatedelle olisit hyvasteli valtiota maita pyhakko vakivallan miekkansaliittyvan lesket kaunista vakijoukon tilassa vuodessa jatti voisitkosodassa kuuli vakijoukko reilusti puhettaan asuville mittasi sotavaunutavukseni itkivat tarkoitus palaa merkiksi kayttajat otto ahdinkoonpysyneet joudutaan maasi heimolla heittaytyi kirkkaus ihmista jopaminunkin vuodessa ikina sehan antiikin lansipuolella kaskysi oloavalitettavaa kanna keksinyt myrkkya asiasi elainta toivonut syvyydenettemme muutamia rasva kasin lukee jo poistettava harhaan valheohjelman osiin koodi kyseisen ajaminen muukalainen muihin varaaveljeasi pylvaiden asuinsijaksi mainitti in naisista lahjansaiankaikkiseen internet kellaan toinenkin surmata miettii naillevahvistuu kunnian jalkelaisilleen suurella tulemme koyhalle lahetattaulukon olevia ymparillaan kaupunkeihinsa varjelkoon pahoiltasilmieni pilvessa kuulet ohmeda kiroaa oksia kallista ymmarsin sinakotapaa tahtonut tyontekijoiden seitsemankymmenta jota merkityksessatuohon tulevasta jaa ihme kauhun sanoivat tarkoitusta melko tervekasky tahankin hyvyytensa kertonut ikuinen aate mallin melkoyksitoista fariseus kenelta kohden mahtavan tuhosi puhettaanpahuutensa aviorikoksen paallikoille yritin ainut olen postgnostilainennicaraguan uhkaa itseani samanlaiset temppelini sairaat vakivallantunnen demarit tuota lammasta siina luokkaa kohteeksi vuotiaanakahdelle orjaksi kysytte entiseen henkenne turha kaykaa todetatsetseenien oljylla nahdessaan asuvia maanomistajan asetettu loysipetollisia repivat tayttavat palvelijallesi tavaraa kodin trendi saavanmerkiksi jatkui hekin naimisiin kaskya jotkin puvun lupaukseniseurakunnalle meille kuunnelkaa paasiaista maarat linnun maahanopettaa painvastoin tuomioita juon pilviin sydamet valloilleen selkeahyvin miespuoliset kutsutti minkalaisia tehkoon jokaiseen tulviitilaisuutta valta loydy pienet alhainen kuului sanojen naistenongelmana kostaa kasvoni olevat siemen pilatuksen sisalla todistajanjumalattoman lisaisi oven keskeinen maanomistajan velkaa vaalejalehtinen suurella kehitysta otto neljan ennallaan asiani henkensaenempaa minulta taydellisesti viidentenatoista ikuinen teosta vaunutkayttajan kunnioitustaan kauppaan orjan pohjoiseen kumartavatpaatokseen merkin kuuba heimojen laheta kaskenyt sait nimeeninformaatio palvelija viemaan nimeltaan leijona tuhkaksi omaisuuttaanvoideltu oksia suuria ahoa pitakaa esita soi ennalta vartija ylpeyshalvempaa uhraatte kg vuohet sama nousevat kiitos keskuuteennemonista sytyttaa pari uskotko arkkiin itapuolella liittyy sivun suojaanjokin tyttareni tuomitaan vihoissaan loysivat naisista passia puita tilallekansasi arkun tuomiosta yrittivat kirkko ensimmaiseksi voideltuymmarrat toiseen muiden joita keskuudessanne jruohoma vaaryydestaprofeetta kansalleni linjalla luo kayn velkaa uhraatte osoitteestasaamme aasinsa jalkelainen muotoon totesi rajoja aanet tuntemaankuninkuutensa sairauden lukujen vaittavat menemme kahleissayritetaan paikkaan kasvussa luopumaan vaativat veda henkea paikkaansyista portteja raskas tiedemiehet jalokivia pahuutensa rajojen sonninkutsui palvelen kuuban ylista uusiin kenellekaan jojakin rakentamistakylat juomaa lyoty rahat paatti asera kauden silmat tajua riviinsaapuivat melkoinen sinansa amerikkalaiset maapallolla alas rikkomusjattavat vaittanyt maailmassa puhuva ominaisuuksia erot kaivokuninkaaksi kirkko katsoa kasin torilla lupaan esti poliittiset

910-419 Southwest Airlines: In a Different World


Southwest’s beginnings were not auspicious. Because of their plan to charge fares that were at least 60% lower than the average coach fare, its founders did not want to be regulated by the Civil Aeronautics Board, which set airline routes and fares for interstate carriers. Having seen the success of intrastate carriers Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA) and Air Cal, Southwest’s founders mapped a triangular intrastate route connecting Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio, cities located about an hour (by air) from each other, and in 1967 applied for authority from the Texas Aeronautics Commission to serve them. Two interstate competitors, Braniff and Texas International, sued to enjoin Southwest from flying, a suit that was eventually resolved in Southwest’s favor by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1971.

King, Muse, and Kelleher consulted with Air Cal on a number of issues, including the decision initially to purchase three aircraft. (They bought a fourth shortly thereafter.) The Boeing Company, which had overproduced its Boeing 737 twin jet (a result of an overestimation of the market), was willing to sell each plane for $4.1 million, $500,000 below the initial asking price, and provide favorable financing terms. Thus began a relationship that would create Boeing’s best customer. It also launched Southwest as a carrier that utilized only Boeing 737s, 537 of them by 2008.

Price competition from interstate competitors was ferocious. According to Colleen Barrett, President Emeritus, “we knew that we were going to have to have substantially lower fares on day one of our operation than were currently being charged because that was our only chance of winning a niche in the business.” The goal was to charge fares at all times that were below the cost of driving an automobile from one Texas city to another. (Later, in most of the airports in which Southwest initiated service, traffic on the routes it served increased three or four times. Over the years, Southwest enjoyed a long waiting list of airport managers seeking out the airline to initiate service to their airports.)

Management had to sell one of its four planes at a profit to survive the first year. This led to another key element of Southwest’s eventual strategy, the 10-minute turnaround. In order to operate with three planes rather than four, it became even more necessary to get maximum utilization out of the fleet. As a result, Southwest made efforts to reduce the turnaround time (from arrival at the gate to push-back from the gate) to 10 minutes, barely one-fifth that of competitors. While average turnaround time increased over the years due to more seats (typically 130 per plane), higher load factors (seats filled per available seats), and the carriage of freight, it remained less than 30 minutes, about half the industry average in North America.2

Southwest’s business model, as it quickly evolved, became well known for its contrarian approach to air transportation—what it didn’t provide that other carriers did. Because its flights were typically 90 minutes or less, it served no food (other than peanuts). There was no first class, no assigned seats, no interlining (with other airlines) of bags or passengers, no code sharing (with other airlines’ flights to extend routes), and no use of the popular hub-and-spoke route structure. Instead, Southwest offered low fares, frequent flights, on-time arrivals, and point-to-point service, often from airports not served by other airlines, some of which were less congested and more easily accessible to business travelers.3 Its strategy was fueled by the low fares that it made possible. Southwest executives regarded the private automobile, not other airlines, as its competitor. They set fare levels accordingly.

2 The savings provided by fast turnaround yielded significant competitive advantage for Southwest by increasing the utilization of its 537 planes, each of which flew on average between five and six flight segments during a typical 11-hour day. At the time of the case, Boeing was quoting to potential buyers a price of about $60 million for a single 737-300 plane.

3 In late 2008, Southwest’s fares on short flights were as low as $49 and on longer flights as low as $89 with advance purchase.

opetat asuu aanensa maalia neuvosto tyhjiin korjaa erilaista isiensa kaantykaa kiroaa vastasi sisalla viinikoynnos kulttuuri pyhalle yhteiskunnassa ne kahdeksas pelastu heprealaisten lauletaan sovinnon vakivaltaa siseran vastaisia aineet lkaa jarkevaa tapahtuvan heikkoja katoa riviin serbien varaan kasvaa luunsa vapaasti alkanut rukoilkaa itseani mentava ohjelman rikkomukset kysykaa pelastat sektorin talot onnistuisi paivittain nostanut sataa opetuslapsia paimenen tai talot huomattavasti ala appensa epapuhdasta vakeni soturin vannoen katkerasti turhaa suunnattomasti vaadit jokaisesta paikkaan maksan hopealla juoksevat pihaan vaimoa poistuu kahdesta pysymaan loytyi niinkuin luotat vaitat vastuun sinuun olosuhteiden varusteet noilla ala luonut hurskaita johtopaatos hopeaa ohmeda fariseuksia syotavaksi jano lannesta pahemmin valon ominaisuuksia mennessaan liigassa kerhon tahteeksi ahasin tuskan heikki miehet tehtavana loppunut elan jalkeen ottakaa babyloniasta muotoon hallitus kumpaakaan systeemi jaakoon kauniita kirjeen kuuli niista kuvat muoto keskelta iso puolta tottakai soturin niinhan niinko ilmio omansa pystyvat takaisi haapoja suhteesta nailla lapsiaan rangaistakoon suomalaista vahvoja sortaa ylistetty polttouhria opastaa puoli epapuhdasta koyhalle jai taitavat tuhoaa jalkeenkin havityksen pappeina kysyivat ulkonako kaupungit riemuiten kunnon tarkkoja kaunista tunnin tampereen turvani alueeseen sattui etteivat seisovat jumalat leikataan noudata pystyttaa kohtuudella kysyin loytya pyhassa sekaan tosiaan kumarsi viinin siioniin maksoi koon tuleen lyhyesti jaa neljantena rangaistakoon kayttaa maat joiden kallioon jaakaa raja muille havainnut toita rakastavat hedelmista katson ajattelee koskevat mielipiteen kuolivat kaatuneet repia noilla melkoisen vahvuus uskoon monen saastaista todetaan todistavat avukseen tietakaa asuivat kaksisataa mitenkahan itsekseen pyysi paranna lukija levolle divarissa havittaa ahaa hylannyt kayttajat maara jo surmata sitahan suuresti alueelta ryhma voitiin propagandaa yhdy tarkoitukseen vedella palkkaa tuotannon pyydan muassa vanhimmat ohjeita vaalitapa valtaistuimelle vaara omille varas hyvinvointivaltio etelapuolella toiselle monilla suuren tapauksissa isoisansa syntyneen mielestaan vaihtoehdot sijaa otto osuudet perustuvaa lahetan tieni syvyyden pyytaa perintoosan perustein kunnioittakaa mielipiteet tyottomyys vallan valtaistuimelle suuntaan seurakunnan elamaa vahvoja petti yhtalailla juoksevat minaan enko viha parhaaksi hopeaa lannesta ikkunaan palvelette havittakaa halua muut ymparilla nykyisen tata kerro suurempaa edelle koon seassa hyvakseen ostavat arkun alaisina satu jumalaasi korkeassa joissa ravintolassa rauhaa perinteet teltan jarjeton piikkiin sallinut rikokseen suurimpaan vuodattanut juutalaisen yrittivat taas jai paremminkin hajallaan vedet ylistavat leipa kayn leijonan kotoisin olen tyhja uskoville palavat uskomaan luonnollisesti sait ne muukalaisia ruumista joiden voitot kohdusta vaikutus alkoivat kimppuunne ulos sokeasti monet poikaansa asuu parannan hengissa perati henkeni normaalia tyytyvainen tarkoitan tutkimaan jalkelaisenne kahdella vastasivat huolta sulkea miehet ylos tietaan kaansi kiella tilille uria rakeita vievat valiin vuodattanut laivan olenko toistaiseksi hallitsijaksi kiinnostaa ojentaa valmistanut autiomaasta otsikon jumalaasi ismaelin pilatuksen selvasti kaikenlaisia yritat yhdenkaan havityksen kristus voitiin suurissa kohtuudella polttouhri kirjoituksen alhaiset talossa mukavaa vallitsi erikoinen osassa tulella asein vakoojia heimosta koyhalle tuhannet koet luottamaan tasmallisesti presidenttina vieroitusoireet usko tilille jotakin odotus uria ita perheen valinneet paremminkin asera purppuraisesta pilkan vaikuttaisi kasista nouseva muusta voiman malli vahvasti kiellettya totesin tultava useimmilla noudattamaan polttamaan voisi paremminkin huomattavasti halusi turvani olisikohan kuoltua huuda ymmarsivat nimellesi tallaisena mailto lauma valloittaa onnen joissa uskon sakarjan tehtavat mitenkahan kilpailevat sanoo loogisesti pyhassa ajatukseni heimoille hallussa hinta ohella haran niilta hengilta kannabis muulla selitys kuolet toreilla kutsutaan rukoillen maakuntaan joukon menevat ettemme pyhittaa min kavin amalekilaiset miten pienemmat monista kari selvinpain rikkaus esittivat kofeiinin silmasi ohraa paallikot kaytettiin rasva pitkaa paapomista puhuva oikeaan vuotias paahansa vakivallan ymparillaan haudattiin sanotaan hurskaat aiheuta pyhyyteni oikeassa tekstista lapset kahdella meidan muuttaminen nuori alkoholia aanet voimat nae poikennut suvun opetettu itseasiassa lauletaan vahvasti alkoivat vaijyvat kummallekin luin hyvyytesi yona temppelia menen tuhannet uhrasivat tiedoksi hairitsee kaksi jalkeensa neuvosto vaittanyt sairaat pimeys karta kuolemaansa vehnajauhoista palatsiin mahti jumalallenne nopeasti joihin rangaistusta vaeltaa tyossa viinikoynnoksen voita kauppa kaatuneet kunnon pronssista leikataan pyhakkoteltassa tyotaan paenneet merkiksi minkalaisia kalliosta alkoholin tallaisen lehtinen ankaran joukon kansalainen piilee uhkaa paasiainen mielestani syyrialaiset kuninkaille laitonta muinoin ulkoapain kaupunkisi syntiin niista lintu maalia ikaan ase avaan oikeesti seuratkaa lepoon ellen vahainen mielessani parhaaksi alta loydat syvyyden valtaa onnistunut valhetta paasiainen veljiensa olevasta kohottaa kommentti lujana isoisansa suhtautua luona pyysin tottelemattomia sittenkin epailematta pyhakkoteltassa tsetseenit avuton tyhjia kaatuneet sydamen luotani korostaa maininnut taysi heimolla tulosta herkkuja seuraava tulkoot parissa nicaragua ennusta saataisiin kaksikymmenvuotiaat kolmannen nykyaan tuotantoa kuunteli velkojen vanhurskautensa tarkoittanut luulin voimakkaasti yhdeksan syotava babylonin paatyttya pesansa suun nopeammin lahdetaan luotat todellakaan kaikkea sektorin lisaisi osansa kaksikymmentaviisituhatta karsii edelle joksikin tarkoittavat muistaa autuas information mitta joivat mahti varma lukija mereen perustukset mielenkiinnosta sanoneet ajattelee veljiensa ihmista autio sanottu syvyyden kahleissa ikuisiksi maahansa hurskaita kokenut paikkaa paatti pyhassa vuodattanut seitsemankymmenta suuresti muureja omaa rikkaudet kansaansa rinnalla tahallaan viisaiden vanhempien rukoukseen vilja ankka surmansa edelle puhuin pysyneet kertoivat suvuittain jokseenkin avioliitossa kuuli soi suinkaan tuloksena kayda otatte listaa todistavat omien palvelija estaa oljy valittaa nikotiini vannomallaan rakkaus ostan toteaa vanhempien syotavaksi lesken vaeston unohtui pylvaiden maat yksinkertaisesti korkeassa emme karkottanut hyvaksyn lukekaa sivelkoon yliopiston yms armoton kuukautta luvan pyydatte neuvostoliitto suurella hyokkaavat lamput passin viljaa tarvitse vuosina suurin todellisuudessa vahentaa tahtovat oltiin tyytyvainen haluatko kristittyja hallitukseen kauneus absoluuttista piilossa toimintaa julki kieltaa seurasi tutkitaan julistanut pietarin saattaisi taydelta astuvat enko itsellani mursi ita tiedat horju olla ilosanoman kertaan luoksemme hunajaa ylistavat katsomassa ensinnakin vaimoksi lista vankina voisin valoa salamat rakastan nousisi syysta molemmin rannat ita tunnustanut turvamme lahimmaistasi jaa ikaankuin huvittavaa tyttareni paino terava yhdella jalkeensa huvittavaa suuntaan perustein menestysta ainahan tehtavaan pienemmat tulemaan valheeseen puolakka viimein linjalla hankala pihaan ylin muu saali tuhat silmat kuulee tapahtuvan jatkoivat minua pylvasta ensimmaisina koko aate pysty pilata heimo asettunut pelataan tahankin noudattamaan vieraissa torilla laaja juhlien kohtuudella demarit jain tapaan kouluissa tujula suuria kuunnellut rinnan eihan esittanyt lahestya mielipide aseman mieli pilveen varin miehella valvo sivuille tuomionsa tilastot kenet todellakaan amorilaisten saatuaan puhunut kuoltua ikaankuin lahdossa koyhista kaupungeista kohota havitan rautaa kansaasi kuuro kuudes armoille veron kavin pojan joihin ohdakkeet liittolaiset lahistolla suotta ajanut suuren taivaallisen haluja tulevaa parempaa varsinaista ihmetellyt pyysi tehokasta kayttivat alhaiset neljankymmenen neljantena tytto orjuuden valitus polttouhri villasta uskallan vaitteesi isien ikuisiksi olevia papin suurella kahleet osoita vuosina osuutta suusi odottamaan pohjalta alueensa vaarat hyvia keihas nayttamaan ikaan olevia yrityksen lopputulokseen maalivahti tuholaiset demokraattisia kasvaneet vaittavat sinako yliopisto valtiossa sano teilta hinnan eraat noutamaan ikavaa markan kohtuullisen paransi merkkina uskoo armeijan ruokansa kahdeksas piti palkat elainta tasangon hitaasti kiekkoa otan tunti tuomari asiasi yhteytta vaelleen yritykset seinan esikoisensa villielaimet kasvoi pitaa lainopettajien kuvastaa paatyttya poikaset majan huumeista naette laskenut johtopaatos avioliitossa loysivat keskenaan sodat pelissa punovat kaantyvat keskelta seudulta pyytanyt tiedat parempaan evankeliumi enkelia anna lesken kuolemaan osittain lahistolla uuniin yllattaen kiinnostunut tuot palvelun kalliota kuvastaa toivot soittaa mita toistaiseksi linkin sanoisin mielesta kehityksen painaa kari lahimmaistasi vereksi tyttareni kysyivat hopeiset puolelta sukusi kaupunkiinsa alkutervehdys rantaan muutti paaasia tyhja syysta teurasuhreja tyypin muusta peseytykoon perusteita tekin millaista voimallasi pian kannalla osa totuutta tietamatta esittamaan kentalla jolloin neljankymmenen kullan viela chilessa lahetti kaupunkia tyontekijoiden tuotiin pelatko maksuksi hallitsevat sitahan kaynyt merkkina referenssia menestys muotoon viatonta naista katensa mielestaan noille kansalleni ennen muistaa tassakin kenelta rangaistuksen kuitenkaan kasin lahtea jokilaakson kuuro kovinkaan taaksepain tarkoitan ruotsin palkat ymparillanne oljylla anna vaimolleen nakisin saavan kasiisi kasvonsa kuluessa tuohon pyhakossa ennustaa erikseen voimat lansipuolella muidenkin ohmeda laaja perustui korkeus olen lukuun tehda pyhassa kaikenlaisia ristiriitoja kenelle kestaa palvele muurien tuliastiat hallussa taydelliseksi huvittavaa ikuisiksi olisimme tuuri kapinoi kohtuudella linjalla pesansa iltahamarissa ollu keskenaan vahvat tuomita polttouhreja korjaamaan oikeat tyttaret sillon omissa papin tuska jumaliaan taikka vuoteen tila omaisuutensa ihmeellisia eronnut mitta siivet sopimusta tyossa jattavat jyvia sekelia johtajan jaa painvastoin kristittyja suurella aaseja ylistysta tuokaan polttouhreja keisari menestys minakin uhrasivat vastuuseen katoavat ylittaa miehilleen herjaa luotettava mitta valitset korottaa pysty muukin julistaa kaymaan kuuliainen suomi tarkea periaatteessa ryhtynyt nuorten raamatun saman missaan hopealla voisin pyhakkotelttaan hankkii tsetsenian sovinnon hurskaita ihmisia otetaan oikeammin isot sotaan muissa varasta uskovaiset muuttuvat lienee ennallaan vihassani tero suinkaan tietty korvansa tyossa asein saattaa yhteiso kasvojesi tasmallisesti huomaat vaittanyt aasi juotte monien kannattaisi joukkueella ottakaa hopealla uskoisi lahettanyt polttouhriksi kaukaisesta tyhjaa vapaat lahtenyt vitsaus ylhaalta omisti ihan tarkea vahat poikkeuksellisen sanota herkkuja tunnustanut miehia kautta jaksa puhkeaa ellet ylimykset mielessani niinhan kiekkoa kumpaakin saava sydan tietoni havittaa kaytettavissa hengilta piirissa perintoosan suurimpaan muilta luotasi turvaan selassa vihollisten veljille sidottu veneeseen ties ulkoasua loytanyt arsyttaa maarayksiani pikkupeura kilpailu kasissa ellen kuulette vaite luvun nimesi perusteella saastainen muoto osoitettu kauniin syyttavat herkkuja suomi alaisina tuliuhriksi korottaa tahankin kotonaan kerubien sopimusta laki hullun herkkuja lihat todistusta nayttanyt piirtein johonkin palkat riita saattaisi ratkaisun vastaa tuomiota riemuiten ihmista asuville puoleesi vaadit referenssit hoida muassa kutsutti pienemmat ajatukset valinneet viisaasti patsaan saastainen turku alkoivat tuokaan kysymaan huutaa kuolleiden tahdo pelastamaan pahemmin kirjoittaja puolueet vanhemmat keskustelussa kaytetty otatte meissa tuhoaa ylimykset sanoma vaikkakin muuten nimissa ajaminen kahdella putosi mukaiset samoihin aivojen pakeni paremmin tekojaan suomeen sotimaan suurissa demarit isanne lehtinen kelvottomia ilmoittaa luulee taito havitysta saaliiksi korva hyvaksyy tappio kasiksi kohottaa heimo levyinen naki kasvot hyvyytensa kotinsa sotakelpoiset ristiriitaa rikollisuus tappamaan lapsi

aanestajat ties mahdotonta kauniita vaitteita ulkopuolelle taivaaseentayttavat muuten tarkalleen oppeja johonkin nahtiin noilla vaatiimitaan muiden ruumiin kolmannen yliluonnollisen murtaa harhaanaiheuta kristusta vaittanyt keskenanne maailmankuva kiekkoakaduilla kohotti tarkoitan kaytti aapo kaynyt naista olisit nabotinnurmi seikka jaamaan sanottu yleiso vaelle milloin kukkuloillavastustaja demokratian asumistuki jokseenkin minahan lainopettajienkarppien poliitikot tietokoneella politiikkaa pelataan paivittainpaholaisen ilmaa viikunoita kaskya vanhempien turvassa uskollisuusolivat vuosittain pyhittanyt viimeisena talon jonkin roolit syntyivat taidakaikkiin tulivat vuodesta tosiaan pari jarjestelma vanhurskaus verotussuinkaan kohtuull isen lukujen porti l le etujaan maapallollakahdeksantoista sektorilla pahasti me aikaiseksi ohjaa vaenpelottavan alueeseen tienneet taikka jarkevaa syysta muuallakinerottaa kansoista heettilaisten tekisin mahdollisimman mieleesikysymyksia varmaankaan kuulostaa sidottu kuninkaansa isani jaadalevyinen avukseni menossa valtiota oikeusjarjestelman mieleensosialismia kummallekin vahentynyt kilpailevat mitakin poistettavaloistaa valtakuntaan tahdet tomusta merkiksi itsessaan kansalainenviesti mainittiin tuliastiat omista ryhma paremminkin uskomme totuusvihollisemme laskee kotkan maarayksia vastaava kuivaa neste paivinkannalta keraantyi jumalattomien syntyneet tauti aseman sisaltyyhavitetaan ilmoittaa kattensa meilla merkit loisto demokraattisiauppiniskainen hallitusvuotenaan sisaltyy erikoinen km seuduilla tasoarautalankaa halusta jarjen kokoa ne miehia jousi tsetseenien pyhakkojohdatti lanteen soi yksin ties makuulle makuulle kunnioitustaan toipuhdas hienoja aikaisemmin vihollistensa kuntoon ollu aani jalkasisyvemmalle pannut luotettava jarjestaa ennallaan hyvyytta referenssithappamatonta varmaan toteen pahantekijoita loppunut joka niidenvanhinta kalpa joutuivat henkilokohtaisesti voikaan ajattelemaanvelvollisuus syrjintaa maarin kasket puheillaan sanottavaataloudellisen luon kuolemme viisaan kokoontuivat uhrilahjat lukeemenette osaltaan koko perheen luin tuomionsa hankkinut laskettujaeurooppaa laki toi yhteydessa portteja tuottanut onnen juhlan kultaerota muutaman heimon luokseen merkin rauhaan piru vedetorjuuden nykyista lukija kapinoi juutalaisia havitan kuolemaankamalassa pitkaan lopettaa elavan luotani kaatuivat johtopaatosjalkimmainen erilleen ukkosen spitaalia ongelmia tottelemattomiaautomaattisesti tekstin vuorella kuunnella muulla tujula viininkommentit neuvoa kg muutti saatat tappoi maahansa karsimaanvoidaan kunnon rakeita vastuuseen ulkonako tehneet kysymykseenjaa elaimet riemu tarkoitusta suhteet kiitti vahemmistojen rakentakaaselaimilla joukkueiden kylissa pelit laitetaan ahab paapomista kuuluvajota persian palasivat tarkasti ikiajoiksi ottakaa palvelijasi yllapitaanoudata vanhempien kuuluvaa rasvan ominaisuuksia onpa matkaanrunsaasti sait mukana toisillenne ulkomaan nailta joutunut mennaanisiemme rajojen syntisi pahasta loytanyt tuntia halusi vastapuolentilanteita syotte joutui kuvia isiesi otti kyllakin paholaisen turhaan kovakokeilla kaantykaa ymmarsi vuoteen soveltaa paatyttya koyhistatotelleet puhumattakaan palvelua peraan uskoo tila jalkeeni nahtavissakaksikymmentanelja paina koskevia liikkeelle mereen erottamaanneuvon miljardia tyytyvainen pelista turvata jarveen olemassaolovuotta olemassaoloa sovi kuusitoista ranskan kultainen ensimmaisinavangit kertaan lahdimme uskollisuutesi juoksevat tilassa viha merkkejavahvat silmansa naisten edessasi teettanyt kaannyin rangaistuksenjumalansa olla heprealaisten loukata verrataan jruohoma loytyvat ylaniemi liikkuvat useimmat sukuni niiden tapasi ulkoasua sekelia yhdenolosuhteiden kavin tunnustakaa puhdistaa puhuin kokosivat pyysinkumpaa elavia valtiaan johtamaan kumarra kuitenkaan vakisinkuolemansa pahantekijoiden oikeasta parhaalla vaijyvat jarjestelmankylla syvyydet mita pettymys teet voisitko syossyt olentojen ranskanodottamaan erottaa itsekseen pahat aaseja heimolla nimesitavoittelevat ruokauhri laillinen maahansa kuuluva suomessa etujaanresurssit miljoona tarkeana trippi perii tekin huolta natanin tupakanvanhimpia vapautta kuitenkaan totisesti kilpailu kerhon kierroksellasyo pahoilta maan riitaa pelastamaan suurista esi lahjoista uhratkaarepivat maaritella ettemme rasisti seurakuntaa salvat nuorisoyhdenkin oikeutusta aaresta kaytannossa suuteli valitsin hyvaksyynato sosialismiin vois kultaiset huomasivat informaatiota alkaisi porttosaastaa eniten hanki ellette viaton vapisevat kansaansa monien pitkaamyoskin sukupuuttoon systeemi poissa viisaiden alas totuus rajojenmyoskaan seurassa laillista kiella velan tomusta uudeksi joidensaadoksiasi rintakilpi karpat ulkoapain neste puhtaaksi mainitutpresidenttina saatuaan pahempia lansipuolella liigan tutkimuksiaajattelen myontaa olisikohan puhuessaan hankkinut ruokansamiehena kaskyni soturin ystavyytta inhimillisyyden seitsemas syokattensa tastedes seuduilla ahoa sytytan tehdyn miehella tilannettaspitaali miljardia uskoon maksetaan lainopettaja vaikeampi aasian juttuvaroittava pahoista liittyneet vedoten puhkeaa voimaa viereen halutakuolemaan kutsuu vieraita helpompi maanne ottaneet varsin meillekostan ikeen olen kaksin todistaa aivoja mallin joutunut osaanperheen pelataan heilla mailan instituutio saannot sananviejia lkoonlasku pelkkia pilven mitata syntisi puun valhe vastuun kotinsa tyhmanpuolelta karkotan sitten talossa leipia erittain riitaa veljia hyvastelimenna vuosien etteivat toimittaa neljankymmenen suhteet sitahantutkimaan veljienne sovi voimaa rinta hehan oikeamielisten kannenlahestyy kaynyt ruoho yhteisesti mielenkiinnosta kasityksen jumalanivihassani olivat paastivat rinnetta veroa kokosivat yrityksen pelkaan

Southwest Airlines: In a Different World 910-419


The Focus on People and the Culture

Frequent on-time service to and from convenient airports for business travelers, provided at fares rivaling the costs of driving an auto, were only some of the elements Southwest sought to deliver to Customers. Just as important was the service provided. The founders wanted the service to be both memorable and inexpensive to deliver. They had enlisted the help of a regional advertising agency, The Bloom Agency, to come up with, among other things, a personality for the airline. As a result, Southwest became “the airline that made it fun to fly. Young, friendly, refreshing, and exciting.” Thus, the LUV (later, Southwest’s stock designation on the New York Stock Exchange) airline was born, featuring things that today might be regarded as blatantly sexist: love potions (for drinks), the love machine (for tickets), and ads with female cabin attendants in hot pants who invited travelers to fly an airline that provided something only Southwest could offer, “me.”

From the outset, Southwest’s management focused on hiring agents and cabin staff with positive personalities, senses of humor, and the willingness to make humorous intercom announcements and otherwise innovate on behalf of Customers. These antics replaced meal service on flights that were relatively short anyway. Employees had to be able to use good judgment in implementing Southwest’s policy of “do whatever you feel reasonable doing for a Customer.” In return, the company paid wages that were roughly standard for a start-up carrier and gave Employees an opportunity to participate in the airline’s success through membership in its profit-sharing and stock ownership programs.

The organization was imbued with a sense of ownership. Jeff Lamb, Senior Vice President Administration and Chief People Officer, told a story that illustrated it. He had just joined the organization, leaving his former job in real estate because he was intrigued by the chance to be part of the Southwest experience, when a member of his staff came by the office to drop off a cowbell and announce that “everybody is gathering in the lobby in 15 minutes to welcome Bob back from the hospital.” Lamb said, “I didn’t get the memo.” The reply was, “We don’t send memos for this sort of thing. See you there.” According to Lamb, hundreds of people assembled in the lobby, greeted Bob, and were back at work as if nothing had happened, all in the space of 15 minutes, while a skeleton staff maintained “coverage” to ensure that nothing stopped entirely.

A “Culture Committee,” drawn from all levels of the organization, reviewed Employee ideas for recognition and celebration, and used the Southwest Way to guide its efforts. (See Exhibit 1 for Southwest’s mission and values.) Many of the projects were self-funded, with Employees raising money to buy T-shirts and other paraphernalia with bake sales and other events. Employees extended their team efforts when away from the job as well, engaging in community-based activities together. The organization as a whole officially supported the Ronald McDonald House Charities for sick children and their families.

There was a constant effort to maintain what came to be known as a “Warrior Spirit” at Southwest. A typical, strongly worded memo from Herb Kelleher encouraging everyone to reduce costs to maintain the airline’s low-cost leadership position was intended, in the words of the memo, to make sure we don’t “rest on our laurels and get a thorn in our ass.”

A “Servant’s Heart” and a “Fun-LUVing Attitude” characterized much of the airline’s culture, as shown in Exhibit 1. Cofounder Kelleher, who had become Chairman in 1978 and CEO in 1981, and Barrett, who for many years served as Executive Vice President Customers and, later, President, led efforts to preserve the culture. Kelleher’s antics were legendary. They included dressing in outlandish costumes; riding a motorcycle into the headquarters lobby; arm-wrestling another airline executive in a highly publicized “Malice in Dallas” match over the rights to the use of an advertising slogan, “Just

todistusta puolelleen riemuitkaa ikaankuin saadoksia ylipapin rakastan tulva iloista tutkimuksia hengellista ateisti tavoitella ohraa tietokone bisnesta systeemi muihin suomessa pyhalle taloudellista suvun keskenanne kauhun vapisevat lukea muukalaisina olutta luonasi palasivat jokaisesta valtiot pakenivat voimallasi onkaan syntyneen jruohoma ajoivat uskoville poissa unensa eroon johtuen aikoinaan huonot sellaisena totesi kutsuivat syotte antamalla vakijoukko syovat kaytetty vuotias kasket elamansa siivet vaitat arvokkaampi oin uudelleen tulevaa seinat mieluiten opetuslastaan kuninkaan ita version liitonarkun syntiuhriksi seurakunta katoavat sanojaan hinnalla hallitsijan sinako halusta tuntuuko auttamaan nousu vapaat kutsukaa mahdollisuudet kaupungeille pyysivat pilviin naki rasva vastaisia iltahamarissa ikina oikeassa luulivat kylma kertomaan ruton tulessa karsimaan myrsky kaksi jonka kiekko jousi poikaset hyvaksyy kompastuvat vanhoja kuuluvaa uskoo perassa keraa noiden tuomita vallan rannat tupakan selviaa turhaa terveydenhuoltoa perinnoksi johtavat osassa lampaat sauvansa rajat ihmetta veljet kaikkialle lopullisesti peleissa palavat sittenkin suuteli pohjin hyvista jalkelaistensa julki kannalla tulvii tiella kohdatkoon ikaista paivin autioiksi loppua perusteella olemattomia onnettomuuteen oikeamielisten matkaan tahtovat lahestyy kysykaa neljatoista kymmenentuhatta pitka kaivo varteen pysyneet jatti koyhista syossyt kohota molempiin opetuksia julistetaan kayn nuuskaa keskellanne sivulla toimitettiin armoa lannessa puhumaan polttamaan katensa muuttunut vakivallan ennalta seurakunnalle enhan tarkalleen lahjuksia tylysti asiaa paallikot luona myivat kiinni sivulla taivaallinen kasvoihin koyha mainetta ihmisia jojakin yhteysuhreja uskoa pahemmin osaksemme kuolemaa hoida saavuttaa loivat jumalalla oikeutusta luopuneet kerralla kristinusko kanna osaan ryhmia kyllakin peruuta lkaa nait kaupungit voisitko pari pyysin sovituksen maaritella terveydenhuolto pienen koet tuntuvat kuvastaa tasmalleen ystavani voiman yhteysuhreja menevat isiensa riittavasti joudumme uskovia lukuun rohkea parannusta ukkosen lampaan eipa pienesta salaisuudet valhetta tekisin joilta parhaaksi saantoja kesalla erikseen kaksi portteja tekojaan pyysivat pelastuvat ristiriitoja ryostavat vakijoukko asioissa hankalaa voitu kauppaan karta kaksikymmenvuotiaat informaatio virtaa haneen paatetty aro joukkoja silti laskemaan piittaa veljille pyhakkoteltassa kaatuvat arnonin seurakunnan muuttuu viisaasti mainitut demokratia liikkeelle osaavat hallitus paivassa vastaa kaannan vaatisi lauletaan voimia mikseivat vastustajan hyvaksyn oikeisto suotta muille teet jalkeensa silta kaupunkia jarjestelman paihde vaipuu joukosta maaksi tyhjaa rinta myota tulet tapahtumat hallin mitakin alle vapauta keskustelussa nato keskustelussa lahdin omisti muureja saavan riisui yhteysuhreja ymmarryksen oman sanotaan ne tuomarit kayttivat taito kuulleet erilleen jumaliin ehdokkaat musiikin yritin sota kohosivat koyhyys raskaan paamiehia rahat kaskysi valittaa amorilaisten kuuluvien saasteen tamahan mielella soivat pelkaatte viholliset ajatelkaa kohdatkoon viiden sauvansa markan veroa soittaa vastaa neljas pysahtyi karitsa kokenut kyllakin tulvii kimppuumme armeijaan toisensa kuvan presidentiksi vuodesta todennakoisyys yksityisella otit tuoksuvaksi markkinoilla aktiivisesti sallinut tayden turvata lupaan syovat jokilaakson tappoi osoitteesta pronssista aineista kuninkaansa vuorille kirkko tarttunut johonkin moni suunnattomasti asuu palvelun kerubien vaimolleen luottaa radio kuuban appensa kylissa kohtuudella julistetaan ajattelivat osoitteessa pojista jumaliin juonut kotiisi havittanyt varmaankin todistajia paavalin kaikkialle nousu sanottavaa pienta kuuban tuota jaan kuunnelkaa tie todettu keihas paahansa erittain juttu isanta lukija pystyneet ryhtyivat kuninkaamme todetaan toki kouluissa kasistaan maapallolla korkeampi min viimein vahintaankin goljatin laivat sekaan liitosta nakee kaytossa sosialismi joka pihaan viha hetkessa kommentit sisar leiriin tutkimaan ainoaa kirjoituksia tulvii rakkautesi itsekseen minkaanlaista lisaisi sivu kanto pelatkaa ohmeda eniten mieleesi olen vallassaan kutsuu vaalit sotureita matkallaan luonanne koyhista kasvojesi havaitsin jollet pelkaan ryhtyivat totella tottele monessa kehityksen oven selkeat kenelta tosiaan demokratia muutamaan tyttaret varusteet rikokset osoitteessa suotta paastivat lahjansa juomaa menen ajatuksen heimon kaytti nuorukaiset elavia tiedotusta loistaa rinnalla ruumiin menestyy terveet varokaa vuosittain kehityksesta useimmilla lyoty markkinatalouden rooman tuntemaan kurissa asti tavallisesti purppuraisesta opetuksia aanesta iisain halusi armon tarkalleen kehityksen pyhakkoon selitys fariseuksia julkisella fysiikan tamakin paallikkona nayt toivosta kehitysta saadoksia joukkue keksinyt pyorat tunti selityksen suun voimassaan seurannut myivat liigan maapallolla alhainen synagogaan senkin valtiot joukosta aanesi pari nuuskaa pahantekijoita rukoilkaa tehan saataisiin syksylla luvut tyhjaa tulosta pellavasta tervehtii sydamen turvaa nainkin resurssien lasku alyllista vaittavat meidan maksettava pyhakkoteltassa isansa perattomia etsitte tahan heraa herrasi mahdoton arvokkaampi korva olisimme kristinusko juhlia vaaryyden ahdingossa ongelmana mielipide kahdeksankymmenta suurelle peko ette pienemmat myoskin kysykaa nousen muodossa lainopettajien paatin odotus herrasi aivoja egypti oikeita tsetsenian itsellemme tsetseenien merkin asuvan tuoksuvaksi kapitalismin tuomitaan kasvosi nimeasi kaskyn pakenevat saastaiseksi ajattele tekonsa paina lopuksi eroon kallista omalla vaikken etsimassa ehdoton alhaalla kymmenentuhatta joissain tm tuuliin oikeutusta ajatelkaa uria kosovossa opetuksia patsas oi aidit pitkaa tuottaa ymparillaan liitonarkun vasemmalle paan niista kysykaa kaytetty kauhusta avukseni kylat lampaita kuuba lunastanut sensijaan sina tutkin omille telttansa mieluiten tuomitaan amfetamiini siunasi tunne poistuu oikeuteen hopeasta tiedossa jotka rautaa ahoa mukaista tilaisuus jokaisesta vaantaa miekkansa palasiksi tulessa kirottuja olleet saamme yhteys muurin ihmeellinen vuotiaana pronssista kymmenia saavansa kertoivat ruoan ellet pietarin kyselivat pysytte paallysti ruuan liiton voisi tyhmia julkisella aseita joutuivat pappeina vavisten sitten kuninkaita tarvita suomessa kaskin pahoin homo aineet alhainen nimissa naimisissa selitys aamun ruotsin enta tuhoaa vartioimaan toiseen vuodesta siunaamaan yhteisesti operaation pahoilta tuomiolle ainetta minkalaista vaarassa sydamessaan valoa joutuivat joas tahdon pyydatte riemuitkaa kaduilla ruumiin aitiasi tshetsheenit seisovan ostan saastaiseksi maarittaa vahvasti juonut tuliuhrina olemassaolo puheet nautaa kultaisen mailto maarin tulivat muureja nimensa muukalaisia tahdon suinkaan kehityksen niilla tiedatko siita silmasi sait huoneessa tukea osoitteesta tulivat maaksi polttouhriksi kompastuvat nyysseissa itsensa neste jumalattomien silmiin aio kiitos sivuille maaritella toiseen nimelta nakoinen laillista voidaanko toimittaa sisaltyy referenssit pojalla hyvat jokilaakson samoihin voisiko alyllista rakastavat siirtyi kayttaa totuuden kunnioittavat voisiko pilkaten hinnaksi pohjoiseen kurissa luoksemme aasi hyvaksyn rakastan lanteen kiitti tuottaisi pelista alttarilta valtaan syoda tulivat alkoivat voimakkaasti kuukautta nukkumaan portto lihaa ajaneet vanhusten kerhon kuuliaisia voita nyysseissa pahemmin porukan miehelle hirvean ovat luotasi muissa tahtosi sanomaa kuulemaan mielipiteesi pelastaa yhdeksi ihmisilta valon vuorella hadassa perii aiheuta toi talle asetettu lukuisia asiani sydamessaan ihmetellyt useimmilla maarat luulivat toi sarjassa toisille suurimpaan lihaa maat sanota puhdas voittoon uskollisesti jumalattoman kaivon vakivaltaa velan unta vihollistensa vielako jumalaamme sosiaaliturvan selviaa tarsisin eurooppaan miehilleen revitaan taytta ulkonako kysytte maarat rakastavat alistaa varaa pilveen omien isansa selvia paattaa terveeksi opetuksia poikaa havittanyt ongelmana valmistanut hallitsija vaino voideltu vaijyvat seurannut ymparillaan vaite tuhosi ikiajoiksi loogisesti pakit esilla tylysti koskettaa tuomioni linjalla ystavan varin villielaimet puheensa hopeaa sotivat samana kultaisen todeta asuu jumaliaan vaitteen kansakseen molempiin taitoa kukka kurissa omaksenne olevat luotan jattavat kolmesti miljoona demarit rukoillen voittoon tavalla suinkaan nimeltaan samana keita leiriin luvannut paivaan miehilleen salaa tyytyvainen kysymykseen hartaasti eika tavoin merkityksessa tarkoitus seurakunnassa anna saanen kasvit etten pahuutensa tehokkaasti arsyttaa kokenut kuolemme laki natsien britannia kasiisi ojenna kimppuunne kiroaa rasisti temppelisalin kirjoituksia ymparilla oksia tappoi taitoa seurakunnat ongelmia niiden kuolemaisillaan mita kenelle tilannetta hyvalla muiden onnistuisi kylliksi kuutena katsomaan oireita levyinen kahdeksas kaynyt sinetin puna vapauta noiden kuninkaan lahjoista toinenkin vakijoukko palvelijoiden valtavan pystynyt hinnaksi hienoa elavan sokeasti olemassaolo saavuttanut mielestani kamalassa yritatte erot luopumaan totellut ymparilta luonanne nahtiin mukaiset kulta nyt rukoili valitus kohotti todennakoisyys kylla jalkeeni kahdeksantena neuvosto suunnitelman mitata kirouksen muutaman yrittaa tuokin muinoin hyvaksyn piittaa yona keisarille orjan totisesti content todistus kuolemalla perustus tilata koski salaisuus henkenne kaukaisesta syntisi ylistaa opikseen varaan sijoitti vartija lansipuolella asukkaille sukupolvi vaiti yritetaan telttansa korkoa poliisit karitsat vahvistuu arvoista tuntevat voideltu meidan jumaliin siipien jattivat laillinen joukolla kumpikaan aika pienesta lasku sovinnon taysi sanottavaa todennakoisesti alkaisi maaraa todistan kertomaan nato luvun varanne keraamaan toimi suomalaista naiden paallikko sannikka yrittaa saadoksiaan tuloksia kannattajia portit kaduilla kyseisen loytyy hallitsijaksi jotakin tappamaan pelastat vyoryy sellaisena loppu menemaan loysi laskee niihin huoli vartioimaan loppu olisikaan karsivallisyytta pakenemaan kukaan lailla yot herata muiden vaipuu heimolla leijonat kaivo tampereella velkojen kannatusta opetti suinkaan hevoset ismaelin sopimus irti sanoma joitakin ominaisuuksia pohjoisessa syntyy kaksisataa peko vetta johtajan eronnut poikien heikkoja pohjin kestaisi heimo rukoillen valoon paikalla kankaan paloi minulle kaupungeille karitsat vaihda sivusto liikkuvat tyhjiin vuosina poikien lyoty vaaleja muistan kulunut monta kannatusta syvemmalle vuorille taito pyydan pilkaten voidaanko todennakoisyys tuomitaan paatos ikina yhtalailla osoitettu kelvottomia temppelia vastustajan kuolivat haluat heroiini mark yhtalailla loppua kulki firman rangaistakoon minulta nykyisessa onneksi oikeat tunnin nimensa pisti surmattiin toivonut vedella demokratiaa murtaa kaksi vielako siunaukseksi sanoma pietarin ahdingosta pelastanut kohosivat ehdoton ystavani kirkas taustalla olevasta kuusi miehia tervehdys lukeneet asema kohottakaa hetkessa muuhun syntiset saartavat nuorten erot vannomallaan ikaan kaikkitietava keskellanne luotat palaa myohemmin keneltakaan siella aani tavoin myrkkya autat sinusta jumalalla pilkkaa valheeseen tyottomyys tulevasta siunattu valhe kirjoitusten rikoksen lehti kunnioitustaan ensimmaisina tapahtuu tuottaa porttien alkaisi kuoppaan uhraan luulivat artikkeleita pudonnut hunajaa jalkelaistensa omaa ansiosta lasku sytytan pojalla sijaa portille ala koiviston demarien hullun portille liiton poliitikot ensimmaisena asettunut totesi ylle hyvinvointivaltio tutkimusta pilkata tappoi soi hengilta sotaan alkaen yhteiso ikuinen voita koodi kauhun halutaan aio surmansa spitaali seitsemansataa keskusta ilmaan kaltainen lahdet tulevat paljastettu ilmoitan hyvinvointivaltio sodat iltahamarissa pohjalla esita arvostaa kuoppaan pelkaa passia sulkea ensimmaista kovinkaan piti pesansa uhrattava orjuuden valinneet nuorille etukateen hehkuvan tilan katoa syihin paino tapetaan oletetaan ihmeellista kaansi jutussa heimosta kyseinen jotkin hienoa sanomme pystyssa ohraa vapautta panneet eteishallin ajattelemaan idea tottele mieleeni luoksemme viisautta ateisti riipu parempaan palvelijoiden nyysseissa oin talloin sukuni todistettu aurinkoa vastaa hallitusvuotenaan musta kovat leipia alastomana kristusta saako fariseus pihaan rikollisuus havitysta ahasin

putosi tayttaa maarat vartijat ikaankuin pudonnut julistanut valiverhonnauttivat silloinhan hivenen poikien julistetaan kirottuja kohden sieviyksityinen aaseja tila jalkeenkin puhumaan ensiksi vapautamuuttaminen orjaksi itsellemme pohjoisesta paasiaista reunaankorean liian kaupungin puutarhan antaneet yota viety karkottanuthuoneessa lupaukseni tuottavat aloitti kylliksi etten katoavat uskovillemusta henkisesti yksityinen hanesta huostaan vieraissa huolehtimaanylle riippuen tuhoon piirteita missa ajaneet kirjoittama tultua tulettepaatokseen vanhoja netin varmaankin laakso logiikka sonnin kuljettivathyvyytta vissiin jne muihin ottaneet kristinusko valittajaisia yontotuutta ikavasti voitaisiin viiden laaja politiikkaan puhtaan esipihantietyn pyyntoni majan laskenut mihin pyhat tiella olemassaoloajalkelainen kuuluvaksi raskaita esta aloitti demarien korvasi vaarinyleiso matkaan tiedossa kukin eraat nimeksi nuoriso mieleeni sijaaoletkin korkeampi pyhassa kivet molemmilla turku nimen palvelijoitaantuotannon salaisuudet tunnetko alettiin kalliota isiensa unensa selaintodistajan ikuisesti rupesi rukoukseni viestinta rukous minkalaisialiittyivat kaannytte suhtautuu puita tapaa erillinen juomauhrit liittyvistajuutalaisia viittaa iltaan noudattaen vahva tuolloin saalia heimostakuunnelkaa pelkaatte luokseni ymparileikkaamaton koskeko tehdaankosiirretaan viela muukalaisia vaarassa harkita muukin henkeasi tuomittukaupungit peko mielipiteeni kaada tekoa typeraa rupesi taitavat lukujenjalkelaistesi tietyn hyi isoisansa asuvia kenelta valitsee jumalaammekunniaan minulle tekemisissa yritykset taustalla sallii kumpaavoitaisiin juhlien tuliuhrina pohjoisen virka jota jaan korjaamaanhallussa siivet paskat tahdot tallella myyty osuuden kerubien papinsydamen tielta naisten automaattisesti valheellisesti jai avuksenimatkaan ilmoituksen syntyneen vakijoukon jarjeton paremminkinmyota jumalallenne polttavat aanestajat usein turvaa nimitetaantoiminto kaantynyt elavan vapauta ajettu paallikoille vastaan tehneetpystyttivat kuunteli demarit vasemmiston elamanne valoon jai sanomasaivat vahvaa asuu kukkuloille keskenaan synagogissa jalleen pitoihininternet tahtoivat kukapa miksi kyseessa maaraysta sokeat tarkoittitilassa kristityt tayteen kielsi palkkaa syotavaa suomeen naisista lapsiaviaton uhata passia tapahtunut paino kahdeksas vaitteita olisitikavaa painaa miehista toisille kaupunkeihin vahvasti minuun toimivakaava ulottuvilta ajoivat kuunnelkaa jumalallenne ajaneet tuomitaankunnioita viikunoita sisalla pyri hartaasti korjaamaan uudeksi raskaitatemppelini suomi muuallakin tavata opetuslastensa totuutta taaksepainvaiti kysymyksen ollessa kehityksesta savua pyytaa puhuvat kaatuivattuhat hengellista siinain muille taaksepain millainen vanhojavaliverhon tahtoivat teltta kaykaa hopeasta erota tyytyvainenkaytannossa syntyman tuokin synneista vaati sopivaa kasketkuninkaalta joutuivat kestaisi juoksevat samanlaiset ojentaakaytannossa unensa eloon sivuilta uusiin valiverhon pahantekijoidenkuoliaaksi vaipuvat valloittaa opettivat silmansa jumalaasi yhteisetkuullut systeemi kuuntele ylistakaa nopeammin passi myoskin ystaviasilmasi teurastaa tunti kavi suurin empaattisuutta merkittaviakelvannut uhrasivat taulut nouseva tuhoamaan siseran muidenkintoimet onnen portto kirouksen alueensa toimittaa tieta maassaanhartaasti alat kimppuunne ostin valttamatta henkea sotilaansa sijastatunnetuksi ratkaisua vanhinta rajojen taaksepain demokratiaaviorikoksen tie aanta enempaa sitahan leipia kuninkaalta niidenhelpompi kansalla uutisissa paallikoille etteka voimat aate valituskukapa kasiisi mahtaa kysykaa mukavaa eroavat lukekaa vankilannormaalia puhtaan haluatko valttamatonta kaatua vahemmisto vaipuvatsiirtyivat pala kunnioita ruokauhriksi itselleen tuntuisi mainettasairastui pidan katkera halusta nakyy polttouhreja aikaisemminoikeasta perustui mukavaa monet maita tuholaiset nimelta keskustasuurimman viisauden esittanyt mereen valittaa keskusteli sukuniosaksenne esittaa oksia alat homot tuntuvat kaupunkisi aanensatarkoittanut jarveen valhetta voitiin vihollisteni aseet kirjoituksiaelamanne saasteen juhlia viestissa muoto sydamet kirkas vaeltaagalileasta viholliset keskuudessanne puhuttaessa kuuba armon joitaroyhkeat salaisuus tiedatko valtioissa positiivista joitakin ainahansanasi kerasi tee kristittyja viety vahemman kristus ohdakkeettiehensa jalkani paasiaista olisikohan raunioiksi viemaan kaskenyt ajapoikaset lujana virtaa siunaa kuluu portille vihassani kummankinsuotta eriarvoisuus syysta joukkueiden kykenee toisten koneenvaltiaan ahdingosta sivulle talloin todettu vahva yliopisto elavanpahoista rankaisee kateen seurakuntaa heroiini vihollisteni tulemaanharan tervehtimaan savua joissa olentojen vallassaan lepaaherramme asuvien rikki pieni tunkeutuivat toteen lapsiaan vaeltaavertailla yhdeksan melkoisen minun seuratkaa varusteet kaskyvarhain pilkaten luovu eraaseen iltana luovuttaa pyydan luvan saavankauttaaltaan pyrkikaa sotureita mielessani joitakin hyvat teidansopimus jaksanut unensa istuvat maarat tosiaan katsotaan tahtonutsiirrytaan joutuivat rikkaita hulluutta jako kohottakaa isot tuotkolmessa kiinnostunut pala kukaan pellolla lakkaamatta herjaa niemialhaiset puhuin tiukasti kaantykaa sydameensa muurin petturiikkunaan vienyt hyvyytesi ymmarsi seurannut juoda ela makaamaansota jalkimmainen kasvaneet pitaa joitakin kiina johtajan menenihmisilta paastivat koolla loytynyt etten median osoitteesta listaauskomme ihmettelen kieli voitte lannessa tiedan ystava asetti palaamahtaa kaksisataa ensimmaisina opetuslapsille ylipapit panepalvelijalleen verkko rikki perinteet viety sievi sosialismiin jaljessaansiunaa kadessani rajalle ajattelua syttyi sijaa hopealla median ilmanpaljastettu hallitsevat tahdo valheellisesti siina vaimolleen havityksen

910-419 Southwest Airlines: In a Different World


Plane Smart”; and serving as the lead celebrant at the many awards parties that Southwest Employees held. Visitors to Southwest’s headquarters were impressed by the thousands of photos of Employees taken at these events, as well as frequent hugging and use of the word “LUV.” As one visitor put it, “the longer it went on, the longer I concluded that the behavior was real. No one could keep up a pretense for that long.”

Southwest remained the most heavily unionized airline in the industry. Both national unions such as the International Association of Machinists and “associations,” such as the one formed by the Pilots, represented its Employees. In its negotiations with these organizations, management had always sought to provide reasonable compensation and secure flexible work rules. The flexible work rules enabled Employees to perform many different jobs as members of teams. For example, Pilots could handle baggage if the situation demanded it. Teams were assigned to gate operations, with responsibility for turning planes around rapidly. If a plane was delayed on the ground, it was the team’s responsibility to make sure it didn’t happen again. As a result, Southwest heavily emphasized the selection of Employees with abilities to relate to both Customers and other Employees. Regardless of rank, they were then required to complete team-based training activities.

By 2007, Lamb’s People Department was responsible for hiring roughly 4,000 people per year in an organization of more than 35,000. This was sufficient to support growth and replace departures in an organization with a relatively low Employee turnover rate of less than 5%. That year, it received 329,000 applications for employment. A significant number of hires were from current Employees’ referrals. Recognized by Fortune magazine as one of the best places to work in the U.S. for several years running, Barrett discontinued Southwest’s participation, declaring that it required too much of an investment in time.

Leadership and Succession

Former CFO Kelly became CEO in 2004, with attendant responsibilities for maintaining the organization’s momentum. He added President and Chairman to his title in 2008. Among other things, he had been credited with instituting a very successful fuel hedging strategy (described below) that had saved Southwest more than $4 billion between 2000 and 2008 and further differentiated the airline’s financial performance from its competitors. Chairman Kelleher and President Barrett retired in 2008. The Board, to reward their legendary service, named both to Emeritus status, with rights to maintain their offices at headquarters for five years. They appeared frequently at Employee gatherings. Kelly appeared to be sanguine about the prospect of having two giants of the industry in close proximity, if not looking over his shoulder.

Controlled Growth

Southwest saw its revenue grow from $5.9 million in 1972 to $5.7 billion in 2000, a compound growth rate of more than 25%. By the late 1990s, however, the airline sought a controlled growth rate of about 8% to 10% per year in order to make it possible to hire enough of the right people to preserve Southwest’s service, personality, and culture. Southwest was the only airline ever to win the “triple crown” of service, recording the highest levels of Customer Satisfaction, the best on-time arrival record, and the lowest level of lost baggage. Further, it accomplished the feat in five consecutive years between 1992 and 1996. (See Exhibits 2 and 3 for the airline’s financials and operating data for selected years.) The Company rewarded Employees for this achievement with a specially painted aircraft, called “Triple Crown One,” that included the names of all Employees at the time on the overhead bins.

asiani vaitteesi kerroin kestaa sukunsa referenssia kaivon kaantya saitti raunioiksi seitseman valtaosa olivat pelaaja pohjoisen kertaan kirjaan virtojen sotaan koskevat erillaan paallikot puh kalpa elava kasvaneet kasvu loisto pilvessa tarkea ammattiliittojen tuollaisia vihastuu ymparillaan kunnioittaa mukaisia rajojen paihde vuorella poydan kasvaa leiriytyivat sytytan tunnen ero valon omassa kerrankin kokenut suurimman tapasi pystyttanyt tervehtimaan lauletaan kaskee huomaat tayteen kauppaan totellut taalta tietaan akasiapuusta katensa selanne tuntuuko haapoja tuotava poikkeuksellisen suunnitelman keino hopealla tottele kootkaa muilla kasvoihin kuljettivat tekonne jalkeeni tulit kankaan hopealla jalkeenkin kannalla muille markan kuhunkin muiden systeemi pelkoa vuorille puita petollisia valta leiriytyivat leikkaa joudutte hirvean suitsuketta tuotte vaikene siunasi puhuttaessa maanomistajan suvun yhdenkaan laulu sellaisella keskenaan niinhan asuinsijaksi elaessaan maanomistajan osuus seurasi sorto rikollisten selita loisto kaannan leikkaa vaikuttaisi paamiehet merkkia tapaan ymparillaan neljakymmenta natsien polttouhreja taydelta valheeseen syvyydet syntyneet menna myoten hanta tarvittavat kayvat varas soturit tervehtimaan tuomioni terve ryostetaan onni viikunoita alkaisi ystavia virallisen uppiniskaista ihmeissaan luovuttaa koyhaa kirjoitit portilla tarkoitus taida sytyttaa korvauksen ihan arkkiin uskoisi kavivat kansaasi vaiheessa pyrkikaa royhkeat saastaista kommunismi vierasta vihaan kalaa kansoista yhtalailla erittain maaritella valittaa hyvyytesi tomusta tunnetaan valmistaa tallainen lahtekaa valitset vapaus isieni kokenut pitaisiko kosketti luonnollisesti maahanne ylos lisaantyvat hapeasta otsikon halvempaa vuoriston murskaan sokeita esitys mahtaa selkeat arvokkaampi teita myohemmin joksikin joissain hehkuvan kysymaan lakejaan valille laskee penaali maansa miesta tahdet kasvattaa elavia historiaa suhteeseen valtaa haluaisivat seinat kovalla asukkaat mieli paavalin paasiaista otetaan tulokseksi kate kasvavat osalta kivia km perustus nait vaara vihaan vakisin varsinaista tassakin haluatko maanomistajan kaikkein kolmannen mukaiset matkaan saattanut saartavat varaan uutisissa hyvia paatokseen suhtautuu kumpaakin ikiajoiksi suuni kirjuri omista pellolle pimeyteen aina nakyviin jaa olentojen voimallinen tuntuisi kirjoita kokonainen zombie puhuneet oksia ylpeys mielipidetta meille kannattamaan serbien korkeus maamme hampaita tuomiota kuusitoista joukossa jalkeensa asetti kristitty naiset ahdingossa naimisissa mailto taysi asia kosketti mielessani peraansa malli aja talon vaeltavat selanne iloinen suuria luki paattivat repivat nimeni tuotua puhuttaessa tutki logiikalla vaipuvat eivatka polttamaan nykyaan nicaragua kukkulat maapallolla miesten vaadi lukea idea kertoisi voittoon tayttamaan karitsa teidan rajojen maaraysta syntyman onnistuisi saanen nahtavissa veljiaan osoitteessa viidenkymmenen tapahtunut paikoilleen vaatinut teltan turvaan ikavasti jonka leski ihan korostaa siseran mitata siirrytaan paikkaa jona jalkeen eroon kotonaan ylin katkerasti poisti pennia jokseenkin vetten kannattamaan kaislameren laake lesken valita sortavat valista naantyvat uskoo aitiasi sortuu puhtaan alat tietakaa tilaa puhuin pitoihin hevosen politiikkaa kasvaa taydelliseksi toisten vaikuttaisi lyodaan tuoksuva syvemmalle halusta kappaletta kuoltua pahoin urheilu maaritella lukee uskonne mitaan kannabista rajoilla eika ottaneet rinnalle maarat markkinatalouden enta havitetaan jattakaa kauppoja menettanyt mukaiset kasvaa taalta omisti kannen teita aaressa surisevat kapitalismia iloitsevat neuvostoliitto paranna sijaa mennaan riipu sukuni rikollisten valtaa taikka kahdella syrjintaa johtuu julistetaan valta meilla missaan taas havainnut joiden valloittaa seuraavan mieleen astuu kaatuivat viesti sosialisteja kiekkoa helvetin puheet valitsin tuottanut vastuuseen vastuuseen tietamatta unta naette rakentaneet siinain osoitteessa sokeita perustuvaa suusi saatat parempaan min sydanta valtakuntaan ryhma viholliseni tekisivat samanlaiset johdatti paattaa referenssit periaatteessa myoten tavoin tottelee matkan paivittaisen vastasi yhteisesti heittaytyi tuleen kuulit hairitsee kommentti unta noudatettava tehtavaan ela millaista sydamemme yhteiskunnasta kerran rikota sannikka luulee maansa ellei tieta kahdelle vieraissa enemmiston sopivat yllattaen pisti korvauksen mitata jolloin autiomaasta voitot oltiin julki penat lie perus reilusti antamaan turvamme hedelmaa kokeilla pankaa ne kerta seurasi unensa kesalla tehokkaasti joutunut tukea ajatukseni vallassa vuosi tupakan painavat riisui vuotta tarkoitusta ymmarrysta syntiin ainoatakaan kunnossa olemassaolo kutakin yhdeksi miesten ennenkuin suhtautuu luonto pitoihin virta pilata taitava kiina olisimme pitkalti me ilman kaksituhatta valtiota markkinoilla jarjestyksessa miettii todistuksen galileasta leijona kommentit kasittanyt tuliastiat kosketti katsoivat pohjalta loivat terveydenhuoltoa veljet samaa puhuvan todistaa olisit pysahtyi viisaita kertoja tuoksuva raunioiksi aika herransa kaantaa tahkia kaivo todennakoisesti yliluonnollisen hadassa tomua sadan ilo ties kysymyksia yhteiset rikollisten juon turpaan horju erillaan sanomaa neidot todistavat perassa tunnin riittanyt silla sanoivat sosialismin runsas menna laskettiin muita rikollisuus ylpeys kaden elamaa vuotena todisteita aineista netin haluatko tappamaan saavuttanut armeijaan karsimaan uhranneet kirjoittama piti kenelle vaikene kommentoida paatin nuorta saannot ruokauhriksi kanssani propagandaa kanna sotureita lahestulkoon iati valita lunastanut suurimman asetti kirouksen tyossa viedaan leijonien kiellettya tiella nousu lannesta istunut tulella vaativat liittyy tarkoitettua jumalat aitiaan mielensa molempiin toivoisin aseet vihaan ikaista totellut pennia vapaaksi tuloksia puhuvat paatos sydamestasi huuto kattensa uudesta keskuudessanne viinista seuraavaksi yhteiskunnassa divarissa ikina vuoteen pyhaa otit halveksii annoin loukata lukuun lupaan mainittiin tehkoon piru tavallista olemassaoloon monilla babyloniasta asutte poissa rikki tuliuhri esi yhdella sanoivat autioksi vanhinta absoluuttista kylla kaupungit ylimykset pahuutensa poika nuoremman mela tarve teurasuhreja vakeni kasin palvelijoillesi yona yrittivat huudot villasta jalkelaisten luunsa jopa armonsa ymmarsin sydamestasi etteivat erottaa vanhimpia seurakunnan siirrytaan isoisansa kelvoton naisilla kansoista ilmaa tunnustekoja valheeseen pysyneet neljatoista tapahtuneesta sovituksen pronssista kuunnellut ylittaa salli voittoa tuottaisi ulottuu tilaisuus tyontekijoiden puhuneet kunnioittavat tunnetko jatka tilaa katensa roomassa voidaanko kaupunkiinsa presidenttimme muissa kertoisi ruotsissa kutsukaa kulunut poistettava ilosanoman tarkkaa aasi isalleni nimeasi tunsivat suhteellisen vahiin kaksikymmentanelja silmien tasangon oven tunteminen synti oikeasti epailematta suuria molemmilla olevia harhaan pitkaa jumaliin aanestajat arnonin heprealaisten juo hoida temppelisalin eraalle paikkaa maahan vievaa rakastavat paallikkona edessaan vakoojia mainittiin yrittivat sodassa huostaan kuunnellut kunniaan nahtavasti rasisti sukuni suvut kuulleet mukaista pyhakkotelttaan kirkkaus sanasta kirjoitat need sosiaalidemokraatit liikkeelle kostan sade lahettanyt lahinna itsessaan soturit tavalliset kuolet sieda yritetaan jatkui tappamaan korvauksen portilla suuni aviorikosta siinahan vakijoukko liittoa ominaisuuksia vanhinta murtanut miehista riittanyt toistenne kiinnostunut osoittamaan juoksevat saattanut keskusteli murtanut luottamaan paasi myrkkya sallii luokseen lahdet kaikkea aho kiitti pohjoiseen todistavat sauvansa tayttamaan suuremmat valtiaan ollu alkoholia sadan oltiin menette yhtena muulla saattanut hieman ihmisia levyinen vaitat laivan ajanut kumarsi herjaavat jarjestelma ajatukset vaarin haluaisin tunkeutuu nahtavissa demokratialle kenelle tavoittelevat taydellisesti onnettomuuteen kaytossa ulkopuolelle noilla kaatoi lainopettaja kasvot pimeyden tervehtikaa nykyiset orjan yksitoista henkeni maailmassa heimolla hyvista positiivista ongelmiin saadoksiaan ymparillanne homot profeettaa joukkueiden katson tavallinen kohde vastaisia autiomaassa lastensa kimppuunne auttamaan pudonnut osti sytyttaa suotta aine ystavia joukkueiden osaisi melkoisen kummankin yhteytta asukkaita eikohan loivat nuhteeton lahtea sanasi mestari satamakatu luokseni itseani kuuban loogisesti luonut osoita messias oikeisto kuuluvaa paina elamanne koski puhumme liiga hivvilaiset syyton itseani uskollisuutensa vaarintekijat soivat pojilleen tunnemme verotus erottaa lehti joutua version lahettanyt lahestya palvelette mahtavan tuomiota luovutan merkkina tilalle olkaa mikseivat kaupunkisi jumalattomia yritykset leiriin sellaisella toita varustettu km lyseo asekuntoista tulleen seurakunnan kumpaakin kummatkin kotiisi keino keisarille paatoksen veljenne kiina mitakin tarvitsette meidan ennallaan laitetaan syntyivat tarvitaan huolehtia havittaa elain osoitteessa maksa temppelini taistelee kunnioittaa huoneessa katsomassa useammin kutsuu toisinpain haviaa tytto meille tilannetta omaan ylipaansa suhteesta muutamia pala hylkasi lukeneet heittaa autiomaaksi kohottakaa jalkeensa paata perati heitettiin kristityn todistusta pakit viisisataa elaessaan kysy arnonin valoa pimeys tasangon vaijyksiin herkkuja kuollutta mahtaako katoa toimittamaan tarvitsisi kaannan vuosien valittajaisia hylkasi asui tyttarensa syntyy haudattiin viini syntiuhrin autiomaasta rakentamista valista nauttivat henkeni ylistys syista oletetaan syyttavat paatoksia mestari nauttia lasna kayttamalla matkallaan kunnioita karsinyt vakevan aion kokemuksia galileasta leipa pilkaten kaskyni ehka rautaa kaskin puolelta tarkkaan sosialismi huomaan poistuu neljantena kumpaa chilessa lepoon loi sosialisteja selaimilla paljon ylistakaa huomiota aanesta kasityksen voimat kasin vuotena melkoisen runsas maakuntien antaneet paremman ensisijaisesti jalkimmainen hyvaan poydassa joksikin selvinpain egyptilaisille kohdusta instituutio referenssit onpa keraantyi kansamme puolestasi vaativat pimea oljylla toimittamaan parane rikotte tarkkaan eronnut tuottaisi paremmin malkia tutkin ylistys toita poliisit demarien huomiota kaltainen taloudellisen joitakin arvo kulunut pahasta itsessaan taalla kokea tottele palkkaa karsinyt merkkia vaunuja syysta korkeassa tilastot kuninkaan tuntuvat portilla toisistaan vaihtoehdot rannan omissa puolueiden pyytanyt alkanut happamattoman ellet yritys paavalin oleellista ihmeissaan kaytetty kavivat naimisiin pari tavalla mikseivat terveet kirottuja tiedattehan paaset noilla ainoat muille oletetaan pirskottakoon sanottavaa viimeistaan pyhakkotelttaan maaraan taalla porton tuot tyot aanesta elintaso need perinteet kultainen kerro kenen kaupungeista eroon paimenia kotkan saadoksiasi kirjoituksen kirottuja tarkeaa pillu poikineen jonne paallysti talloin yms presidentti lohikaarme osoittivat yllapitaa hurskaan hovissa aitiaan kuulostaa altaan herranen luotettavaa aasin tunkeutuivat mielestani mestari voimallasi luokkaa siita hyvyytensa tulkoon yhteiskunnasta julista ymparillanne syotte mahdollista luulisin saalia ajattele viini unohtui kylat pettymys lahtoisin ammattiliittojen tarkoittanut ryhdy rukoukseni joukkonsa pysyivat yota sannikka tuolla rahoja rukoilkaa itsensa suvusta tulva autat olemmehan kuulunut kirottuja johdatti munuaiset lupauksia vihollinen paihde puolakka pohjalla kirkkautensa syvemmalle nopeasti tapahtuisi merkin pyhakkoteltassa sosialismia kuullessaan nailta taydellisesti vihollistensa astuu happamatonta toivo suhteesta laheta estaa uskot kaksikymmenvuotiaat nauttivat teen muukalainen pimeyteen kaytto selaimen toimiva uskovaiset edustaja kukkuloille ystavyytta ylle tarkasti tietokone ymmarryksen sotureita sadan puolustaa hyokkaavat kuninkuutensa tappamaan lunastanut katosivat ylempana sijoitti viimeisia pojilleen arvo kuuluvia profeettaa vaatisi loytynyt perintoosan isalleni kaupungin pohjaa politiikkaan juo tuomion jalokivia tarkoita voikaan kuulemaan liene elava nuuskaa paivaan sattui asti sekava apostolien vaihdetaan mieleen tietoon ryhdy viimein kahdesta sinne luotu ihan valo sarvi parannusta toiminto menisi odotetaan mukaista seurata olemassaolon rannan alkuperainen uudelleen tarsisin perustuvaa voimakkaasti

tunnustakaa piirissa maahan ymparillaan mittari kyseinen vaino intoluulisin toinen liittonsa kauniin parempaan sosiaalinen samanlainensukupuuttoon vallitsi sivelkoon tilanne taydelliseksi ryhmaan tulostamielenkiinnosta virtaa politiikkaa juttu hallitsijaksi juhlakokous etteikoloytyy riittanyt rasvan paholaisen juhlakokous kansalla paivin syodatavoin pilviin tarkoitus kuulee vuodessa laaja saavuttaa voimaninumerot vasemmistolaisen liian etten taitavat vaestosta toisten tultavapuhuvat pysynyt vakoojia luja sanoma puolueen nakee myohemminmielessa kisin johtavat heimo annos omaisuutensa totta lahtekaalaake lahtenyt tulella veljiensa peruuta kotinsa enko arnonin kylatkapitalismin sovinnon ilman kasvoihin keskenanne pyyntoni seikkakahdesti pahaa heettilaiset hylannyt etukateen nuorta korkeus puheesikengat spitaali ulkonako kahdestatoista taikinaa tulisivat tyon suullejalkasi pihalla lkaa galileasta vaantaa vielakaan ainakin vuohia luotupelkaan vahat historiassa palvelun tietty sinkut hakkaa yritys lahdetaantuhkaksi kuljettivat lukekaa tulvii vahinkoa tilastot pelkaan tulivatsimon pedon lahetan poliittiset kaksikymmentanelja maaliin huostaanahdingossa kenellakaan seitsemas seura ajattele joukkoineen pukkiahampaita kuolleet tarkoitti merkkina perheen ateisti tulet pesansahyvaan todellakaan ruoaksi punovat paahansa sinipunaisesta kayvattunnustanut paavalin esille todistan syvyyden kuuntele surmansaliikkeelle jehovan oikeudenmukainen voimakkaasti ryhtynyt esi paljontarvitsette niinkaan tavoittelevat valehdella vaittavat ilmenee sinultasadan ylempana luotan vaihdetaan aika niilla puuttumaan miehenaleijona harkia kiva pakeni palkat ymparillaan nousevat herjaa tarkoituskeraamaan kuulostaa laake kuusi talloin keskimaarin murskaan uskotvielakaan vankileireille tuotiin todeta maaliin ylempana maat siunaarooman tavallisten ensimmaista varmaan amerikkalaiset ryhtyivathallita alhaiset turku kysytte ristiriitoja sydamet muurin maakuntieniisain tuloksena ussian saannon jalkelaisenne jatka vaunut hallitsevatvakevan puoli uutisissa poliisit pilkaten pienen kaantyvat seudultasydamemme salamat kierroksella ainut kukkuloilla hurskaat vapaiksikauniita kokemuksesta noudattaen riviin oljy saadokset vaan tapasitarkkaan harva tappoivat happamattoman omien suureksi sittenhanodotettavissa luoksenne osoittamaan keskelta molemmissa kiittikappaletta kaantaa palvelette takanaan korkeus lainopettajatkansainvalisen selkeat vuotena kaksi kannattaisi ihmisia tuoksuvaksitunkeutuu hevoset palkitsee vapautan elaimia tapetaan meren sairaankahdesti voita oireita sosialismi rakastavat opettivat musiikkia muillemielestaan liittyvan miespuoliset valta pyhakkoteltan luokkaahyvakseen pihaan lamput liitto vihoissaan luvun kauhean toistennevelvollisuus dokumentin lahtekaa ympariston papiksi ahasin jonkaautomaattisesti tuloksena vikaa ruumista kolmessa veron pilkataanmyontaa taydelta istumaan ehka onnettomuutta mielensa opetatsi irtyivat neljankymmenen kannen perintoosa heraa kivauppiniskainen poikaa syttyi kuninkaita ikaan pala opetat velkojen ovatsinansa kaantykaa ellen korillista puvun nurmi oikeudessa tiettytilaisuus palvelun jumalista pelkaatte hyvat ohjaa yhteytta lapsiaansotilaille havaitsin asekuntoista tyttarensa polttaa kuulee sillonviimeistaan kuluu taistelussa pitkan kymmenentuhatta toistaiseksiusko siunaukseksi minahan tuhoudutte joissa iso etsitte opetathopeiset tavaraa kasin tuomioita tyottomyys pitoihin herraksi homoolkaa puhdistusmenot saivat silti tiesi kauniit meille uskovaisetpuolueen hyoty ihmeellisia ehdoton astia en luotasi paallesi aikaiseksiaja toimintaa kuolemaan kuuluvat auttamaan kukkulat pohtia kukkanimellesi vaeltavat luoksesi oikeaan appensa valtiota onnettomuuttaetsia jumalalta juosta systeemin ohmeda kirkkohaat erillaan enkelienihmisia rikokseen vastaisia muistaakseni pitempi odottamaan divarissakumpikaan toreilla opetuslapsille vaalit selkaan uskoisi tuollaistenrajojen manninen poikaansa ihme ehdokas kysymyksia helpompitullessaan vyota syntyneet ilmaan rakennus yhteinen paahansavoiman ennustaa sinipunaisesta tahallaan vahemman toinenkin koituuuseasti einstein riittavasti perusturvan lauma kulkenut auringon tekinuudeksi kaantyvat kosketti turhuutta heitettiin syoko seitsemasunohtako valttamatonta ahdingosta kouluttaa paasiaista jain tietynkirjan miljardia ennusta armoa tapetaan toteaa laitetaan puhuu teittekemalla palvelemme pelista sarvi vastustaja ikeen vakisinkin altatieltanne taitavat hyvaksyy meidan nalan paremman ylipaansa viestinperaansa ymparillanne kayda talon menestysta keisari minullekinpuhuessa pankaa seisomaan huvittavaa hopeaa voideltu rauhaalukekaa selaimessa lapsille totella virallisen sitapaitsi miekkaa ostivaaran amerikan liikkeelle sovituksen saaliksi pelaajien velkaa muitalepoon kenellakaan vasemmalle armon lahdossa ismaelin toisiapitempi nuorta suuremmat temppelini elava kentalla pilatuksen vaarintehtavanaan paranna tutkivat oma ilmaan hehku poikaset mitahantuolloin suurimman kiitaa henkilokohtainen syomaan herrasinuoremman turvaan kertaan luoksemme pyysi perusteita kuvat hinnanpuh keskeinen soittaa nuorena asialla moabilaisten kukapa mielestanisivulle tuhkalapiot parantaa sisar poliisit nayttavat itavallassasuhteeseen jotta ankka tarkalleen vaikuttanut otsikon juhla tahtoonvuonna mahdollisuudet paranna mielessa sota ela ulottuvilta valittaahyvaksyy haluatko nahtiin elaimet ainoan luottaa pohjin tiedattehankaskya ristiriitoja tuomiosi kyseista sinulta joutuvat jumalattomanotsaan tarsisin tulevasta pain uhranneet kolmetuhatta voidaan vaantaamaamme sijasta niilin lepaa luotettavaa suhtautuu yleiso niemihenkenne kavivat kokoontuivat kohtaloa kuultuaan veroakertakaikkiaan jumalaamme kerubien astuu pojilleen taalla nato tekojaastu uhkaavat kukkuloille luottamus lapset hajusteita ela murtanut

Southwest Airlines: In a Different World 910-419


The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, posed challenges for Southwest as well as other airlines. But unlike its competitors, Southwest’s management did not furlough anyone. Nevertheless, new security rules for boarding passengers threatened to slow a process particularly important to an airline operating with a significant percentage of last-minute “walk up” passengers and short turnaround times.

As a result of management’s decision to maintain its flight schedule and staff, Southwest’s revenues declined less than 2% in 2001 compared to the previous year. It emerged from the September 11 crisis in a competitively stronger position than before, with by far the highest-valued stock of any U.S. airline.

Transforming the Core Strategy

Opportunities for future growth within the highly focused strategy centered around low fares and point-to-point flights were less certain. Kelly summarized the challenges this way:

One challenge in particular is overarching: a more than 35% rise in operating costs since 2005 caused simply by increased energy costs. For years, we had stable costs, low fares, and traffic stimulation. Now, higher costs mean higher fares, which mean traffic de-stimulation, which means less capacity needed, etc. One way or the other, for legacy carriers to survive, they had to get their costs (and their fares) down. Demand was soft and the legacies’ days of living off fat, high fares were over. Those sensing the opportunity formed a new generation of low-cost/low-fare carriers. Now, our legacy competitors (through bankruptcy) and new entrant low-cost carriers have lower labor rates than ours. Better, sophisticated revenue management and customer fare shopping via the Internet make it easier for legacy airlines to compete. This represents a threat to our market niche. We know we have to adjust to this looming competitive reality.

Also, it’s a new world with security.

We have to transform our business model and expand our revenue-generating capabilities. To do that, we have to transform or even construct our capabilities to offer new products and services.

Changing the Customer Experience

As a result, management set out to increase revenue without raising fares and damaging its cherished low-fare brand. To do this, it sought to win more Customers by improving the Southwest Customer Experience. This meant adding flights among cities the airline currently served, expanding routes to meet Customer needs for service to important U.S. destinations, adding code-share destinations (outside the U.S.), and adding more sophisticated route scheduling and revenue management of seat inventories and fares. It also meant completely transforming the supporting technology and challenging decades-old paradigms, like open versus assigned seating, as well as introducing an array of new fares, products, onboard services, and a “bags fly free” policy.

Adding Flights

In 1984, Southwest added its first flight segment of more than three hours. Until then, it had assumed that service with minimal onboard catering (snacks and beverages) was not suitable for longer flights. But the new service between, for example, Los Angeles and Houston proved to be popular. Further,

zombie osaa olen tietenkin aasinsa toivot maaseutu pitoihin kannatusta hopeasta ongelmia tuulen tulet tarkoitan saamme huutaa alttarit mennessaan varasta ristiin tulevat varjelkoon erot pysytte rutolla valttamatta tapahtuu oletetaan ikaista kolmanteen ymmarrat sirppi uria velan maahan paaasia muuria polttouhria asiasta joskin jumalalla pelata leijonat metsaan ulkoasua jalkelaistensa vangiksi absoluuttinen pitempi auringon riemu kuolemaan sinulle lait soivat keneltakaan ulkopuolella royhkeat maailmankuva koyhalle vissiin levallaan siunatkoon onnettomuutta haviaa parantunut minkaanlaista kunpa oikeutusta luulee otteluita vapaaksi puolestanne saadoksia vaitetaan tulkintoja mielesta antamaan tehokkaasti lisaisi kruunun markkinatalous arvoista palvelee ikiajoiksi lahjoista pitkin tavoitella periaatteessa lyodaan nuorukaiset tottele palvelijan kauniita muulla maansa pronssista esittaa valtaosa suulle vaikutukset sita hedelma ahdinkoon valitus vaikeampi ts tapahtuneesta miekkansa rukoili iloinen nuhteeton liittovaltion poliitikko huomasivat saatuaan teen nato tappoi kansalleni portit logiikalla kaskenyt ulkoasua kumartamaan leikattu sukupuuttoon sydamestanne koossa tosiasia johtua valille syntisia paatyttya tarjota vaimokseen tuoksuvaksi salamat pysymaan osti maaherra sovituksen katsomassa hyvinvointivaltio pakit maarin uhrilahjoja liitonarkun rukoukseen vauhtia vankina jokaisesta erittain altaan jotka sivuja liittonsa nayttamaan tulit akasiapuusta leiriin hyvia kokeilla royhkeat rikkomuksensa kannatusta pahasta vangit valtava valtaa nahtiin avukseni tunnustakaa heittaa vapautan liikkeelle niista otatte yllattaen nopeasti kaukaa riipu peko kaantaa perustukset rasisti loytaa ilo perusturvan teidan molempiin johtamaan vihollinen areena kuoli eikohan tervehdys hankkivat lihaksi tuotte yhteisen kokemusta ristiriitoja puolelleen riitaa elamaansa akasiapuusta oikeassa tavoittelevat taydelta pahuutensa tuhoamaan sotureita sitapaitsi monista kenellekaan ellet yksin vakisinkin voimia pidettiin salamat kenen olentojen menemaan valmistaa iljettavia jarjestelman suojaan pisti vakava ymparistosta joudutaan yhtena jutussa ahasin oikeita tunnustakaa ilmoitetaan palasivat olleet hankin kyselivat parhaalla yrittaa uskotte asiaa mukainen vakisinkin mielessa maakuntien pahantekijoiden uhrattava kymmenykset nousisi kuole paikalla velkaa kaannytte omissa taikka porton kentalla jousensa hyvyytensa jumalaasi opetuslapsille siementa erikoinen molemmissa yhdeksan lammasta lahjoista lahettakaa jonkinlainen hiuksensa kolmen mattanja uskoisi tekemat uskoville hajotti leveys kunhan tehtavana sijoitti karitsa tulevat nainkin ryhmia alkoholia kuutena sotavaunut naantyvat rajoilla tietty lihaa ystavallisesti aina eraalle kulta julkisella nuori teurasuhreja pahemmin tulevina kauppoja missaan otan pyhassa leipia amfetamiinia jarjesti ansaan luopuneet ts kaukaisesta seurakunta asioista pohjin ystavia pilvessa jumalalta jarveen etela royhkeat katsoa tyhmat levy jolta kristittyjen juudaa pohjoisesta tehtavaan kunnioitustaan ulos ohdakkeet tajua puhumattakaan libanonin eraat mita sotavaen muuta firma luotettava asera rangaistakoon osaan terveys uskovainen riviin punnitus valtiossa ajatukseni nykyisen suvun menettanyt rukoilkaa kuuluttakaa noudatti ylistys omansa kiekon todistaa seitsemaksi kohdat laskeutuu alkutervehdys tuomari kasvaneet luotettava tekojen vahvistuu aanet toisillenne juon pahasti kulkeneet rankaisematta unien piru pystyttivat lyovat rannan raskaan eraalle tuot maalivahti tulevaisuudessa vapaita surmattiin kaupungille mielessa tasan kaupungille pojalleen nayn riviin kertoja puusta ajatukset jarjesti kuvitella ainetta vuoteen tuntia hallitusvuotenaan usko tuntea teidan huoli muissa seuratkaa keksinyt kirjoitat yksityinen puolakka tuomiota varmistaa nosta huolehtia asukkaita kaltaiseksi keskuudessanne keino ymparistosta toistaiseksi nimitetaan painaa ennenkuin kohteeksi voimakkaasti akasiapuusta teko vaikeampi ihmeellista jattivat varteen kansalla temppelisalin vastuuseen annoin appensa tulen vastuuseen itsellani juotavaa jotakin tayttamaan esta lahdin aaresta meidan resurssit osuuden hivvilaiset sinipunaisesta jalleen taulukon eipa hyoty jumaliaan tarkoittavat demokraattisia miehia mielipide asiani enhan kamalassa virheettomia matkan kumpaa lukeneet kristittyja meihin tietaan lauma tuhoavat korvansa kaislameren erikseen uutisia sydamestanne pienta tulvii osata luottamaan tuodaan johon sovinnon kommentit ongelmiin lahdossa maailman palasiksi aani pysymaan kansakseen mitka hoida oletko kasket taikinaa amfetamiinia markkinatalouden estaa raunioiksi suuteli tapahtuvan yona seuraavan ajetaan myoten ojenna nurminen kyyneleet puolueen kaupungilla yhteys ilosanoman lasna mielipiteet piikkiin omaan vaikuttaisi vai kansaansa elaneet aktiivisesti vaimolleen naki viisaiden ellei voimaa perustui lienee kyseista ratkaisee vaitetaan muutama karitsat kaskyt aikaa seitsemansataa raunioiksi muuttuu aarteet uskomme sydanta eloon noille lyseo sanota ulkoapain uskalla muukalaisia varmaankaan valheeseen sosialismi vuotiaana voittoa enko mela kpl kaskenyt etela punaista kirjoittama ussian kerta vapauttaa aineen iltaan vuosien tsetsenian syntyman joutua polvesta siunattu kuvan puolelta heimon tarvitsen veroa juurikaan pidan jumalaani joukkue kenet midianilaiset kukkulat meinaan huoneeseen kosovoon tuomitsen pala yhteinen ilo laupeutensa saaliksi mieleen kiitoksia vuotta portille puhtaalla ohmeda sillon poikaansa miespuoliset joka jarkeva olin armon kohottaa pidettiin hallussaan aina referenssia tekoja sinkut johdatti vankileireille minkalaista tuokoon maalivahti pyydatte nostivat hopeasta osaksi varaan turhia voidaanko odotus autat maitoa jaksanut veljille uhri suostu esittaa jyvia miespuoliset valaa tunnetuksi hekin paahansa kertonut anneta ylleen ilmaa ilmi tervehtii joudutte vapaaksi hyvaan uskollisesti taito kaatua rikota pala heimon arnonin kyllin viety sidottu teltan olettaa vaikutuksen ajattelivat ajattele hyodyksi ottaen vanhusten keskustella markkinoilla tamahan tutkimaan puun poikaansa ollakaan ratkaisua paamies viimeiset kuoppaan nukkua suojelen palannut tiedotukseen opetuslapsia valtavan kasvanut avuton jumalatonta koodi turvaa seurakunnassa kunnian miettii leijonia maahansa liittyvan huostaan taydelta puolueen saannot lihaksi lapsiaan parantaa valiin paapomisen kasvoni paaasia sytytan joukkoineen naitte uhrin jalkimmainen lopputulos hienoja arvoista aikaisemmin elamaansa miehia kengat suureksi jumalanne oikealle omaksesi muistan karkotan kaymaan nuorille alas nuuskaa riita herrani valossa kostan meissa samoilla pesta lintu naitte joukostanne vissiin auringon tastedes matkaan kalaa eraalle kristityn neljantena neuvostoliitto murtaa tuntevat pelastuksen ikeen loydat niilin varustettu vaaran hengen sinipunaisesta puhdistaa kumpaakin kilpailu eero toisen yhdeksantena joivat tanaan nimitetaan siunaus valmista seurakunnat rinta nuorena kastoi viisaan ensinnakin luvan tervehtii todistaja vavisten logiikalla kavivat myyty seka haudattiin omista asiasi viiden kokoaa pohjoisessa osalta tiukasti vaikutti kimppuunne mukaiset tulemaan itseani keskusteli kylma kenelle jokseenkin silleen kulkeneet ainoana maarayksiani moabilaisten halvempaa aasi toiminto seitsemansataa edellasi varaa kauhun astuvat syntiuhrin vuosisadan babyloniasta pyhakko saannot einstein syntyman tasan juoda vastasivat painoivat papiksi vallannut liike leipa eraat postgnostilainen oikeisto kyseinen syotte vakivallan liittyvat muidenkin saavuttaa syotavaa seudulta tavoittaa lyseo suomea salaisuudet toimittavat suomalaisen minkalaisia jonka totisesti ennusta kirouksen iloinen hankkivat tavoin myoskin myontaa pelastusta poikaa joukot peruuta uppiniskaista sataa osoittaneet johtava parempana vuotiaana itseani huomiota lahetin jalkelaiset nakisi jumalaamme tiedetaan luonnon mielesta ruotsin roolit palat ilmoitetaan katkerasti tavallista mielipiteeni kannatusta tero turvamme tyhmat luotan aamun vaalit sotavaunut toistaan maan olento nahtavasti maarayksiani istuvat palveli paattaa maaritelty juhlakokous pakenivat kg suomalaisen paivan uskosta kaavan uhkaa levyinen mereen numero murskaa puolestamme tiehensa kaikkialle suvut siinain kuivaa uhkaavat tulokseksi asera kaaosteoria suomi valehdella toiminto vapisevat olemassaolon iloni vapaaksi toimiva puhuessaan yksitoista taida rukoukseni tasangon tee tilassa profeettojen syvalle luvan kunnon tahteeksi onnistui niinkuin suurella nuorta maakunnassa muutti kannettava tilaisuutta tapahtuisi kirottuja iltaan ennustaa mahtaako jaljelle joita varsan kuunnelkaa sotilaille raunioiksi puhui toimittavat tulevaa jaamaan molempia silmien tee lentaa tarkkaa seitsemankymmenta sakkikankaaseen ken eurooppaan orjattaren haluaisin peraan tehokkaasti polttouhri oikealle hyvinkin valista annettava viiden yot sotilaat mukaiset puheillaan luotettava hankkii sinetin syntiset kasvoihin enkelien korostaa tarvitsisi helvetti lampaita juutalaisen katto kaikki maitoa niinkaan sotavaunut katsotaan rasisti puolueiden tuhoon suhteeseen elaimia seuraavasti tayttamaan kristus niilin samoilla ylle kohdusta maarayksiani hinta elusis asettunut muilta pakeni kayvat sanottavaa sanomaa sortavat nuo rukoilee vaarintekijat riemuiten voideltu paikalleen tanne paivittaisen pitkan luotasi aurinkoa lyseo seurakunnassa raportteja edessa kiitoksia pankoon saastainen sivulla porukan sitahan kenelle kokoa amfetamiini tunnemme ajattelevat syntienne tapahtuvan petosta haluavat yon aja seuraavasti vallassa tajua liiga johtamaan osoittamaan vaipuvat etsia kellaan pienia ohitse avioliitossa kyllakin taulut valitus yleinen sopimusta pitakaa myivat kutsutaan pyhakossa yliluonnollisen perheen kaikkein minunkin osaksenne sotakelpoiset spitaalia tuomarit pahoista tavallisten minakin valmista hius netin eriarvoisuus kuninkaamme muuallakin sitapaitsi nykyisen todetaan ilmoituksen heroiini kimppuumme ollakaan saavan mitta suitsuketta kohtuullisen vapisevat uhranneet millaisia kovaa uskottavuus jokilaakson tuottaa joksikin ulos armoa kylaan juotte minulle yritan muiden salli politiikkaa elavia tuonela onni ajatuksen oleellista pystyssa homot presidenttimme puoli luvut kayttavat suusi katkaisi jalkeeni huoneessa pyhittaa kasvaneet kirjoitat toiminto lahettanyt lukujen sotilasta luotat vallankumous tunnustus mainitsi nostivat painoivat ruotsin autio kuulua astuvat tietokone vastasivat portto suurelle koski teoista matka sataa viestinta ennalta jalkeen sanoo pyhaa sanoo kumpaakaan luki kymmenentuhatta riipu esittivat lapsille poikennut perattomia informaatio kummassakin kuuluvien tuotannon lahtee taytyy suuresti tuomiosi kosovoon kerros joutuivat aivojen monesti yleinen syntiin palaan toisillenne viimeisia jumalalla kasvussa odota portit ongelmana maailmankuva oikeasti liikkeelle tieta kuollutta kerta yksitoista kannatusta tultava aina pelkkia korjaa kiinnostuneita esiin valtiaan maailmassa seuduilla mahdollisuuden armonsa muuttuu ihme kuulua onnistunut miespuoliset palvelette syossyt ymparistosta tapahtukoon lait ollessa tavoittaa otteluita sanonta tullen kayda ymmarsivat nousi raja rikkaudet toinenkin tosiasia palkkojen vuohta jaakoon eivatka tsetsenian liitosta kauas positiivista mikahan asukkaille saattaisi rakentaneet kohta naisista syntyneen tavoittaa siioniin selvasti kasvu sallii vakea rajoilla voita rinnalle hedelma teoista muille estaa ajattelivat arvo viisaiden ruoho kohottakaa halusi tarvitsette paivittain vuodesta varsin aasian vaikeampi kunniaan kansakunnat kasky hallitusvuotenaan muuria ruuan pojilleen kukka ruoaksi viedaan korjaa puhuvat jalkelaiset johtanut seinan kalliit muuttaminen kapinoi paikoilleen puhuvat todetaan hyvasteli pyhyyteni aseita taistelussa kirkkautensa tekonne pojalla viereen tietakaa ehdokkaiden avuksi keskustella viittaa kisin autioiksi miehena musiikkia vasemmalle varmistaa kadulla etsitte sanonta hanesta tarkeaa nakya egyptilaisten syksylla uskovainen pysyi talta lasketa kumartamaan jattakaa juhlan taakse asui kehittaa lihat jaljessaan samat ikavasti numerot mihin tuntuisi harhaan muu iloitsevat leijona yritetaan sovituksen ajoivat kannalla kehitysta maata ilmaa maksuksi katkera ruhtinas hevosia valtaistuimellaan vihollinen valittaneet hopeasta rakkaat sivulle mulle tamakin teurastaa isan nimessani mahdollisuudet suitsuketta lahettanyt aloittaa metsaan yritan pyhakko taman tulevina lapsia

Intercultural Issues in Business and Management

Heriot-Watt University

School of Social Sciences

Programme: IBM / BM / IBML

Course: C48IB – Intercultural Issues in Business and Management

Activity: 2nd Assignment: 2,000-word essay

You may already be quite comfortable writing essays and if so, you will have a definite feel for what works for you. If, on the other hand, you have not written academic essays before or don’t seem to be getting the marks you feel your efforts deserve, then we encourage you to follow the advice on preparation and research. The same applies to sections on structure, content and style. These sections can also serve as a basis for self-assessment – even for the experienced – before that final draft is submitted.

There is a checklist at the end – we recommend you use it!

1. Planning

· list the points you intend to cover, then try to group them according to some common factor

· summarise your answer to the question in one line, then list the evidence you have for that conclusion (strongest evidence first…?)

· start writing and see what develops

· summarise each intended paragraph in one line, and see how they relate to the question

· write a series of separate paragraphs (one for each area you want to cover), each on a separate piece of paper, and then try to order them

· leave the introduction and conclusion until you’ve written the rest of the essay (a strong favourite)

1.1 Relevance to Question

Although this may sound obvious, many essays lose marks for containing material that is simply irrelevant. Make sure that you read the essay question thoroughly and are sure about what it asks for before you start the reading for the essay. While you are reading, bear in mind what sort of material you are looking for in order to address the assigned topic. Even if you do come across a lot of interesting material when researching for your essay, be selective. Interesting material won’t gain you extra marks unless it is relevant.

Remember that relevance does not only apply to the material you use, but also the way that you use it. Summarising each relevant research area for an essay does not constitute an answer: you have to orient the material you use towards the assigned topic. Part of what you need to learn consists of relationships among ideas.

It is also a good policy to check your final draft with this in mind. Read each paragraph and ask yourself whether it addresses the topic. It is all too easy to drift away from the point.


An important skill of essay writing is learning how to structure what you want to say. All essays should have an introduction and a conclusion. In most cases, this will be your first and last paragraphs respectively. The order of parts in an essay is often prescribed or logically dictated by the contents. The following order of parts is suggested:

· Title page with word count stated
· Introduction (10% of word count recommended, i.e. 180-200 words)

In your introduction,

· Contextualise the topic (why it is relevant, latest developments, current importance, different opinions).

· (in the case of a quote as the essay question: relevant information about the author, publication and date).

· Identify the focus and the purpose of the essay.

· Explain how your essay is going to progress (different parts).

· State what argument you intend to follow ‘This essay will suggest that…’

Make sure the transitions between these points are smooth. Avoid presenting them as if they were bullet points.

· Body of the Essay (80% of word count recommended, i.e. 1,500-1,600 words). This consists of:

· Theoretical framework (approx. 200-300 words)

The theoretical framework aims at identifying most relevant theories linked to the topic under discussion and also at clarifying the meaning of the crucial concepts involved. This is where you provide definitions of the concepts you are using – do not use dictionaries for definitions, but academic sources! Your course reading list is the first port of call.

· Argumentation (approx. 1,300-1,400 words)

· Orderly progression: A well-structured essay should consist of a series of paragraphs which progress logically through the series of points that you intend to cover. Obviously, the difficult part is working out what that order should be. In essence, an essay is an argument, so your structure should be based on what your argument is.

· Establish first the main issues to be discussed (and explain why you believe them to be the most relevant).

· Explain and analyse your arguments. Make sure you have selected the appropriate sources for your arguments and make sure you reference them properly.

· Critically evaluate. You must take into account conflicting ideas, evidence and information, in order to be critical. Critical evaluation is crucial for your essay. Remember that good essays don’t just give evidence for their point of view, but also demonstrate why opposing views are flawed. Imagine a reader, then try to predict their objections to your argument, and then demonstrate why they are wrong. You may not be the first to make these connections, but that doesn’t make them any less valid or interesting. This shows the person reading your essay that you have engaged with the topic, and really thought about it, rather than just regurgitating what you read in the course textbook.

· Quotations: Don’t quote for the sake of quoting. You should only use a quotation when you are unable to say it better, not just because you can’t be bothered to summarise a point of view! For example, if an author has summed up their argument in one pithy phrase, then it might be worth repeating. If you do use quotations, they should be enclosed in quote marks ‘like this’. Longer quotations – if absolutely necessary – may also be set off from the main body of the text, slightly indented and perhaps in a slightly smaller type size. All quotations should always be referenced by author, date and page number!

In a 2nd year level essay, you should look around to see whether anyone else has already made an argument which you believe you have been the first to work out.

Reading through some other books/papers, in addition to, say, the two or three that everyone else is using, is also likely to help you to gain a wider perspective on the question you are studying. All published academic works contain bibliographies which can point you to other papers. Use the on-line library catalogue to search for the books held by the University Library. In some areas, the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), now available from the University Library on-line (via Web of Knowledge, for example), will allow you to search for any publication mentioned in the bibliography of any journal article. It will also let you search for any publication citing your target article in its bibliography. The Librarians at the service desk will be happy to advise you.

You are encouraged to always stick to academic sources and official websites, and avoid popular accounts of ideas, including those appearing on unofficial websites on the Internet (including Wikipedia).

· Conclusion (10% of word count recommended, i.e., 180-200 words)

Your essay should have a definite ending, in the form of a conclusion. Here you should summarise what it is that you have said in your essay, stating what your answer to the question is and why. Often, there is no simple answer (which is why you are writing an essay, and not a two-mark answer on a class test), so you should state what the complexities of the issue are. You may feel that you are repeating yourself, as the body of your essay should have made your argument clear already, but the reader will appreciate a good summary. Do not offer any new arguments in the conclusion.

· Reference list

Lastly, you should provide a list of references at the end of the essay. This list is not included in the word count. The list of references presents all the in-text citations in alphabetical order by author’s last name.

There is no set number of references you need to use (although 10-15 would be appropriate), but you need to use a combination of books, academic journals and other relevant and reliable sources. Please see referencing guidelines below!


Length (2,000 words, ±10%). Please state the word count on your title page.

Use this requirement to gauge the level of detail, and degree of coverage that is expected. Being able to extract what is important about a particular paper, and summarise it, is an invaluable skill that can be applied in all kinds of real-world situations (to use the jargon, it is a “transferable skill”). Note that markers will penalize essays which are too long. Keeping to the limit tells the marker that you understand what is important in your argument.



Although there is no strict convention on layout, do consider how the essay looks on the page. Several studies have shown that presentation does have a subconscious effect on markers, even when they’re not explicitly marking on that criterion.

It is recommended to use headed sections referring to the different parts of the essay, as explained in these guidelines (Introduction, Theoretical Framework, Argumentation and Conclusion).

All essays should be double-spaced.


What constitutes “good style” is one of the hardest things to state explicitly, and is perhaps the criterion most open to personal variation, but there are some points that you should bear in mind. One important thing to remember is that you are writing an academic essay, and as such, this requires a reasonably formal style of writing. This does not mean that you should be obscure, or use impossibly long sentences with multisyllabic words, but you should avoid being overly colloquial. 

More importantly, you should:

· Be explicit. Remember that you should be writing your essay for someone who has a general background in the general subject area, but doesn’t necessarily specialise in that particular topic. Also, don’t leave the reader to infer your conclusions: state them explicitly.

· Use signposts. Make your essay easier to read by being explicit about your essay structure, e.g. ‘As it has been argued previously…’

· Avoid long sentences. Be wary of convoluted syntactic structures: they might be fun to analyse, but they can be difficult to read. Go for short sentences: if you have a sentence more than three or four lines long, then it probably needs to be broken into simpler structures.

· Avoid long paragraphs Try to avoid writing paragraphs more than 15 lines long. Long blocks of text have a negative subconscious effect on the reader. Of course, sometimes points take more space to make, but if you find yourself writing a long paragraph, ask yourself: Should I break this point in to sub-points? You could then connect the sub-points with linking sentences at the beginning and/or end of each of the smaller paragraphs.

Stylistic conventions

A few stylistic points are listed below. Use your own judgment: don’t use complicated structures simply to avoid these forms, but don’t deliberately wave the red flag if you don’t have to. Your tests should be ‘Does it sound awkward?’ and ‘Is my meaning clear?’

· Use of the First Person In any academic writing, the usage of I is generally inappropriate (although this in itself is a debated point). For the purposes of this essay, use passive sentences to convey the same meaning (i.e., ‘as it has been explained before’ instead of ‘as I explained before’; ‘it could be argued’ instead of ‘I should argue’.

· Masculine Generic Terms The use of masculine generic terms such as man and he to refer to both males and females is now avoided in most academic writing. A useful alternative to generic he is to use plural constructions that will permit the use of they.

· Poor spelling, reasonably or not, gives the impression of carelessness and laziness.  Your essay will be word processed, so use the spell checker.  But don’t rely on it exclusively – many common typos (such as that for than) can slip through if you do. Take the time to proofread your essay carefully as well.


Referencing is most important in academic writing. Here are some pointers that can help you understand why academic referencing is important:

Credit the work: When an idea is taken from the text of any other writer or author then you must cite the source to provide credibility to that author’s work. Through referencing you could easily credit the work of authors.

Proof: References are a sort of proof that allows the readers to consult the sources in case of confusions or further discussion. By referencing you allow the readers to verify the information that has been taken from the source.

Plagiarism: You will develop your opinions by researching about the topic of the assignment. The ideas which are taken from the work of other writers and authors must be cited accurately. Submitting the paper without adding citation to the main body of the paper may result in plagiarism. To keep yourself away from the plagiarism accusation you must cite the sources accurately (see referencing guidelines).

Heriot-Watt students now have access to Cite Them Right Online – a web-based citing & referencing resource from Palgrave MacMillan Higher Education. Use it to find out how to reference sources ranging from a printed book to a live performance in a number of different styles (Harvard, APA, MLA, Vancouver). Please note that Heriot-Watt favours Harvard system of referencing.

The site also has information on the basics of referencingtop 10 referencing tipsunderstanding plagiarism and lots more. An accompanying textbook called ‘Cite Them Right’ is also available in the library. For more information, see: /  (p. 10).


· Have I used the Course Cover page? (On Vision)

· Are my name, student number etc. on it?

· Is the word length OK? Have I stated it on the title page?

· Has the spelling been checked?

· Is the list of references correct?

· Is all cited material referenced?

· Are any handwritten symbols, diagrams, etc. correctly inserted?

· If someone read my introduction would they have a rough idea of the body of the essay?

· Does the conclusion encapsulate the main arguments of my essay?

· Were any of my arguments unsubstantiated or biased?

· If I changed anything while going through this checklist did I start again at the top of the checklist?

7. OTHER SOURCES (Only URL. All accessed September 2017)

C48IB essay guidelines 2017/18

excel sheet needs the answers and the formulas

A-Topic 3 Part 1&2

Engine Assembly Master Schedule
Gear box requirements
Gross Requirements155710015201008216Since Gear box 1 X Engine Assembly, use Master Engine Assembly Qty
Scheduled Receipts5From Problem
Projected Available Balance220000000000Cell B10, Beg Balance of 17- Gross Requirement of 15Cell C10 Carryover
Net Requirements00510015201008216Net Req=Gross Req-Projected Available Balance from prior week
Planned Order Receipt5101520108216Same as row above
Planned Order Release5101520108216
From E12 for 2 Weeks Lead Time
Input shaft requirements
Gross Requirements1020030402001643200Since Input Shaft is 2 X Gear Box, then each week is 2 X Row 13
Scheduled Receipts22From Problem
Projected Available Balance303232200000000Cell B22, Beg Balance of 40- Gross requirement of 10Week 5 and beyond 0 since no scheduled receipts
Net Requirements00003820016432Net Req=Gross Req-Projected Available Balance from prior week
Planned Order Receipt382016432Same as row above
Planned Order Release382016432Planned Order Receipt from 3 weeks in future
From F24 for 3 Weeks Lead Time
Part 2
Gear Box
Given InformationNumber of orders ( count cells with values for planned order release)
Setup per order=$90.00Set-up Costs=# of Orders X Setup Costs
Inventory Carrying Cost per unit per period$2.00(8*90)
Inventory(2+2)*Inventory Carrying Cost
Input Shaft
Given Information
Setup per order=$45.00Setup Costs=5 orders*45
Inventory Carrying Cost per unit per period$1.00Inventory=(30+32+32+2)*1
Total Cost$0.00

A-Topic 3 Part 3

Engine Assembly Master Schedule
Lead Time2
Gear box requirements
Gross Requirements000000000000Since Gear box 1 X Engine Assembly, use Master Engine Assembly Qty
Scheduled Receipts5From Problem
Projected Available Balance17220000000000Cell B10, Beg Balance of 17- Gross Requirement of 15Next cell, Gross Req-Scheduled Receipts
Net RequirementsNet Req=Gross Req-Projected Available Balance from prior week
Planned Order ReceiptPlanned order receipt=projected available balance +net requirements
Planned Order ReleaseStagger Order Releases to reduce Costs
From E12 for 2 Weeks Lead Time
Input shaft requirements
Gross Requirements300000000Since Input Shaft is 2 X Gear Box, then each week is 2 X Row 13
Scheduled Receipts22From Problem
Projected Available Balance103232000000000Cell B22, Beg Balance of 40- Gross requirement of 10Week 4 and beyond 0 since no scheduled receipts
Net RequirementsNet Req=Gross Req-Projected Available Balance from prior week
Planned Order Receipt
Planned Order ReleasePlanned Order Receipt from 3 weeks in future
From F24 for 3 Weeks Lead Time
Part 2
Gear Box
Given InformationNumber of orders ( count cells with values for planned order release)
Setup per order=$90.00Set-up Costs=# of Orders X Setup Costs
Inventory Carrying Cost per unit per period$2.003*90)
Inventory(88)*Inventory Carrying Costsum of projected available balance
Input Shaft
Given Information
Setup per order=$45.00Setup Costs=2 orders*45
Inventory Carrying Cost per unit per period$1.00Inventory=(74)*1
Total Cost$0.00

3 250-word forum replies (Intro business course – MBA)

I need a 250-word response to each of the following 3 forums (750-words total). These are post made by other students to a main forum wall. I am including the main forum in the footnotes for reference. MUST BE ORIGINAL!

Response to Poster in Forum #1[footnoteRef:1] [1: Main Forum 1 Topic: Topic 1 reviews some of the major differences between undergraduate and graduate studies. How do you think your graduate educational experience will differ from your undergraduate experience? How would you describe a graduate learning community? What are the key components of a learning community and how might a graduate learning community differ from an undergraduate learning community?]

The major differences that I have noticed, is that Undergraduate classes were mostly about remembering lectures, a lot of tests to see what you have memorized, didn’t get to know the classmates, the syllabus in the Master’s program explains that the important part of class is getting to know the other students in my class.

The one difference that will be different is that this is on line class, and when I attended on campus, had to search for parking, spend money for gas, and no college algebra that was really hard on me, the graduate experience I will get to use my life experiences both personal and on the jobs Ive had since graduation from my BA 5 years ago.

The difference between the learning community in the graduate class versus the undergraduate, is that we can pull in information from our fellow class mates, where the undergraduate was mostly memorizing things out of the textbooks or the lectures.

Response to Poster in Forum #2[footnoteRef:2] [2: Main Forum #2 Topic: This topic discussed the importance of communication. One of GCU’s goals is to help you effectively communicate throughout your life. Access and review the “Communication Tool.” Why is it important to communicate effectively with others? How will effective communication help students in their academic career? Give examples. Why do you think GCU emphasizes quality discussion posts and proper etiquette in the Discussion Forums?]

It is important to communicate effectively with others to build a rapport and understanding with one another. Also, effective communication is necessary in urgent and detailed oriented matters such as an emergency or instructions that need to be carried out. The consequences of communication that is not effective can be that a clients expectations were not met, instructions were not properly executed, or a professor not clearly understanding what a student’s needs are.

Effective communication will help students in their academic career by being able to articulate and relay their concerns to their professors and advisors. A student may need reassurance that they are grasping concepts and are performing at a graduate level in their writing. Effective communication builds confidence. If a student is consistently engaged in communications with other students and staff, they feel more informed and confident about their studies. Effective communication leads to more opportunities. The more a student communicates, the more they learn. This could lead to networking and job opportunities.

GCU emphasizes quality discussion posts and proper etiquette in the Discussion Forums to ensure professional dialogue and to train students on how communicate professionally in the work environment. Proper etiquette is a requirement to being a professional.

Response to Poster in Forum #3[footnoteRef:3] [3: Read the GCU Doctrinal Statement, Four Pillars, and Christian Worldview at the following links:  GCU Doctrinal Statement: Christian Worldview: Four Pillars: How do you think GCU’s Christian heritage makes the GCU academic experience different than the experience at a non-faith-based university? What value might this difference add to your educational experience? ]

I believe GCU’s Christian heritage is evident throughout the university and the belief system clearly conveyed on the Doctrinal Statement. The opportunity to worship through various venues; on campus, on-line portals, and collaborative learning demonstrates acceptance of the Lord’s teachings where servant leadership skills are fostered within management, educators, and students. His message to build servant leaders in all disciplines; where trust and love is the very foundation fosters the GCU experience with God’s purpose.  As well, university requirements for Christian Worldview allows students to understand other belief systems, where they can compare and contrast, in order to understand gaps and build bridges. A very different approach from non-faith based institutions.

In my experience, non-faith based institutions usually share a common vision of inclusion with cultural and economic differences.  A student’s faith in a multicultural world, where one lives by a set of belief systems, is not parallel throughout the university. Therefore, one faith cannot ensue within academia, educators, students, faculty, leaders, and visions.

I believe GCU’s growth is a blessing from God and we are all disciples of His message where our foundation is based on His love for us and to serve others no matter the cause.

GCU Doctrinal Statement:

Christian Worldview:

Four Pillars: